Skip to main content

Full text of "The Girl Reserve Movement A Manual For Advisers"

See other formats


IP  YOUR  (MB  IN  IMS  flfcf 


will  fee  iss««d  only  <H* 
tation  of  proper  library  cards. 

Unless  labeled  otherwise,  books  may 
to*  r^fcafeicsfi  lor  lowr  ireefcsL  Bowowiswi 
finding  books  marked,  defaced  or  mutilated 
are  expected  to  report  same  at  library 
tit*!** 


*3«  (Csari  fcf04«t  f«  responsible  lew  all 
books  drawn  on  his  car  d. 

o  books  issued  unless  penalties    are 


Lost  cards    and  change  of    residence 
must  ||»  reported  promptly:  ^ 

PUBLIC  LIBM 

UKUflTT,Ht 


KANSAS  CITY,  MOM  PUBLIC  UBRARY 


D   DDDlD3Dn41   D" 


•ft 


20  JL' 


NOTICE'  TG:  ALL"  PURCHASERS 


The  Girl  Reserve  Movement  is  a  movement 
of  the  Young  Wornens  Christian  Associations  for 
teen  age  girls.  Therefore,  to  use  the  name  and 
the  programs  it  is  necessary  to  establish  a  super- 
visory relationship  with  a  city,  town,  country  or 
district  or  student  Young  Womans  Christian  As- 
sociation, or  with  a  traveling  secretary  of  the 
National  Y.  W.  C.  A.  who  is  responsible  for  work 
with  teen  age  girljs.  The  program  content, 
however,  is  at  the  disposal  of  all  people  interested 
in  the  welfare  of  girls. 


Published   September,   1918. 


Revised:  January  1919 
September  1919,  June  1921 


Copyright,   1921,  by 

The  National  Board  of  the  Young  Womens   Christian   Associations 
of  the  United  States  of  America 


PREFACE 

THIS  edition  of  the  Girl  Reserve  Manual  is  the  result  of 
long1  years  of  experimentation,  study,  and  practical  ex- 
perience  on  the  part  of  many  workers  in  the  Young 
Women's   Christian  Association,  who  because  they  steadily  be- 
lieved in  the  potential  power  of  girl  life  have  felt  the  "Charm 
of  the  Impossible"  and  like  "Fishin'  Jimmie"  have  gone  upon 
a  quest. 

The  first  Girl  Reserve  Manual,  issued  in  1918,  was  but  a  pre- 
liminary and  temporary  edition.  Since  that  time  the  many 
pamphlets  containing  various  Girl  Reserve  programs  as  well  as 
the  first  preliminary  Manual  have  offered  a  wealth  of  material 
which  has  been  of  use  to  many  workers  with  girls. 

It  is  hoped  that  this  Manual,  including  as  it  does  the  philo- 
sophical principles,  content  and  methods  of  work  developed  and 
tested  by  the  Young  Women's  Christian  Association  through 
many  years  of  practical  experience,  will  prove  of  even  greater 
value  and  use  to  those  who  have  grasped  the  significance  of 
Christian  leadership  to-day*  and  have  accepted  its  responsibili- 
ties. 

GERTRUDE  GOOIN,  Director* 
Bureau  for  Work  with  Younger  Girls 
National  Board,  Young  Womens  Christian  Associations 


FOREWORD 

THE   Young   Women's   Christian   Association •  is   a   fellow- 
ship of  women  and  girls.     The  value  of  the  fellowship 
lies  in  whatever  it  may  contribute  to  self-expression,  dis- 
cipline and  growth  of  the  whole  life  of  each  of  its  members  and 
in  the  effectiveness  of  that  group  as  it  functions  in  the  life  of 
a  community.     It  offers,  therefore,  to  advisers  of  g'irls  a  place 
of  leadership  which  has  the  greatest  value. 

There  is  a  standard  toward  which  the  development  of  all  the 
membership — both  girls  and  advisers — is  set.  The  standard 
is  expressed  in  the  name  "The  Christian"  and  makes  the  teach- 
ings of  Jesus  the  informing  and  directing  principles  of  any  of 
the  Association's  programs.  His  example  of  growth  in  wis- 
dom and  stature  and  in  favor  with  God  and  man  is  consciously 
followed.  Any  girl  may  enter  this  fellowship;  there  is  noth- 
ing selective  about  its  membership.  The  possibility  of  ful- 
filling this  standard — of  achieving  -this  growth,  is  in  direct 
proportion  to  the  gift  of  self  of  those  advisers  who  have  ac- 
cepted places  of  leadership  in  the "  Association  movement. 

The  Girl  Reserves  are  a  cross  section  of  the  whole  fellow- 
ship. They  are  a  movement  within  the  movement  of  the  whole. 
All  the  resources  of  the  organization,  general  and  specialized, 
lie  back  of  the  Girl  Reserves,  and  are  available  for  their  de- 
velopment. The  Girl  Reserves  are  to  the  Young  Women's 
Christian  Association,  of  which  they  are  a  part,  the  fresh 
stream  which  feeds  into  the  main  current  of  the  movement  at 
its  source  or  along  itsl  course — the  very  youth  of  its  youth. 
They  have  its  future  in  their  keeping. 

MABEL  CRATTV. 

Office  of  THE  GENERAL  SECRETARY, 

National  Board,  Young  Womens  Christian  Associations, 
United  States  of  America. 
June    1921. 


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

THE  Bureau  for  Work  With  Younger  Girls  wishes  to  ex- 
press grateful  appreciation  to  the  following  people  for 
the  contribution  they  have  made  to  this  Manual: 
To  Miss  Marjory  Lacey-Baker  and  Miss  Hazel  MaeKaye 
for  the  chapter  on  the  Drama ;  to  Miss  Emily  T,  Goding  for 
the  chapter  on  'Conferences;  to  Miss  Esther  Dayman  for  the 
chapter  on  Camps;  to  Miss  Margaret  Proctor  for  the  material 
on  Pood  Values;  to  Miss  Alice  G.  Moore  for  "Triangles  for 
Girl  Reserves"  and  for  various  stories  for  use  with  leaders  and 
girls;  to  Miss  Mabel  E.  iStone  for  the  chapter  on  Religious 
Education;  to  Miss  Mary  L.  Cady1  for  the  chapter  on  Voca- 
tional Guidance  Emphases  and  for  the  chapters  on  Citizenship 
and  Thrift;  to  Mrs.  Alice  Standish  Buell  for  material  on  Legis- 
lative 'Standards;  to  Miss  Eliza  Rhees  Butler  and  Mrs.  Marion 
Rider  Robinson  for  ''School  Girl  Ideals";  to  Mrs.  Marie  Stan- 
ton  Lruetters  and  Miss  Vesper  Bell  for  the  chapter  on  Business 
Principles,  Ideals  and  Details;  to  Miss  Blanche  Geary  and  Miss 
Sutherland  Griffith  for  the  chapter  on  Music ;  to  Miss  Gertrude 
Gogin  and  Miss  Etha  Louise  Buchanan  for  material  on  organi- 
zation and  program  planning  for  grade  school  and  high  school 
girls,  for  younger  girls  in  business  and  'industry  and  in  busi- 
ness college;  for  the  chapter  on  "Books  and  Reading";  for 
the  preparation  and  the  editing  of  the  sections  on  "Needs  of 
Girls"  and  "The  Leadership  of  the  Girl  Reserve  Movement," 
and  for  the  chapter  on  "Material  for  Program  Building";  to 
Miss  Clara  Bartram  for  the  material  on  "Dress";  to  Miss 
Clara  I.  Donihoo  for  the  material  on  Sealing  Wax  Craft;  to 


the  Bureau  of  Social  Education  for  the  section  on  Health  Edu- 
cation; to  Miss  Era  Betzner  for  the  material  on  Recreation;  to 
the  Division  of  Work  for  Foreign-Born  Women  for  Program 
Suggestions  in  Work  with  Girls  with  a  Foreign  Background; 
to  Miss  Amanda  O.  Nelson,  Miss  Katherine  Gerwick,  Miss  Al- 
niira  Holmes,  Miss  Crystal  Bird,  Miss  Ethel  Cutler  and  other 
secretaries  of  the  National  Board,  both  field  and  headquarters, 
and  to  many  local  secretaries),  for  material  and  suggestions  in 
preparation  and  revision  of  this  material;  to  Doubleday  Page 
and  Co.,  for  permission  to  use  the  excerpt  from  Christopher 
Morley's  "Parnassus  on  Wheels";  td  Charles  Scribner's  Sons 
for  permission  to  use  excerpts  from  "Prayers  by  R.  L.  S."; 
to  the  Westchester  County  Children's  Association  for 
permission  to  use  "I  Am  the  Future1'  by  Tudor  Jenks;  to  Wal- 
lace's Farmer  for  the  material  "The  Story  of  Our  Flag";  to 
George  H.  Doran  Co.,  and  the  author  for  permission  to  use  the 
poem  "Songs  for  SL  Little  House";  to  the  Reilly  and  Lee  Com- 
pany, Publishers  for  permission  to  use  Edgar  A.  Guest's  poem 
"Mother's  iDay";  to  Miss  Etha  Louise  Buchanan  for  her  con- 
stant and  untiring  attention  in  connection  with,  the  preparation, 
editing,  and  production  of  this  Manual. 

BUREAU  FOR  WORK  WITH  YOUNGER  GIRLS, 
National  Board,  Young  Womens  Christian  Associations 


CONTENTS 


SECTION  PAGE 

I.    The   Needs    of    Girls 11 

Chapter  1.    The  Younger  Girl  in  Cities 13 

Chapter  2.    The  Younger  Girl  in  Towns 14 

Chapter  3.    The  Younger  Girl  in  Villages  and  the 

Open    Country   16 

Chapter  4.    The  Needs  of  School  Girls 18 

Chapter  5.    The   Needs   of  Younger   Girls  in  Busi- 
ness   and    Industry 22 

Chapter  6.    The   Needs   of  Young-er   Business    Col- 
lege   Girls     25 

Chapter  7.    The  Needs  of  the  Foreign-Born  Girl .  .  26 

Chapters.    The  Needs  of  the  Colored  Girls 30 

Chapter  9.    The  Needs  of  the  American  Indian  Girls  33 

Chapter  10.  The  Psychology  of  Girlhood 34 

Chapter  11.  The  Survey  of  the  Girl  Life  in  a  Com- 
munity    36 

II.    The  General  Plan  of  the  Girl  Reserve  Movement 41 

III.    The  Organization  of  Groups  of  Girls '81 

Chapter  1.    Principles    of    Organization 61 

Chapter  2.    Organization     Among     Grade     School 

Girls 68 

Chapter3.    Organization  of  Junior  High  School  or 

High  School  Freshmen  Girls 77 

Chapter  4.    Organization     of     Girl     Reserve    High 

School  Clubs    83 

Chapter  5.     Organization  of  Younger  Girls  in  Bus- 
iness  and   Industry 100 


SECTION                                                                     ^     .          r  1  PAGE 
Chapter  6.    Organization  of  Younger  Business  Col- 
lege   Girls    H3 

IV.    Program  Planning  117 

Chapter  1.    A  Clue  to  Program  Planning 117 

Chapter  2.    Typical  Programs  for  Groups  of  Girls  128 

V.   Activities  for  Developing  a  Christian  Personality. .   295 

Chapter  1.   Religious    Education    or    Training    in 

Christian  Thinking  and  Living 295 

Chapter  2.    Health  Education  and  Recreation 316 

Chapter  3.   Nature  Lore 374 

Chapter  4.   Handicraft 387 

Chapter  5.    Story  Telling 392 

Chapter  6.    The   Place   of  the  Drama   in  the   Girl 

Reserve   Movement   39i> 

Chapter  7.   The   Place   of   Discussion    in   the    Girl 

Reserve  Movement    423 

Chapter  8.   The  Practice  of  Citizenship 452 

Chapter  9.   The  Place  of  Thrift  in  the  Girl  Reserve 

Programs -  •  -  468 

Chapter  10.  Business    Principles    and    Ideals    and 

Details 476 

Chapter  11.  Books  and  Reading  in*  the  Life  of  a  Girl  483 
Chapter  12.  Vocational  Guidance  Emphases  in  the 

Girl  Reserve  Movement 503 

Chapter  13.  The  Place  of  Music  in  the  Girl  Reserve 

Movement 526 

Chapter  14.  Camps  for  Girls 567 

Chapter  15.  Conferences ...,,..,. 589 

Chapter  16.  Service  Activities ....  600 

8 


SECTION  PAGE 

VI  The  Leadership  of  the  Girl  Keserve  Movement 609 

^Chapter  1.  Qualifications 609 

Chapter  2.  The  Girls'  Work  Committee '614 

Chapter  3.  Community  Relationships  650 

VII    Material  for  Program   Building-; 665 

VIII.    History  of  the  Growth  of  Girls'  Work  in  the  Young 

Womens   Christian   Association 80G 


O 


The  Girl 
Reserve  Movement 


Section  I. 
THE  NEEDS  OF  GIRLS 


efl    am    the    Future,    for    in    me 

there  lies 
What  through  the  ages  our  land 

shall   be; 
Yet  what  I  am  is  what  you  are 

to   me — 
7  am  the   question  to  which  you 

make  replies!3* 


between  twelve  and 
eighteen  is  facing  the  critical 
character  building  years  of  her 
life.  At  the  age  of  twelve  certain  habits  have  been  acquired— 
some  of  which  are  not  very  firmly  fixed.  Whether  for  good  or 
evil  these  will  probably  become  established  within  a  short  "time. 
The  years  ahead  are  therefore  the  ones  in  which  new  habits  for 
good  may  be  acquired  and  bad  habits  replaced  by  good  ones ; 
certainly  habits  of  the  most  vital  character  content  will  be 
formed  to  meet  the  new  needs  of  the  girl's  developing  personality. 


*  Written  by  Tudor  Jenks   for  the  Westchester  County   Children's  Afts'n. 

11    ' 


The  instincts  for  self-preservation,  self-expression,  and  self- 
perpetuation,  or  as  they  are  sometimes  stated,  the  egoistic, 
the  rational,  the  sex,  and  the  relation  instincts— are  manifest- 
ing themselves  in  many  ways  and  making  it  necessary  for^the 
girl  to  make  adjustments  an  all  phases  of  her  living.  It  is  a 
difficult  period  for  the  girl  and  for  all  people  related  to  and 
working  with  her.  Her  mental  growth,  her  bodily  development, 
her  consciousness  of  herself  not  only  as  an  individual  but  as  a 
part  of  a  social  whole,  her  spiritual  yearnings  are  all  matters 
of  adult  concern.  The  home,  the  church,  the  school,  and  the 
community  as  a  whole  through  its  various  agencies  are  all  ^re~ 
sponsible  for  seeing  that  careful  guidance  is  given  at  a  time 
when  such  guidance  will  have  results.  Moreover,  there  is 
need  for  correlation  of  the  different  training  processes  given  a 
girl  through  these  various  channels.  The  standards,  work  and 
appeal  made  by  one  group  are  often  not  related  in  a  girFs 
mind  to  like  standards  and  appeals  made  by  another.  The 
home  is  the  logical  place  in  which  such  correlation  should  take 
place  but  it  is  not  always  possible  to  have  it  so  and  therefore 
the  worker  with  girls  in  the  Young  Women's  Christian  Asso- 
ciation or  in  any  organization  must  so  understand  the;  funda- 
mental needs  of  the  girl  with  whom  she  is  dealing  that  out 
of  those  needs  and  desires  she  will  be  able  to  evolve  a  pro- 
gram of  work  which  will  make  for  successful  Christian  living. 

The  fundamental  instincts  of  self-preservation,  self-expres- 
sion and  self-perpetuation  give  rise  to  certain  relationships  of 
human  life  which  have  been  termed  needs.  Such  needs  express 
themselves  differently,  perforce,  because  of  racial  and  individual 
experience,  but  in  every  girl  there  is  the  possibility  of  ex- 
pressing through  recreation,  fellowship,  work,  and  religion  the 
fullness  of  her  life.  These  four  great  forms  of  expression  do 
not  function  equally  in  different  groups  of  girls  and  for  that 
reason  secretaries  and  advisers  concerned  with  program  plan- 
ning find  themselves  analyzing  the  needs  of  different  groups 
of  girls  and  choosing  as  majors  and  minors  these  various  forms 
of  expression,  the  choice  depending  upon  the  outstanding  indi- 

12 


vidual  and  group  needs.  It  has  seemed  wise,  therefore,  in  -this 
section  to  state  briefly  the  specific  needs  of  different  groups  of 
adolescent  girls  in  which  the  Young  Women's  Christian  Asso- 
ciation and  other  kindred  organizations  are  interested. 


CHAPTER  I. 

THE  YOUNGER   GIRL  IN  CITIES 

FIFTY  years  ago  ninety-seven  out  of  every  one  hundred  peo- 
ple were  living  in  rural  communities.  To-day  fifty-four 
out  of  every  one  hundred  people  in  the  United  States  are  living 
in  cities.  Great  industrial  enterprises  and  the  lure  which  is 
always  associated  with  the  city  attract  vast  numbers  of  men, 
women,  boys  and  girls,  many  of  whom  have  been  brought  up 
in  rural  communities,  either  in  this  country  or  in  foreign  coun- 
tries. This  means  a  readjustment  for  part  of  a  city's  popula- 
tion to  different  methods  of  living  and  to  certain  new  conven- 
tions; very  often  this  adjustment  is  not  made  by  parents  as 
rapidly  as  by  the  younger  members  in  a  family  and  so  difficul- 
ties arise. 

The  complexity,  the  intensity  of  life,  the  possible  isolation 
and  loneliness  of  individuals  and  groups  even  in  the  midst  of  a 
dense  population;  the  extreme  individualism  possible  because 
of  a  sense  of  detachment  caused  by  the  very  numbers  of  un- 
known people  and  at  the  same  time  the  great  necessity  for  co- 
operation because  of  the  dependence  of  one  individual  upon  an- 
other both  for  housing  and  transportation  and  food  supply;  the 
possible  letting  down  of  moral  standards;  all  these  are  factors 
which  must  be  taken  into  consideration  when  one  faces  the  needs 
of  a  girl  in  the  city.  The  highly  colored  theatre  posters,  the 
trashy  love  stories  and  mock  heroics  featured  on  the  many  bill- 
boards which  so  often  line  city  streets,  as  well  as  the  great 
electric  signs  that  flash  across  one's  vision  at  night  and  trans- 

13 


form  the  dull  and  dirty  street  into  a  veritable  fairy-land,  the 
flippant  music  of  the  streets,  the  gray  movie  "palaces,"  the  very 
crowds  themselves  and  the  sense  of  action  everywhere,  all  stim- 
ulate the  newly  awakened  emotional  senses  of  the  adolescent 
girl,  whether  she  be  a  school  girl  or  a  younger  girl  at  work. 

Therefore,  not  because  girls  who  live  in  a  city  are  different 
in  themselves  from  other  girls  but  because  their  surroundings 
and  influences  are  different,  is  it  necessary  to  consider  the  spe- 
cific needs  of  city  girls.  Briefly  speaking,  these  needs  are: 

First,  standards  based  upon  such  principles  that  there  will 
result  a  wise  choice  in  the  midst  of  the  complex  and  intense 
life  which  presents  such  a  variety  of  activities  and  interests — 
such  standards  to  be  rooted  in  a  belief  in  a  God-controlled 
world. 

(Second,  an  opportunity  for  recreation  which  is  the  result  of 
a  girl's  own  ingenuity  and  not  "store-bought"  and  which  shall 
include  a  chance  to  glimpse  the  joy  and  beauty  of  the  great 
out-doors. 

Third,  the  opportunity  to  remain  "young"  an  the  midst  of 
what  is  often  a  very  sophisticated  and  blase  atmosphere. 

Fourth,  the  opportunity  to  obtain  help  in  choosing  and  in 
finding  the  right  kind  of  employment  and  to  benefit  by  advice 
which  will  help  tfer  not  only  to  see  the  need  for  more  educa- 
tion and  training  but  also  the  way  to  secure  them. 


R 


CHAPTER   II. 

THE  YOUNGER  GIRL  IN  TOWNS 

OBERT  LOUIS  STEVENSON  said  that  it  was  not  in  vain 
that  he  returned  to  the  nothings  of  his  childhood,  for  each 
of  them  had  left  its  impress  upon  him;  the  same  intangible  reac- 
tions to  environment  are  occurring  in  the  lives  of  hundreds  of 
thousands  of  younger  girls  in  the  towns  of  this  country.  Whether 
the  towns  are  agricultural,  suburban,  mining,  tourist,  manu- 
facturing, college  or  health  resort,  each  is  weaving  into  the 
life  of  its  girlhood  its  particular  characteristics,  good,  bad  or 

14 


indifferent.  Each  contributes  to  the  growing  girl  certain  op- 
portunities for  human  relationships,  which  the  diversified  life 
of  a  city  rarely  affords;  yet  the  very  social  solidarity  is  in  a 
measure  a  handicap.  The  very  neighborliness  sometimes  blinds 
the  adult  minds  to  the  infinite  possibilities  of  leadership  in 
these  growing  girls ;  inability  to  see  recreational  needs  met  by 
parks  and  club  rooms  is  sometimes  caused  by  the  fact  that  par- 
ents did  not  have  these  things  in  their  youth. 

But  to-day,  the  town  which  is  desirous  of  holding  its  boys 
and  girls  as  future  citizens  must  recognize  at  once  their  needs 
and  supply  a  leadership  which  wall  be  adequate, 

One  of  the  outstanding  needs  is  wholesome  recreation;  the 
play  spirit  has  wide  range  dn  a  town.  There  are  no  hamper- 
ing conditions  such  as  one  finds  in  a  crowded  city;  but  unless 
it  is  directed,  the  play  spirit  is  not  sufficiently  constructive  to 
result  in  .coordinated  Individuals.  Recreation  needs  to  be 
cumulative,  directed,  and  based  upon  definite  standards  of 
right  thinking  and  right  living. 

Often  there  is  a  tendency  on  the  part  of  a  neighborhood 
group  of  girls  to  become  "unconsciously  snobbish" — one  of  the 
needs  is  to  instill  a  democratic  spirit,  which  will  help  to  bring 
together  different  groups  in  church,  school  and  community  ac- 
tivities. Closely  related  to  this  sense  of  democracy,  and  per- 
haps an  outgrowth  of  it  is  the  sense  of  the  value  of  all  human 
life,  regardless  of  what  clothes  it  wears,  how  it  speaks,  and 
what  color  it  is. 

Another  need  of  the  adolescent  girl  in  towns  is  an  apprecia- 
tion and  understanding  of  the  place  of  the  church  in  her  life. 
Usually  her  relationship  to  the  Sunday  school  is  established 
because  her  family  is  a  church  going  group.  The  necessity  is 
to  have  her  experience  of  the  church  and  the  church  school  or 
Sunday  school  such  a  vital  growing  one  that  her  loyalty  to  them 
when  she  grows  older  will  be  unbroken.  Through  organized 
class  work  in  the  church  school  and  club  activities  which  em- 
phasize character  standards  she  may  develop  into  a  Christian 
citizen. 

IS 


Too  much  cannot  be  said  about  the  need  for  developing 
character  standards  for  all  girls  wherever  they  are.  In  her 
relations  to  girls,  boys,  the  home,  the  school,  and  the  church, 
there  is  the  greatest  need  for  a  sense  of  right  values  on  the 
part  of  every  girl.  Questions  of  honor,  chaperonage,  dress, 
kinds  of  social  gatherings  and  foims  of  amusements  are  end- 
less. 

Sometimes,  as  girls  are  growing  they  become  so  conscious 
of  the  "limitations"  of  their  home  town  that  they  need  to  be 
helped  to  see  the  value  in  the  best  which  is  to  be  found  in 
every  town.  The  right  kind  of  town  pride  will  keep  the  girl 
from  being  a  "grouch"  if  she  stays  on  in  her  own  town  or  from 
shedding  every  sense  of  responsibility  for  enriching  the  life  of 
whatever  place  in  which  she  may  be 

CHAPTER  III. 

THE  YOUNGER  GIRL  IN  VILLAGES  AND  THE  OPEN  COUNTRY 

BEFORE  one  who  travels  the  road  of  leadership  there  pass 
in  mental  review  great  stretches  of  prairies,  long  vistas 
of  cotton  fields,  mountain  valleys  and  endless  plains.  She 
remembers  the  occasional  houses  and  buildings  clustered  to- 
g-ether, marking  the  places  where  people  have  made  homes. 
When  she  knows  that  almost  fifty  per  cent  of  all  the  people  of 
the  United  States  live  in  villages  with  populations  of  less  than 
2,500  or  in  the  open  'country,  she  is  overwhelmed  by  the  needs 
of  the  younger  girls  in  these  great  portions  of  our  country. 

But  after  all,  the,  girl  is  not  different  from  other  girls  in  her 
desires  and  needs.  In  a  homely  phrase,  which  (by  its  very 
forcefulness)  claims  a  place  in  one's  mind,  people  have  been 
compared  to  nuts,  with  many  similar  and  delightful  qualities 
within,  but  one  must  know  how  to  crack  the  different  shells. 
This  is  the  task  of  the  successful  secretary  and  adviser  for  girls 
in  villages  and  the  open  country — to  find  the  right  way  into 
the  life  of  this  girl. 


(The  isolation  of  the  girl's  life  may  have  made  her  shy;  she 
does  not  have  the  knowledge  of  many  man-made  devices  which 
are  the  common  experience  of  the  city  or  large  town  girl;  she 
may  not  be  accustomed  to  many  of  the  social  forms  which  mark 
the  conventional  parties  of  the  day,  but  she  has  a  self-reliance 
and  resourcefulness  which  are  much  to  be  desired.  She  has 
a  knowledge  of  nature  and  an  acquaintance  with  bird  and  plant 
life  which  other  girls  will  work  long  to  attain,  and  many  times 
there  is  no  true  appreciation  .of  this  possession.  Sincere  and 
direct  she  will  respond  to  the  right  approach  and  it  is  the  op- 
portunity of  those  who  work  with  her  as  friends,  teachers  and 
club  advisers  as  well  as  in  the  more  intimate  relationships  of 
the  home  to  find  the  way  to  crack  the  shell  so  that  the  good 
within  stands  revealed. 

Specifically  stated  her  needs  are  as  follows:  a  new  vision  of 
health  as  being  not  merely  *  not  ill  but  as  being  well,  vigorously 
and  wholesomely  so;  recreation  which  teaches  her  team  play, 
which  has  a  standard  of  values  that  helps  her  to  play  right 
games,  and  which  carries  with  it  the  message  that  play  is  not 
the  possession  of  youth  only-— something  that  one  grows  away 
from — but  that  it  is  an  ever  present  means  for  joyous  living; 
citizenship  training  which  shall  be  not  only  specific  in  the  sense 
of  teaching  her  how  to  vote  but  to  recognize  and  understand 
the  spiritual  motives  underlying  it;  new  friendships  and  new 
interests  which  will  prevent  an  accumulation  of  the  sense  of 
Isolation;  a  training  which  will  help  her  to  break  down  barriers 
within  herself  which  sometimes  keep  her  from  becoming  a  co- 
operative person;  and  greatest  of  all,  an  opportunity  to  form 
those  character  standards  which  will  make  her  a  dynamic 
Christian,  living  with  power  in  her  community. 

Her  new  standards  will  find  their  expression  in  her  renewed 
Interest  in  the  church,  in  all  forms  of  community  and  home 
service,  and  in  her  own  growing  understanding  of  God. 

The  agencies  which  bring  about  the  satisfaction!  of  these 
needs  will  be  many.  To-day  there  are  at  work  among  people 
In  villages  and  the  open  country,  an  increasing  number  of  fac- 

17 


tors.  The  Young  Women's  Christian  Association  through  its 
younger  girls'  movement  should  be  in  the  closest  cooperation 
with  directors  of  Boys  and  Girls  Club  Work,  operating  under 
the  Federal  government.  The  Rural  Section  of  the  Home  Mis- 
sions Council  is  a  great  coordinating  force  for  rural  social  work 
and  the  church  plans  made  by  it  must  be  fully  considered  by 
secretaries  and  advisers.  The  evergrowing  cooperative  move- 
ment among  farm  people,  and  all  the  various  types  of  informa- 
tion pouring  into  the  rural  homes  through  the  media  of  farm 
journals,  newspapers  and  magazines  as  well  as  books  upon 
scientific  agriculture,  are  helping  to  transform  the  life  of  this 
girl.  Increased  transportation  facilities  are  thrusting  upon  her 
and  her  mother  new  vistas  which  they  have  not  glimpsed  be- 
fore^and  she  must  be  made  ready  to  make  the  right  choices. 
The^expression  of  much  of  this  new  outlook  will  be  in  terras 
of  abtaviti^s.  Her  need  is  that  the  activity  shall  be  expressive 
of  her  best  self — through  pageantry,  field  days,  a  desire  for 
continued  education,  which  will  come  if  vocations  are  presented 
rightly  to  her. 

CHAPTER  IV. 

THE  NEEDS  OF  SCHOOL  GIRLS 

IN  the  public  schools  of  this  country  to-day  are  enroled  sev- 
eral millions  of  girls,  girls  with  every  conceivable  racial 
inheritance,  and  representing  homes  where  opportunities  have 
been  most  meager  and  homes  where  all  the  culture  of  genera- 
tions exists  as  the  girl's  heritage.  The  girl  whose  father  and 
mother  do  not  speak  English  meets  in  class  and  assembly  rooms 
the  girl  who  is  a  direct  descendant  of  "one  of  the  original 
families."  Increasingly  they  are  receiving  from  the  public 
school  a  conception  of  a  democracy  which  equips  them  alike 
for  certain  fundamental  duties  which  are  the  due  of  every 
future  citizen  in  a  democracy  and  yet  makes  allowance  for  their 
individual  differences. 

Just  as  different  as  the  backgrounds  of  the  girls  are  the 
schools  in  which  they  are  to  be  found.    On  the  one  hand  are 


the  magnificent  school  buildings,  with  the  latest  equipment 
for  the  study  of  science,  manual  training1,  domestic  arts  and 
out-door  athletics;  some  of  them  are  built  upon  the  cottage 
plan,  and  have  splendidly  equipped  faculties.  On  the  other 
hand  are  the  isolated  one  or  two  room  schools  where  children 
from  the  'country  districts  are  receiving  their  preparation  for 
life.  However,  the  consolidated  school  system  is  bringing1  new 
school  standards  and  many  new  influences  into  the  lives  of 
girls  who  live  in  the  open  country.  In  between  are  the  hundreds 
of  mediumly  well  equipped  buildings,  itheir  interiors  sometimes 
as  uniformly  drab  as  are  their  exteriors. 

In  any  type  of  school  are  to  be  found  both  the  girl  who 
will  graduate  from  high  school  and  enter  college,  and  the  girl 
who  may  or  may  not  finish  high  school.  She  very  probably  will 
enter  the  business  or  industrial  world;  there  is  also  the  gft-l 
who  will  just  "stay  at  home." 

There  will  be  found  the  studious  girl  (more  frequently 
known  in,  the  parlance  of  her  school  mates  as  "the  grind") , 
the  athletic  girl,  the  girl  who  thrives  on  social  affairs,  both  of 
the  school  and  of  her  own  contrivance,  and  the  all-round  girl 
who  has  a  very  large  share  in  all  (the  activities  of  the  school 
and  many  relationships  in  her  community. 

And  yet,  different  as  are  these  types  and  varied  as  are  the 
environments  in  which  they  are  found,  their  fundamental  needs 
are  the  same;  to  find  ways  to  a  full  self  expression  through 
recreation,  work,  fellowship  and  religion. 

All  of  the  needs  which  have  been  designated  as  fchose  char- 
acteristic of  great  groups  of  girls  in  cities,  towns,  villages, 
and  the  open  country  apply  to  the  school  girl.  But  the  specific 
application  reveals  the  fact  that  it  is  necessary  to  interpret 
these  four  modes  of  expression  in  relation  to  the  every  day  life 
of  the  girl.  A  school  girl's  need  for  recreation  differs  in  degree 
from  that  of  the  younger  girl  in  business  and  industry.  She  has 
experienced,  generally,  and  will  continue  to  receive,  certain 
training  in  games,  and  plays  and  pageantry,  while  it  is  usually 

19 


true  that  her  social  experience  is  greater  (i.  e.  she  knows  "the 
hostess  feeling"— see  the  chapter  on  Health  Education,  page 
362);  therefore,  in  bringing  school  girls  to  self-expression 
through  recreation,  an  adviser  can  begin  almost  at  once  to  help 
them  build  up  standards  for  their  recreation,  give  them  a  vision 
of  what  it  truly  is— "renewal  of  life,"  and  help  them  to  see  it 
in  its  relation  to  work,  fellowship  and  religion. 

To  interpret  to  a  school  girl  the  way  to  find  self  expression 
through  work  requires  skill  and  patience  on  the  part  of  an 
adviser.  The  girl's  conception  is  usually  measured  by  her 
experience  of  household  tasks  or  by  a  growing  sense  of  her 
responsibility  to  make  an  economic  contribution  to  the  world 
(she  is  stirred  to  this  very  often  in  secondary  school  work  by 
a  study  of  economics).  The  adviser's  opportunity  lies^in  the 
need  to  help  the  girl  see  work  as  a  mode  of  expression  for 
her  growing  self  and  to  recognize  that  it  means  more  than 
simply  doing  a  task  every  day.  It  means  creative  production, 
which  should  bring  to  the  girl  skill,  a  sense  of  craftsmanship 
and  fellowship  with  all  others  who  work,  whether  with  hand 
or  mind.  Everywhere  work  is  an  expression  of  life,  whether 
in  a  home  or  in  business  or  industry.  Many  girls  think  of  it 
only  in  relation  to  business;  therefore  the  real  task  is  to  help 
the  girl  see  the  place  of  work  in  the  life  of  a  woman. 

Fellowship  is  a  growing  consciousness  of  neighborliness. 
There  was  a  time  when  the  latter  word  meamt  the  family  in 
the  house  next  door  to  one;  then  it  grew  so  that  it  began  to 
include  families  in  other  sections  of  the  community,  where 
dllness  or  poverty  had  come.  Through  the  channels  of  organiza- 
tions such  as  the  American  Red  Cross  the  word  took  on  new 
meaning  when  sudden  calls  came  from  nearby  or  even  faraway 
communities  in  our  own  country.  The  real  manifestations  of 
neighborliness  came  with  the  Great  War  and  girls'  horizons 
were  widened  until  they  included  suffering  peoples  in  the  de- 
vastated regions,  throughout  the  world.  New  knowledge  of 
peoples  in  other  countries  brought  a  revelation  of  the  alikeness 

20 


of  humanity  and  therefore  the  opportunity  to-day  is  to  keep 
girls'  thinking  international  in  its  scope.  It  sometimes  is  easier 
to  be  neighborly  at  "long-distance" — to  have  one's  appreciation 
of  the  girls  in  China  or  Japan!  or  Russia  or  Armenia  much 
stronger  than  one's  understanding  of  the  foreign  speaking 
group  or  family  "across  the  railroad  track."  Further  interpre- 
tation of  the  term  "fellowship"  allows  it  to  mean  an  understand- 
ing of  the  value  of  another's  personality;  it  is  a  trust  of  their 
beliefs  and  purposes.  To  help  a  girl  avoid  "the  box  car"  view  of 
life  (where  one  has  only  the  tiny  glimpses  of  the  real  contribu- 
tions of  other  people  to  the  common  life  of  a  city  or  town  or 
a  nation  or  the  world)  is  a  very  real  need  which  an  adviser  and 
a  secretary  must  meet. 

The  other  way  in  which  the  school  girl's  need  may  be  met 
as  through  the  avenue  of  religion.  To  many  people  the  very 
use  of  this  word  will  bring  a  sense  of  limitation,  or  a  ques- 
tion of  dogmatic  teachings,  sometimes  interpreted  in  terms 
of  denominationalism,  but  it  is  not  so  used  here.  When  it  is 
stated  that  a  developing  personality  (which  is  what  any  girl 
in  school  is)  is  growth  toward  God  and  man,  and  that  religion 
is  a  consciousness  of  God  in  life,  a  dynamic  for  action,  then  an 
adviser  can  see  how  broad  is  the  use  of  the  word  and  how 
fundamentally  true  is  the  application.  Almost  all  girls  need  to 
see  the  relation  between  an  individual  experience  of  a  relation- 
ship to  God  (which  they  have  been  taught)  and  the  social  appli- 
cation of  it  in  their  every  day  standards  of  living.  (See  the 
chapter  on  page  117,  "A  Clue  to  Program  Planning,"  and  the 
chapter  on  "Religious  Education  or  Training  in  Christian  Think- 
ing and  Living,"  page  295.) 

The  same  fundamental  needs  are  *found  among  the  girls  in 
the  many  private  schools  of  th-is  country.  The  New  England 
academy,  the  agricultural  school  of  the  South,  the  country 
boarding  and  day  schools,  the  city  day  schools,  and  the  town 
and  city  boarding  school,  all  offer  in  their  various  ways  op- 
portunity for  a  girl  to  become  an  intelligent  citizen. 

In  the  lives  of  most  girls  who  are  sent  to  private  schools, 

21 


there  is  often  a  greater  need  for  the  interpretation  of  fellowship 
given  above  than  for  the  public  school  girl  who  has  more  con- 
tact in  her  daily  life -with  girls' from  all  opportunity  groups. 
For  the  private  school  girl,  work  needs  to  be  related  to  her 
own  life  as  a  woman  in  such  a  way  that  she  conceives  of  it  as 
a  factor  in  her  every-day  living,  regardless  of  her  position. 

While  in  most  private  schools,  recreation  is  a  carefully 
planned  factor  in  the  curriculum,  there  is  still  opportunity  for 
helping  the  girl  to  form  right  standards  of  choice  and  value, 
so  that  when  she  must  make  decisions  for  herself  she  will  have 
a  scale  of  true  values. 

The  private  school  girl  experiences  the  same  need  for  ex- 
pression through  the  avenue  of  religion  as  does  the  girl  in  the 
public  school.  In  addition  to  any  moral,  ethical  or  religious 
training  given  either  as  a  part  of  the  curriculum  or  through 
the  school  life,  there  is  need  to  help  the  girl  to  relate  her 
individual  experience  of  a  relationship  to  God  to  her  every-day 
living. 

CHAPTER  V. 

THE  NEEDS  OF  YOUNGER  GIRLS  IN"  BUSINESS  AND  INDUSTRY 

The  Girl  Herself 

THE  group  of  younger  girls  in  business  and  industry  is  on*? 
of  the  most  stimulating  to  advisers  of  girls.  Because  of 
the  great  diversity  of  the  school  attendance  laws  and  the 
child  labor  laws  in  the  various  states,  in  this  group  will  be 
found  girls  from  twelve  to  eighteen  years  of  age.  The  direction 
of  the  girPs  new  sense  of  independence,  due  to  her  new  environ- 
ment and  the  first  taste  of  real  freedom,  the  knowledge  of  condi- 
tions under  which  she  lives,,  works  and  plays,  grip  the  imagina- 
tion of  any  one  who  really  believes  in  girls.  Generally  speaking, 
this  yo<unger  girl  resents  too  much  formality  in  work  and  or- 
ganization. Life  has  early  become  a  more  intricate  thing  for 
her  than  for  the  school  girl  of  the  same  age;  she  spends  her 

22 


days  doing  work  which  is  an  expression  of  the  commands  of 
some  one  else  or  in  producing  machine  work  which  comes  out 
a  product,  each  time  the  same.  The  continuing  monotony 
normally  results  in  a  voluble  and  volatile  outburst  of  the 
repressed  spirit  of  energy,  when  work  is  over.  This  very  fact 
accounts  for  certain  extremes  in  behavior,  in  dress,  in  speech; 
her  desire  like  that  of  any  normal  adolescent  girl,  is  for  "the 
best  time  possible/7  and  sometimes  if  the  best  way  -is  not  at 
hand,  she  takes  some  other.  The  girl  needs  to  know  what  good 
wholesome  fun  means.  Whether  the  girl  admits  it  or  not,  the 
adviser  needs  to  know  that  there  is  a  longing  on  the  part  of 
the  girl  to  do  something  and  be  somebody  worthwhile.  To  help 
the  girl  ,to  understand  herself  more  clearly,  to  see  herself  in 
relation  to  the  world  of  which  she  is  a  part  and  to  satisfy 
this  unspoken  longing  for  that  which  is  worthwhile  both  for 
herself  and  her  fellow  worker,  through  wholesome  recreation 
and  through  a  sincere  personal  interest,  through  self-govern- 
ing group  activities,  which  give  the  girl  ample  chance  to  express 
herself,  is  the  opportunity  of  an  adviser. 
Where  to  Find  Her  and  How  to  Reach  Her 

Preliminary  survey.  Before  attempting:  club  work  for 
younger  girls  in  business  and  industry,  a  girls'  work  secretary, 
the  committee  chairman  or  an  adviser  should  be  acquainted  with 
the  state  regulations  in  regard  to  the  following  conditions: 

(a)  Age  at  which  girls  may  go  to  work. 

(b)  Occupations  open  to  girls. 

(c)  Length  of  working  day. 

(d)  Average  wage. 

(e)  Opportunity  for  trade  training, 

(f)  Conditions  of  work;   how  regulated  by  law;   provision 
for  continuation  schools. 

(g)  Period  of  apprenticeship. 

(h)  Number  leaving  school  when  in  the  eighth  grade. 
(i)  Number  of  commercial  or  technical  high  schools, 
(j)  Number  of  girls  leaving  such  schools   at  end  of  two 
years, 

23 


Information  should  be  obtained  also  concerning  the  following 
situations: 

(a)  Number  of  places  employing  girls  between  twelve  and 
eighteen  years  of  age. 

(b)  Nationalities  of  girls. 

(c)  Number  living  at  home. 

(d)  Housing  conditions. 

(e)  Opportunities  for  vocational  training. 

(f )  Recreational  facilities. 

(g)  Distinct   districts    into   which   the   community   may  ^be 
divided;  e.  g.;  foreign,  factory  workers,  etc.    Is  the  community 
divided  by  the  railroad  tracks  ? 

Such  a  survey  should  always  be  made  in  cooperation  with 
the  industrial  department  if  it  is  organized  in  the  Association. 
A  previous  survey  made  by  the  industrial  department  may 
make  unnecessary  another  by  the  girls'  work  committee.  (See 
page  623,  Cooperation  with  Industrial  Department,) 

After  such  a  survey  it  should  be  apparent  whether  the 
approach  to  this  younger  girl  in  business  and  industry  is  better 
made  through  the  continuation  school — the  technical  or  busi- 
ness high  school,  or  if  the  educational  laws  are  such  that  the 
continuation  school  does  not  exist,  and  girls  can  go  to  work 
at  a  very  early  age  without  further  education— the  only  ap- 
proach with  the  exception  of  the  grade  school — the  place  of 
work  itself.  If  the  latter  is  true,  the  girl's  work  secretary 
and  the  industrial  secretary  should  work  in  close  cooperation, 
and  the  girls'  work  secretary  should  have  as  excellent  grade 
school  work  as  possible  ;  she  should  be  in  close  touch  with  tilts 
attendance  officers,  any  vocational  bureau  which  may  exist  in 
the  schools  and  any  person  or  machinery  used  to  follow  girls 
who  leave  school  at  an  early  age.  The  girls'  work  committee 
should  make  every  effort  to  havef  full  information  regarding1 
the  plans  of  Girl  Reserves  who  graduate  from  the  eighth  grade; 
it  should  extend  its  interest  to  the  many  other  girls  who  have 
not  been  Girl  Reserves.  Such  an  extensive  piece  of  work  as 

24 


this  might  possibly  be  accomplished  through  the  help  of  high 
school  Girl  Reserves  who  are  in  their  junior  and  senior  years. 
These  girls  may  seek  opportunity  to  visit  their  former  grade 
schools  at  promotion  time  and  tell  about  high  school  life  and 
with  the  help  of  the  teacher  secure  the  names  of  the  girls  who 
are  planning  to  stop  school.  Through  other  grade  school  Girl 
Reserves  themselves,  much  information  can  be  obtained  about 
the  girl  who  thinks  she  wants  to  leave  before  the  eighth  grade 
and  sometimes  the  presentation  of  the  value  of  continued  educa- 
tion to  her  and  her  parents  will  keep  her  in  school  for  a  longer 
time. 

Experience  has  revealed  that  work  with  younger  girls  in 
business  and  industry  is  twice  as  difficult  if  not  begun  until  the 
girl  is  at  work.  To  "catch  the  girl's  interest"  before  she  is  in 
the  throes  of  a  new  life  with  its  .unsettling  elements  is  the  best 
way  to  help  her  when  she  makes  this  new  step,  and  the  Associa- 
tion will  keep  her  loyalty  nine  times  out  of  ten.  ^Otherwise  it 
is  just  an  additional  element  in  her  life  and  she  does  not  always 
find  time  for  it. 

CHAPTER   VI. 

THE    NEEDS    OF   YOUNGER  BUSINESS    COLLEGE   GIRLS 

THE  girl  in  a  short  term  business  college  in  town  or  city  is 
likely  to  be  only  fifteen  or  sixteen  years  old  and  so  has  all 
the  characteristics  of  adolescence.  Generally  speaking,  the 
course  in  such  a  college  is  from  three  to  nine  months  in  lengfth. 
Several  types  of  girls  will  come  to  the  attention  of  those  in- 
terested in  this  group.  One  is  the  girl  who  has  graduated  from 
a  grammar  school  in  some  small  town  or  rural  community  and 
comes  ito  the  large  city  or  town  to  equip  herself  for  work. 
She  is  often  away  from  home  for  the  first  time,  and  her  sense 
of  independence  and  freedom  from  home  restraint  and  com- 
munity opinion  is  likely  to  overbalance  her  judgment  of  what 
are  right  standards,  both  of  work  and  play.  Her  needs  are 
therefore: 

1.  A  spirit  of  friendliness  among  the  women  and  girls  of 

25 


the  community,  which  will  express  itself  in  an  active  interest 
in  how  she  is  living  and  what  she  is  doing. 

2.  Sane  and  normal  recreation. 

3.  Vocational  guidance. 

4.  Better  housing  conditions. 

5.  A  growing:  interest  in  "the  things  that  matter  most." 
Another  type  is  the  girl  who  has  been  in  a  commercial  high 

school  and  has  enrolled  for  a  few  months  as  a  student  in  n 
business  college  in  her  own  community.  While  her  needs  are 
not  parallel  in  all  respects  to  those  of  the  girl  away  from 
home,  yet  obviously,  there  is  a  considerable  contribution  which 
may  be  made  by  a  girls'  work  committee  to  her  all-round 
development. 

CHAPTER   VII. 
THE  NEEDS   OF  GIRLS   WITH   A  FOREIGN   BACKGROUND* 

THE  business  of  being  the  first  friend  in  this  bewildering 
country  into  which  the  stranger  has  come  is  the  very 
heart  and  key  a*nd  secret  of  all  the  foreign  community  work 
of  the  Young  Women's  Christian  Association,  which  is  done  by 
the  International  Institute.  International  work  is  actually 
and  only  that  work  which  is  with  and  for,  and  shared  by 
foreign  girls  and  women  themselves.  It  is  not  getting  students 
to  a  state  of  intelligent  respect  for  the  glories  of  other  coun- 
tries and  people  other  than  their  own,  although  that  is  a  useful 
thing  to  accomplish.  It  is  not  getting  industrial  club  girls  to 
perceive  that  their  opportunity  for  patriotic  social  service  lies 
in  befriending  and  treating  as  a  Christian  should  the  non- 
American  girls  they  meet,  although  that,  too,  needs  to  be  done*. 
.  .  .  The  idea  has  taken  hold  that  to  give  the  same  ehanet* 
for  education  and  inspiration  to  the  foreign  girls  themselves— 


*  The  material  for  this  chapter  on  the  Nceda  of  CIrls  with  n  Fm'4*k« 
Background  has  been  taken  from  the. Report  of  th«*  Division  of  Work  for 
^oreign-Born  Women,  Department  of  Research  and  Method,  1015-1020. 

26 


is  "international"  or  "immigration  work."  And  a  second  idea 
which  has  gained  acceptance  is  this:  really  to  do  (this  work 
with  foreign  girls,  the  Association  must  go  and  be  to  them  in 
their  language  and  in  their  communities,  all  that  it  now  is,  and 
even  more  than  it  now  is,  to  American  girls  in  their  American 
life.  In  other  words,  this  immigration  work  is  not  "a  new 
Association  activity";  but,  on  the  contrary,  it  is  all  kinds  of 
standard  Association  activities  worked  ouit  to  fit  a  new  kind 
of  community.  Foreign  community  work  simply  duplicates  all 
the  different  ''groups"  of  girl  life  the  Association  already  knows. 

Women,  young  or  older,  of  other  races,  other  countries,  are 
essentially  the  same  sort  of  beings  as  are  American  born 
women,  who  dress  as  we  do,  speak  and  think  the  language  we 
do.  Therefore  the  Association's  program  with  them  and  for 
them  and  their  participation  in  the  life  and  activities  of  As- 
sociations everywhere  is  a  complete  thing",  and  in  no  essential 
way  different  from  the  same  thing  with  Americans.  It  differs 
tin  approach,  and  in  method,  but  not  in  the  purpose  nor  in  kind, 
nor  in  extent.  It  includes  the  ''whole  Association  program/' 
The  four  points  of  Association  emphasis  are  there  but  in  dif- 
ferent forms.  From  (the  census  and  from  official  immigration 
reports  it  can  be  estimated  that  at  present  our  United  States 
population  includes  nineteen  million  souls  whose  childhood  was 
spent  in  other  lands.  Whoever  remembers  how  deeply  the 
experiences,  the  traditions,  the  influences  about  her  childhood 
have  cut  into  her  tastes  and  character,  will  realize  what  that 
fact  means.  The  girls  and  older  women  whose  childhood  was 
spent  in  -the  "Old  Country"  have  deeply  rooted  bias,  prejudice, 

ideas  which  must  be  understood  and  taken  into  account.     In 

* 
the  old  country,  clothing  was  made  from  the  same  materials 

we  use  over  here.  But  it  was  cut  differently  and  the  com- 
pleted costume  was  a  totally  different  creation.  Most  nations 

27 


use  beans  for  food,  but  each  has  a  peculiar  way  of  cooking 
them  and  each  certainly  likes  its  own  best!  And  so  in  its 
International  Institute  building,  at  as  central  a  point  for  the 
currents  of  life  of  different  foreign  communities  as  can  be 
found,  the  Association  will  have  an  informal,  non-institutional 
neighborly  place,  with  a  class  for  learning  English,  and  a  club 
for  singing  old  country  songs. 

The  Association's  platform  on  Americanization  is  revealed 
to  be  as  follows:  Helping  individual  women  to  find  a  useful 
place  in  American  life;  working  steadily  to  help  them  out  of 
difficulties  which  so  thickly  beset  the  daily  experience  of 
strangers  in  a  strange  land;  quietly,  continually  practicing  the 
"loving  kindness"  which  springs  only  from  democracy  and 
Christianity;  opening  new  roads  to  health,  to  education,  to 
ambition,  to  life  itself! 

Where  English  is  not  the  language  of  the  home,  it  becomes 
necessary  to  understand  backgrounds  and  customs  in  order  to 
include  them  in  the  program.  The  employed  workers  of  an 
International  Branch  always  begin  with  the  individual,  not  by 
classes  and  clubs,  but  by  going  out  into  the  very  homes  of  tho 
young  women  they  would  reach. 

Girls'  work  in  an  International  Institute  is  based  upon  recog- 
nition of  the  fact  that  the  foreign  neighborhood  brought  certain 
Old  World  experiences  to  this  country.  The  composite  ex- 
perience of  a  race  based  upon  centuries  of  similar  experiences 
is  difficult  to  comprehend.  The  roots  of  our  American  past  are 
so  short  that  we  find  it  hard  to  understand  how  deeply  rooted 
are  the  lives  of  peoples  from  other  nations. 

Peoples  from  other  countries  have  brought  with  them  firmly 
fixed  traditions  and  customs  of  family  life;  in  their  groups  no 
member  has  ever  thought  of  herself  apart  from  a  family  rela- 
tionship. The  great  individualism,  freedom  and  egotism  of 
American  youith  in  thought  and  action,  are  wholly  new  ideas 

28 


to  the  foreign  neighborhood,  and  the  examples  which  they  wit- 
ness in  their  streets  serve  not  to  recommend  these  character- 
istics as  working  principles.  Therefore,  the  grown  folks  in 
foreign  homes  cling  more  closely  than  ever  to  their  (traditions 
about  the  protection  and  seclusion  of  their  homes. 

Because  of  all  this,  the  International  Institute,  that  branch 
of  Association  work  charged  with  carrying  the  message  of  the 
Young  Women's  Christian  Association  into  foreign  homes  and 
foreign  communities,  necessarily  faces  girls'  work  as  a  home 
problem.  The  adolescent  girl  is  absorbed  not  only  in  the  difficult 
task  of  growing  up,  but  also  she  is  passing  through  a  period  of 
breaking  away  from  the  traditions  and  customs  which  have 
held  the  youth  of  her  national  group  steady;  and  she  is  shift- 
ing* her  standards  and  changing  her  ideals  in  an  effort  to  accord 
with  those  of  her  adopted  country  as  she  sees  them  in  the  school 
or  in  the  workshop.  The  Association  reaches  out  to  her  with 
its  understanding  and  sympathy  to  help  her  hold  on  to  the 
best  that  is  in  her  home  while  reaching  toward  the  best  in 
America.  The  Association  also  reaches  out  to  the  mother  with 
the  same  understanding  and  sympathy  to  help  her  to  attain 
to  the  best  in  America ;  this  "best"  combined  with  the  best  that 
she  has  in  her  home  will  help  her  to  grow  with  her  daughter 
and  not  away  from  her. 

Another  reason  for  approaching  work  with  foreign-born 
girls  in  slightly  different  ways  is  the  fact  that  in  general  the 
youth  of  the  old  world  has  not  the  strong  "gang"  spirit,  nor 
does  it  have  the  group  experience  so  characteristic  of  American 
adolescents.  So  the  foreign  home  muat  be  led  to  appreciate  the 
purpose  and  value  of  group  life  for  their  daughters;  the  girls 
will  come  very  slowly  to  find  a  place  for  themselves  in  it 
Therefore,  clubs  will  be  small,  programs  will  be  ever  changing 
with  the  growth  of  the  group  ideals  in  the  minds  of  its  mem- 
bers; milestones  of  group  attainment  will  be  placed  close  to- 
gether and  the  activities  will  express  the  mingling  of  old  world 
culture  with  American  ideals  for  life. 

29 


CHAPTER    VIII. 

THE   NEEDS   OP  COLORED  GIRLS 

THERE  are  more  than  a  million  younger  colored  girls  in 
this  country.  The  great  majority  of  them  live  in  the 
Southern  sitates;  in  some  of  these  states  the  colored  girl  out- 
numbers the  white  girl  three  to  one.  In  order  to  understand 
the  needs  of  this  large  group  of  girls,  it  is  necessary  to  know 
something  of  their  background,  and  to  realize  some  of  the  ^con- 
ditions in  which  they  live,  particularly  in  that  section  of  the 
country  where  they  form  such  a  considerable  portion  of  the 
population. 

It  is  a  well-known  fact  that  in  many  parts  of  the  South 
to-day,  large  numbers  of  colored  people  are  owners  of  valuable 
property;  they  are  building  and  owning*  their  houses,  are 
entering  the  business  and  professional  world.  But  despite  these 
facts  that  bespeak  progress,  there  are  yet  larger  numbers  of 
colored  people  who  are  still  living  in  frame  shanties  and  cot- 
tages with  few  or  no  sanitary  facilities.  There  are  communi- 
ties where  the  streets  are  often  unpaved,  undrained  and  un- 
policed.  It  can  be  seen  readily  what  the  health  conditions  am<m£ 
the  colored  people  in  such  communities  must  be.  In  the  last 
five  years,  however,  annual  "clean-up  campaigns,"  "Netfro 
Health  Weeks,"  and  some  health  education  have  been  encouraged 
by  the  United  States  Health  Service,  and  by  some  of  the  state, 
county  and  city  boards  of  heal/th. 

Moreover,  in  many  of  the  communities  there  are  few  or 
no  recreational  facilities  in  the  negro  neighborhoods—not  even 
playgrounds.  In  those  moving  picture  houses  which  do  exist, 
the  entertainment  provided  is  usually  of  a  rather  low  order, 
very  young  girls  being  admitted  without  question.  The  8&mtk 
thing  is  true  at  the  public  dance  halls  which  very  often  arc  of 
the  cheapest  and  lowest  type. 

Taking  the  country  as  a  whole  there  arc  almost  as  many 
colored  girls  between  the  ages  of  twelve  and  eighteen  out  of 

30 


school  as  in  school, — those  who  do  enter  continuing  until  the 
age  of  fourteen,  then  dropping  out.  This  is  truer  in  the  South 
(which  has  the  largest  percentage  of  colored  girls)  than  in  the 
North  and  West.  It  is  due  to  several  reasons;  chief  among 
them  being  an  inadequate  number  of  public  elementary  and 
secondary  school  buildings.  There  is  also  a  lack  of  equipment, 
and  the  teachers  receive  low  salaries.  With  very  few  excep- 
tions there  are  no  public  city  high  schools  •  most  of  the  second- 
ary schools  are  supported  by  private  funds,  four-fifths  of  which 
are  supplied  by  white  church  boards,  the  remaining  fifth  by 
colored  denominations.  These  reach  but  a  small  proportion 
of  the  thousands  of  younger  colored  girls.  There  is,  however, 
an  ever  increasing  tendency  in  many  of  the  larger  cities  to  pro- 
vide more  adequate  educational  facilities  for  the  colored  group. 

Southern  states  are  granting  appropriations  for  better  school 
facilities  among  Negroes;  the  Julius  Rosen wald  Fund  also 
provides  money  to  assist  in  erecting  rural  school  houses.  'Com- 
munities will  not  be  granted  aid  unless  their  school  term  is 
at  least  five  months,  and  unless  an  amount  is  secured  equal 
to  or  exceeding"  the  amount  offered  by  the  Julius  Rosenwald 
Fund  either  from  public  school  funds  or  from  funds  raised 
among  themselves. 

In  the  Northern  and  Western  states  where  the  colored 
people  are  more  closely  identified  with  the  community  and 
share  in  the  general  influences  of  the  community  life,  both 
living  and  educational  facilities  more  nearly  meet  the  needs 
of  the  colored  people.  As  yet,  with  the  exception  of  a  few 
outstanding  cities,  the  recreational  facilities  for  colored  people 
are  very  meager.  But  even  in  those  states  where  the  educa- 
tional facilities  are  better,  the  colored  girl  drops  out  of  school 
at  a  very  early  age,  untrained  and  in  most  cases  totally  unfit 
to  be  employed  in  any  responsible  position.  Her  leaving  school 
is  often  due  to  lack  of  encouragement  from  her  own  people, 
and  a  lack  of  vocational  information  and  guidance ;  also  the 
fact  that  there  exist  few  opportunities  in  the  community  to  use 

31 


such  -training,  once  it  has  been  acquired,  influences  her  in  her 
decision  to  leave  school. 

Within  the  last  few  years  community  life  and  school  life 
have  been  made  more  difficult  for  the  colored  girl  in  the 
Northern  and  Western  cities  because  of  the  large  numbers 
of  young  colored  girls  who  have  migrated  from  the  South  with 
their  families.  On  account  of  the  school  attendance  laws, 
these  girls  are  compelled  to  attend  school;  because  they  fre- 
quently lack  knowledge  of  the  simplest  fundamentals  of  living 
and  are  overgrown,  over  age  and  retarded,  they  form  a  \ery 
serious  problem.  This  has  resulted  in  many  cases  in  the  white 
people  becoming  acutely  and  unpleasantly  aware  of  the  colored 
group,  and  a  consequent  loss  of  good  feeling  has  developed  In 
the  community.  It  has  been  felt  in  many  of  the  mixod  schools 
and  constitutes  another  reason  for  numbers  of  colored  girl** 
dropping  out  of  high  school  in  their  freshman  or  sophomore 
years. 

The  colored  people  have  found  their  biggest  and  truest 
outlet  for  self  expression  through  their  church  life  so  that  to 
the  average  younger  colored  girl,  both  in  the  North  and  the 
South,  church  attendance  ds  a  very  natural  part  of  her  life. 
Despite  the  great  progress  that  has  been  made  by  the  Neii'ro 
church,  there  are  still  large  groups  of  younger  colored  girla 
lacking  trained  Christian  leadership. 

It  would  appear  therefore,  that  although  the  manifestations 
of  the  needs  of  younger  colored  gills  may  vary  slightly  because 
of  different  local  conditions,  they  are  in  general  the  same; 
vocational  information  and  guidance;  encouragement  to  con- 
tinue education;  more  opportunities  for  employment;  moru 
knowledge  of  recreation  and  health  standards;  better  muni- 
cipal facilities  for  amusement;  greater  knowledge  of  and  prick* 
in  the  history  and  achievements  of  the  Negro  race,  thus  bring- 
ing about  freedom  from  the  thought  of  being  handicapped  in 
life  because  one  belongs  to  the  colored  race;  a  sense  of  respon- 
sibility for  a  contribution  to  the  progress  of  the  race— "Etluca- 

32 


lion  for  Service"  •  the  development  of  a  mutual  respect  for  each 
other  among  both  white  and  colored  girls  which  will  result  in 
natural  contact  with  white  girls  bringing1  about  a  healthy, 
normal  relationship  and  mutual  understanding,  faith  and  trust; 
development  of  the  rich  emotional  gift  which  is  particularly 
characteristic  of  this  group  and  building  up  of  Christian 
ideals  by  means  of  a  trainee!  Christian  leadership  of  the  highest 
type. 

CHAPTER  IX, 
i 

THE   NEEDS    OF   AMERICAN   INDIAN    GIRLS 

¥7"ASCINATING  as  their  history  has  been  and  thrilling  as 
JL  they  are  in  pictures  and  story  and  poems,  the  American 
Indians  have  been  consigned  to  the  Government  for  care  and 
direction  by  the  great  mass  of  American  people.  For  several 
hundred  years,  representatives  of  the  Protestant  and  Catholic 
faiths  have  worked  among  the  many  tribes,  yet  many  problems 
remain  unsolved  to-day  in  spite  of  government  and  mission 
work. 

The  necessity  for  an  understanding"  of  the  life  of  an  Ameri- 
can Indian  girl  to-day  is  very  great  Like  the  adolescent  white 
or  colored  girl,  she  must  receive,  she  must  possess  and  she 
must  give.  And  what  are  the  gifts  she  must  receive? 

First:  An  understanding  that  the  teachings  of  Christianity 
are  better  for  her  people  than  their  own  non-Christian  beliefs 
and  practices. 

Second:  Proof  from  the  lives  of  Christian  girls  that  the 
love  and  teachings  of  Christ  are  adequate  for  all  their  needs. 

To  help  her  gain  this  understanding  and  proof,  friendship 
in  its  largest  meaning"  must  become  her  possession.  She  must 
find  friends  among  girls  who  have  Christian  ideals  and 
standards.  ,  There  must  be  friends  amonar  older  Christian 
workers  who  can  and  will  help  her  to  live  up  to  these  ideals 

33 


while  she  is  in  school  and  when  she  goes  home  to  meet  the 
hardships  and  temptations  of  reservation  life.  But  the  circle 
of  her  friends  must  grow  larger  always  and  there  must  be 
a  growing  sense  of  friends  around  .the  world,  a  feeling  of  fel- 
lowship with  girls  in  other  lands  who  are  working  and  praying 
for  the  same  ideals  and  for  a  stronger  Christian  womanhood. 
Third:  She  must  give  all  she  has  received  of  understanding 
or  proof  of  friendship,  to  other  girls  at  school  who  have  had 
less  opportunity,  and  to  all  the  people  at  home,  many  of  whom 
have  not  yet  heard  of  these  things.  She  must  also  share  her 
personal  allegiance  to  Christ,  who  will  give  to  her  the  ability 
to  understand,  the  love  and  sympathy  and  the  patience  she 
needs  and  courage  to  push  ahead  and  lead  her  people  along 
new  trails. 

CHAPTER   X. 

THE  PSYCHOLOGY  OF  GIRLHOOD 

A  Girl  and  Her  World 

IT  is  of  vital  importance  to  an  adviser  to  be  able  to  put  her- 
self in  the  place  of  her  girls,  to  remember  how  she  felt 
when  she  was  their  age,  to  see  how  they  will  look  upon  the 
plans  which  she  proposes.  Between  the  ages  of  twelve  and 
eighteen  every  girl  goes  through  certain  psychological  as  well 
as  physiological  changes.  An  understanding  of  these  changes 
helps  a  club  adviser  immeasurably. 

Although  no  two  girls  develop  in  the  same  way  or  at  the 
same  rate  of  progress,  there  are  in  general  three  stages  of 
girlhood  development;  -the  early  "teen  age"  (twelve-fifteen 
years)  which  is  a  period  of  rapid  growth  and  physical  change 
resulting  in  awkwardness  and  self  consciousness;  the  "middle 
teen  age"  (fif teen-eight een  years)  in  which  the  girl  has  at- 
tained a  womanly  appearance,  although  her  growth  is  still  in- 
complete and  her  nervous  tension  strong ;  the  "late  adolescent 
period"  (eighteen-twenty-five  years)  in  which  responsibility 

34 


begins  to  loom  large,  the  girPs  horizon  broadens  and  she  is 
ready  to  give  definite  social  expression  to  her  thoughts. 
Build  on  What  Girls  Need  and  Enjoy 

It  is  impossible  in  short  space  .to  discuss  adequately  this 
large  subject  of  the  psychology  of  girlhood.  A  chart  showing* 
this  development  is  included  in  this  manual  (see  page  32). 
Ample  material  is  also  to  be  found  in  such  books  as  "Girlhood 
and  Character"  and  "Leadership  of  Girls'  Activities/7  by  Mary 
C.  Moxcey;  "Leaders  of  Girls,"  by  Clara  Ewing  Espey,  and 
'The  American  Girl  and  Her  Community,"  by  Margaret  Slat- 
tery.  All  of  these  may  be  obtained  from  The  Book  Shop,  600 
Lexington  Avenue,  New  York  City. 

A  study  of  the  characteristics  of  girlhood  development  forms 
the  foundation  for  a  wise  choice  of  club  activities.  Age  is  not 
the  only  consideration  which  necessitates  variations  in  a  pro- 
gram. If  an  adviser  recognizes  differences  in  environment, 
education,  types  of  homes,  occupations,  and  nationalities  of  her 
girls,  she  can  plan  with  the  girls  in  the  group  a  club  program 
•which  combines  what  the  girls  will  enjoy  with  what  they  need. 
Eecreation  is  an  essential  in  every  club  program- 

The  chart  showing  the  Normal  Development  of  Girlhood  is 
included  in  this  Manual  for  advisers  because  it  helps  to  retain 
in  one's  mind  some  very  important  psychological  principles, 
upon  which  work  with  girls  should  be  based.  It  is  essential, 
however,  to  keep  in  mind  several  of  the  following  suggestions, 
lest  an  adviser  or  secretary  be  tempted  to  follow  the  chart  too 
literally: 

A.  The  division  into  age  groups  is  not  an  absolutely  deter- 

mined one  which  will  always  hold.  The  passing  from  one 
stage  to  another,  in  a  girl's  life,  is  a  process  of  insensible 
gradations. 

B.  There  may  be  some  cases  where  the  characteristics  noted 

tinder  Sections  B.  C.  D.  of  each  stage,  seem  to  be  more 
true  of  girls  a  year  or  two  younger  than  the  age  given 
for  this  stage. 


0.  Sometimes  it  is  discovered  that  a  "girl  feels  herself  mis- 

understood" when  she  is  still  in  the  first  or  "Me  and  My 
Crowd"  stage  of  development. 

This   feeling   would   therefore   continue   until   she   is    about 
fifteen. 

CHAPTER   XI. 

A  SURVEY  OF   THE  GIKL  LIFE  OF  A  COMMUNITY 

Such  a  survey  is  essential  before  it  is  possible  for  a  Girls9  Work 
Department  to  try  to  meet  adequately  the  needs  of  the  various  groups 

of  girls. 

1.  Population. 

A.  What  is  the  population  of  the  city? 

B.  How  many  girls  under  eighteen  included  in  the  total 
population  are  among  this  number? 

C.  How  many  of  these  girls  are  at  work? 

D.  How  many  of  these  girls  are  in  school  ? 

II.  Nationalties. 

A.  What  are  the  nationalities  represented  in  the  city? 

B.  Do  they  group  together  in  certain  neighborhoods? 

III.  Religious  Denominations. 

A.  What  churches  are  there  in  the  city? 

B.  How  many  are  there? 

C.  What  are  the  names  of  the  ministers  and  priests? 

D.  What  kinds  of  activities  do  they  have  in  their  parishes, 
aside  from  the  religious  work? 

E.  What  are  they  doing  for  their  young  people? 

IV.  Recreational  Facilities. 

A.  What  is  the  number,  location  and  character  of  dance 
halls,  motion    picture  theatres,  lodges,  skating  rinks? 

B.  Are  public  dance  halls  supervised  in  any  way?     If  so» 
by  whom  are  the  supervisors  appointed?     Are  they 
men  or  women? 

36 


C.  What  methods  of  chaperonage  are  used  at  semi-public 
entertainments    given   under   the    auspices    of   private 
organizations  ? 

D.  Are  there  any  parts  of  the  community  which  offer  no 
recfeation  for  girls  ? 

E.  Would  it  be  possible  to  start  a  club  in  any  of  these 
neglected  places? 

F.  Where  could  such  a  club  meet;  in  any  unused  halls  or 
rooms  in  churches;  in   any  available  rooms  or  gym- 
nasiums in  public  schools? 

G.  Are  there  community  halls  or  other  shacks  or  cabins, 
or  camp  grounds  controlled  locally,  used  by  groups  of 
younger  girls?     What  chaperonage  is  provided? 

V,  Organizations  Already  Doing  Work  With  Girls. 

A.  Typical  examples. 

a.  What  churches  have  institutional  work? 

b.  What  are  the  number  and  location  of  playgrounds? 
Are  they  private  or  municipal? 

c.  What  factories  or  stores  have  welfare  work  which 
includes  club  and  recreational  work? 

d.  What  special  organizations,  as  Catholic  Sodalities, 

Community  Service,  Women's  Clubs,  are  promoting 
a  program  for  girls? 

B,  What  is  the  nature  of  the  work  they  are  doing? 

VI,  Industrial  Conditions    (give  separately  for  each  establish- 
ment), 

A.  How  many  factories,  stores,  etc.,  are  there  which  em- 
ploy girls  under  eighteen  ? 

B.  What  is  the  number,  nationality  and  approximate  age 
of  these  girls? 

C.  Is  any  welfare  work  done  among  them? 

D.  What  is  the  attitude  of  the  firms  toward  outside  or- 
ganizations helping  with  or  undertaking  work  among 
their  employees? 

37 


E.  What  are  the  labor  laws  of  the  state  governing-  work 
for  girls  under  eighteen? 

F.  On  what  conditions  are  work  certificates  granted,  and 
by  whom? 

G.  Is  there  a  Junior  Employment  Bureau  in  your  com- 
munity?    If  not,  how  are  girls  'guided  in  selection  of 
work? 

VII.  School  Conditions. 

A.  How  many  of  the  public  schools   have  playgrounds? 
What   apparatus   is   there?      Is  it  used   after   school 
hours?     How  is  the  play  supervised? 

B.  Is  there  a  physical  director  in  the  schools  ?    What  does 
she  do  for  the  playtime  of  the  girls? 

O.  What  equipment  is  there  within  the  school  building1 
for  recreation  and  physical  training? 

D.  Is  it  used  by  others  than  the  school  children? 

E.  What  use  is  made  of  school  buildings  as  community 
centers  ? 

F.  What   clubs   or  societies    (of  a   social   or  recreational 
nature)  are  there  within  the  school? 

G.  Is  there  a  dean  of  girls  in  the  high  school? 

H.  What  effort  is  made  to  give  vocational  guidance  in 
grade  and  high  schools  ?  Are  there  vocational  advisers  ? 

L  What  provision  is  made  for  vocational  education  ?  Are 
courses  along  this  line  included  in  regular  grade?  and 
high  school  work  or  are  there  separate  vocational 
schools  ?  .  If  so,  what  courses  are  included  ?  Classify 
these  according  to  agricultural,  commercial  (retail 
selling),  home  making,  industrial. 

For  this  survey  the  following  sources  of  information  are 
suggested : 

A.  Census  reports,  including  school  census  reports, 

B.  Reports  of  public  officials. 

C.  Investigations  made  by  Women's  Clubs,  the  National 
Consumers'  League  (105  East  22nd  Streets,  New  York 
City),  and  like  organizations. 

38 


D.  Private  inquiry  of  employers,  teachers,  ministers  and 
parents, 

E.  Direct  conversation  with  girls  and  women. 

A  graphic  way  to  study  the  community  as  it  really  is,  and 
he  girl  in  relation  to  it,  is  to  use  a  chart  made  by  indicating1 
n  a  large  map  of  the  city,  town  or  county,  by  use  of  colored 
i  ins,  or  stars,  the  following:  The  grammar  schools,  parochial 
,nd  private  schools,  continuation  and  trade  schools,  consolidated 
chools,  business  colleges,  factories,  department  stores  and  five- 
,nd-ten-cent  stores,  moving  picture  theatres,  dance  halls1*,  thea- 
res,  skating  rinks,  recreation  parks,  both  public  and  private', 
nunicipal  recreation  centres,  settlements,  car  lines,  public 
ibraries,  sections  of  the  community  where  foreign-born,  col- 
red  and  trade  groups  are  settled;  institutional  churches, 
foung  Men's  Clmstian  Association  and  Young  Women's  Ohris- 
ian  Association  buildings,  if  there  are  any,  or  like  organiza- 
ions.  Those  public  schools  which  are  being  used  for  night 
chools  should  be  indicated  in  some  special  manner. 

In  making  such  a  chart  be  sure  that  the  map  used  is  large 
>nough  to  permit  the  indication  of  all  these  places  without  con- 
'using  the  eye.  Such  maps  are  usually  procurable  at  the  city 
>r  town  hall. 


Section  II. 

THE  GENERAL  PLAN  OF  THE  GIRL  RESERVE 
MOVEMENT 

YOUNGER  girls  in  open  country,  in  towns  and  cities,  for 
whom  and  with  whom  work  is  done  by  the  Young  Women's 
Christian  Association,  are  known  as  Girl  Reserves.     The 
fellowship  of  young-er  girls,  which  includes  grade  school,  high 
school,  younger  girls  in  business  and  industry  and  young-er  bus- 
iness college  girls  between  twelve  and  eighteen  is  in  truth  a 
girl  movement  within  the  larger  Association  movement. 

The  object  of  the  Girl  Reserve  Movement,  in  direct  accord- 
ance \vith  the  purpose  of  the  Association,  is  to  provide  or  sup- 
plement those  ideals  and  convictions  which  help  a  girl  to  live  as 
a  Christian  of  her  age  should  and  to  aid  her  to  put  into  practice 
in  her  community  her  standards  of  Christian  living.  It  en- 
deavors to  give  girls  through  normal,  natural  activities  the 
habits,  insights  and  ideals  which  will  make  them  responsible 
Christian  women;  capable  and  ready  to  help  make  America 
more  true  to  its  best  hopes  and  traditions. 

The  Girl  Reserves,  whose  insignia  is  the  Blue  Triangle  with 
the  letters  G.R.  inscribed  within,  form  a  part  of  a  national  and 
an  international  movement  for  girls  and  women.  The  Blue  Tri- 
angle of  the  Younff  Women's  Christian  Association  is  already 
well  known  throughout  the  world  to-day,  and  by  wearing  It 
here  in  America  a  girl  is  sharing  the  responsibility  of  girls 
throughout  the  world  to  help  bring  about  the  kingdom  of 
friendly  citizens. 

41 


The  Girl  Reserve  Movement  includes  five  programs  designed 
to  reach  groups  of  adolescent  girls;  i.  e.,  grade  school,  junior 
high  school,  high  school,  business  college  and  younger  girls  in 
business  and  industry.  Each  of  these  programs  should  be 
adapted  to  local  conditions. 

The  Girl  Reserve  Movement  has  incorporated  many  princi- 
ples used  formerly  in  Association  programs,  such  as  Rainbow 
Club,  Be  Square  Club,  The  Girl  Guardians,  and  Silver  Link 
Club,  and  has  the  additional  advantage  of  bringing  unity  to  all 
the  work  being  done  with  teen  age  girls  in  the  Young  Women's 
Association. 

The  unit  of  organization  in  work  with  grade  school  girls  Is 
the  corps,  made  up  of  ten  to  twenty  girls  under  the  direction 
of  a  competent  leader  called  an  adviser,.  In  high  school  work 
the  group  is  generally  larger  and  is  called  a  club.  In  work 
with  younger  girls  either  in  business  or  in  industry  the 
unit  of  organization  may  be  any  of  these,  the  corps,  the  com- 
pany, or  the  club.  Two  or  more  corps  make  up  a  company, 
All  the  corps,  companies  and  clubs  in  the  community  make  up  a 
division.  Thus  in  a  given  community  there  might  be  four 
companies  of  grade  school  girls,  two  of  high  school  girls  and 
two  of  younger  girls  in  business  and  industry.  The  Girl  Reserve 
division  would  be  made  up  of  all  of  these.  In  this  way  all 
the  work  for  younger  girls  in  an  Association  is  linked  together 
and  the  girl  passing  from  grade  school  to  high  school,  or  to 
work,  is  still  a  part  of  the  same  movement. 

In  so  far  as  the  organization  and  program  of  the  several 
groups — grade  school,  high  school,  and  younget  girls  in  busi- 
ness college  and  in  business  and  industry — -must  differ  some- 
what because  of  the  differences  in  age  and  needs  of  the  girls  in- 
volved, the  details  of  each  are  to  be  found  in  the  special  sec- 
tions which  follow. 

The  Girl  Reserve  plan  may  be  used  in  any  district,  county, 
town,  or  city,  where  there  is  an  organized  Young  Women's 

42 


Christian  Association.  It  also  may  be  used  in  any  district, 
county,  town  or  city  where  work  is  being  carried  on  under  the 
direction  of  a  field  or  headquarters  secretary  who  is  supervising 
the  work  done  by  a  group  of  volunteers.  Care  should  be  taken 
in  this  case  that  the  work  in  the  territory  under  the  supervision 
of  this  worker  will  be  organized  within  a  reasonable  time  as 
a  Young  Women's  Christian  Association.  Any  community 
adopting  the  Girl  Reserve  plan  must  recognize  it  as  a  distinc- 
tively Young  Women's  Christian  Association  plan.  The  plan 
may  be  used  in  any  Sunday  school  or  church  school  where  the 
above  requirements  are  met. 

Supervision  of  Girl  Reserve  work  is  interpreted  to  mean 
the  supervision  of  a  regular  town  or  country  field  worker*,  a 
field  secretary  for  work « with  younger  girls,  a  county  or  dis- 
trict organizer,  a  field  student  secretary,  or  a  local  student  As- 
sociation where  the  club  work  in  the  community  is  being 

handled  by  members  of  the  local  student  Association.  Any  As- 
sociation may  become  responsible  for  a  Girl  Reserve  group  in 
an  outlying  district  through  its  g-eneral  secretary  or  girls' 
work  secretary,  provided  the  city,  or  town  or  country  field 
secretary  is  willing  that  this  should  be  done. 

MEMBERSHIP 

Any  girl  between  the  ag-es  of  twelve  and  eighteen  may  be- 
come a  Girl  Reserve, 

It  is  difficult  at  the  present  time  to  make  any  standard  regu- 
lations as  to  membership  fees  for  younger  girls  in  a  local 
Young  Women's  Christian  Association,  inasmuch  as  local  con- 
ditions differ  so  greatly  in  different  parts  of  the  country,  Un- 
der certain  conditions  it  is  undoubtedly  better  to  have  no  fees. 
Girl  Reserve  work  should  never  be  blocked  by  a  membership 
fee, 

REGISTRATION 

Every  corps  or  company  or  club  is  requested  to  register  at 
National  Headquarters,  600  Lexington  Avenue,  New  York  City. 

43 


Application  blanks,  requesting  detailed  information  about  the 
name  of  the  school  or  firm,  group  of  girls  applying  for  regis- 
tration, number  in  group,  name  and  address  of  the  adviser  and 
the  name  of  the  girls7  work  secretary,  may  be  secured  from 
the  field  secretaries  for  younger  girl  work. 

Upon  return  of  these  blanks,  carefully  filled  out,  to  the 
Bureau  for  Work  with  Younger  Girls,  600  Lexington  Avenue, 
New  York  City,  Girl  Reserve  registration  cards  are  sent  to  the 
corps,  company  or  club,  making  the  request  and  to  the  field 
secretaries  for  younger  girl  work  in  whose  field  the  Associa- 
tion is  located.  A  third  card  is  retained  at  headquarters,  so  that 
the  Girl  Reserve  registration  file  will  be  complete. 

SLOGAN 
"To  face  life  squarely" 

PURPOSE 
"To  find  and  give  the  best0 

CODE 

"As  a  Girl  Reserve  I  will  be — 
Gracious  in  manner 
Impartial  in  judgment 
Ready   for   service 
Loyal  to  friends 

Reaching  toward  the  best 
Earnest  in  purpose 
Seeing  the  beautiful 
Eager  for  knowledge 
Reverent  to  God 
Victorious   over  self 
Ever  dependable 
Sincere  at  all  times  " 

44 


"I  will  do  my  best  to  honor  God,  my  country,  and  my  com- 
munity, to  help  other  girls,  and  to  be  in  all  ways  a  loyal,  true 
member  of  the  Girl  Reserves." 


GIRL  RESERVE  SYMBOLISM 

The  teen  age  girl  is  generally  imaginative  and  easily  ap- 
pealed to  by  the  symbolic.  The  Blue  Triangle  of  the  Girl  Re- 
serve should  be  to  every  girl  who  wears  it  the  symbol  of  the 
highest  type  of  service  for  God  and  her  country,  the  kind  of 
service  which  requires  not  mere  handiwork  but  the  kindling"  en- 
thusiasm and  the  determination  to  make  good,  which  come  only 
when  a  girl  begins  to  understand  some  of  the  simple  funda- 
mental facts  about  her  relationship  to  God,  and  to  life  as  a 
whole.  The  base  of  the  Blue  Triangle  is  Spirit,  its  two  sides 
are  Knowledge  and  Health.  This  means  that  the  Blue  Triangle 
girl  is  physically  fit,  is  mentally  and  morally  trained.  With 
these  three  characteristics,  the  Blue  Triangle  girl  need  have  no 
fear  in  undertaking  the  big  adventure  of  life.  The  interna- 
tionalism of  the  Blue  Triangle  and  the  work  being  done  under 
its  symbol  in  the  many  countries  of  the  civilized  world  to-day 
give  a  girl  the  feeling  of  a  great  world  sisterhood,  which  is  so 
important  a  part  of  the  Blue  Triangle  spirit.  The  initiation, 
recognition  and  installation  services  used  by  the  various  groups 
in  the  Girl  Reserve  Movement  offer  a  special  opportunity  to 
interpret  this  symbolism. 

The  Girl  Reserve  €ode  serves  further  to  express  the  mean- 
ing of  the  Blue  Triangle.  In  interpreting  it  advisers  are  asked 
to  lay  special  stress  upon  the  fact  that  "to  face  the  life  square- 
ly,"''"to  find  and  give  the  best,"  "to  be  reaching  toward  the  best" 
and  "to  be  earnest  in  purpose,"  involve  a  willingness  on  the 
part  of  a  girl  to  train  herself  to  be  her  very  best.  This  means 
working-  at  all  things  long  enough  really  to  finish  them,  stay- 
ing by  a  thing  until  it  is  really  completed.  What  the  world 
needs  to-day  is  girls  and  women,  who  are  not  mere  drifters  and 
players,  but  those  who  can  be  relied  upon  to  finish  a  piece  of 

45 


work;  by  so  doing-  they  add  much  more  to  their  own  worth. 

From  time  to  time  all  girls  should  be  given  a  chance  to  say 
what  the  code  means  to  them;  sometimes  a  single  phrase  may 
be  used  as  the  subject  of  an  informal  talk  about  the  way  girls 
can  make  the  code  really  effective  in  everyday  life. 

The  following  interpretation  of  the  meaning  of  the  code 
should  be  regarded  as  fundamental,  and  advisers  and  secre- 
taries will  find  it  helpful  in  aiding  girls  to  express  in  their  own 
words  what  it  may  stand  for  in  their  lives. 

THE  MEANING   OF  THE   GIRL  RESERVE  CODE 

To  face  squarely  the  daily  tests  which  come  at  home,  in 
school,  at  work,  at  play;  to  be  a  friend  to  all  and  strive  to 
show  Christ's  love  in  every  little  deed,  to  give  the  best  of  self 
in  service  to  God  and  in  fellowship  with  girls  everywhere,  are 
golden  threads  woven  through  the  fabric  out  of  which  a  Girl 
Reserve  fashions  her  thoughts  and  actions. 

The  "Christ  way"  for  everyday  living  means  to  a  Girl  Re- 
serve: simple  graciousness;  constant  and  consistent  impartial- 
ity; readiness  for  service  however  humble  and  insignificant;  mi- 
waiving,  unqualified  loyalty  to  friends ;  an  eager  desire  for 
knowledge  of  the  beautiful  and  the  worth-while  in  life  and  in 
living;  a  sincerity  and  earnestness  of  purpose  which  leads  ever 
upward  and  outward;  a  sense  of  responsibility  which  not  only 
begins  a  task  but  also  finishes  it;  a  control  of  self  which  makes 
for  a  body  and  mind  clean  and  pure  in  all  ways;  and  a  reverence 
for  God  which  shows  itself  in  work  and  in  worship  which  rec- 
ognizes Christ  as  the  Light  and  the  Way. 

This  and  much  more  does  the  Girl  Reserve  code  strive  to 
symbolize  to  every  Girl  Reserve.  Whether  it  becomes  mere 
words  or  a  vital  force  for  living,  depends  upon  the  interpreta- 
tion and  emphasis  given  it  by  an  adviser.  To  make  the  code  live 
for  girls  means  to  live  it  for  ourselves. 

It  is  from  the  visions  of  youth  that  come  inspirations  to 
make  to-morrow  better  than  to-day.  Visions  come  from  a  be- 

46 


lieving  In  belief;  from  believing  in  love  and  loveliness,  from  a 
spirit  which  hates  wrong  and  injustice,  which  strives  for  a 
"best"  that  has  God  for  its  goal  and  Christ's  standards  as  its 
test  for  action — a  spirit  which  sees,  in  the  shadows  of  the  great 
trees  and  in  the  gold  of  the  sunset,  a  God  not  old  but  young 
who  calls  youth  to  follow  him  and  find  eternal  life.  This  is  the 
meaning  to  a  Girl  Reserve  of  the  key  note  of  her  code  "reverent 
to  God,"  the  giving  of  self  in  love  for  God  and  love  for  man, 
love  expressed  in  terms  of  human  helpfulness.  Towards  this 
and  from  this  all  the  rest  of  the  code  leads,  helping  every  Girl 
Reserve  to  find  for  herself  and  others  the  "life  abundant." 

SALUTE 

Girl  Reserves  salute  their  advisers,  each  other,  and  the  Blue 
Triangle,  The  salute  is  made  by  placing  the  thumb  of  the 
right  hand  in  the  middle  of  the  palm.  The  right  hand  is  then 
brought  in  salute  to  the  place  on  the  left  arm  where  the  Girl 
Reserve  Triangle  patch  is  to  be  worn. 

The  four  fingers  have  been  chosen  to  symbolize  the  four 
principles  of  development  in  a  girl's  life:  Health,  Knowledge, 
Service,  and  Spirit. 

Every  time  a  Girl  Reserve  sees  the  Blue  Triangle,  she  will 
salute  and,  as  she  salutes,  will  remember  that  it  stands  for  the 
goal  toward  which  she  is  striving — "to  face  life  squarely,  to 
seek  and  give  the  best,  and  to  be  in  all  ways  a  loyal,  true 
member  of  the  Girl  Reserves." 

SONG 

By  ROSAMOND  KIMBALL 

Sung1  to  the  melody,  *'Keep  the  Home  Fires  Burning:" 
I 

To  the  girlhood  of  our  country 

There  sounds  a  trumpet  call, 

To  the  girls  by  mountain,  sea  and  plain, 

47 


In  town  and  village  small. 
Arise!     Arise]     O  daughters! 
Lift  up  your  eyes  and  see, — 
The  fields  are  ripe  for  harvest! 
Will  you  the  gleaners  be? 

Chorus 

Girl   Reserves!      Who'll  join  us? 
Eager,  glad  for  service. 
Sisters,  daughters,  friends  and  comrades 
We'll    be    true. 

Reaching   toward   the   highest, 
Honor,    Truth    and   Beauty, 
Find  and  give  the  best  in  life, 
The   world  needs   you! 

II 

Do  you  love  good  times  and  hiking, 
Wi'th  the  camp  fire  at  the  end? 
Will  you  be  a  strong  true  comrade 
To  someone  who  needs  a  friend? 
Can  you  meet  a  sharp  word  bravely, 
With  forgiveness  and  a  smile? 
Can  you  stand  for  what  you  know  is  ri 
Then  you're  a  girl  worth  while. 

Chorus 
III 

The  way  is  bright  with  promise 
But  the  path  is  steep  and  lonp:, 
For  it  were  not  worth  the  struggle 
If  the  prize  were  cheaply  won. 
As  our  men  have  fought  for  freedom, 
So  we  will  fight  for  rig*ht, 
For  we  will  hold  the  torch  of  truth 
And  bear  aloft  the  light. 

Chorus 

48 


OFFICIAL  INSIGNIA 

The  letters  G.R.  placed  within  the  Blue  Triangle,  the  three 
sides  of  which  symbolize  the  three  cardinal  principles  of  the 
Girl  Reserve  movement — Health,  Knowledge,  Spirit. 
Ann  Bands. 

The  arm  bands  are  made  of  grey  cloth  and  have  embroid- 
ered on  them  a  Copenhagen  blue  triangle.  Grade  school  girls 
outline  the  triangles  on  their  arm  bands  with  a  very  light  blue 
floss.  Freshman  high  school  girls  (if  organized  in  a  separate 
club)  use  tan  floss,  and  younger  girls  in  business  and  industry 
use  red  floss.  Some  of  the  younger  girls  of  the  latter  group 
want  to  use  the  armband  embroidering  on  it,  perhaps  their  com- 
pany or  club  color  as  a  bar  at  either  side  of  the  blue  triangle. 
Older  girls  will  be  more  interested  in  the  little  sew-on  triangle 
and  the  pin. 

Special  Insignia. 

Health  Badge:  A  reel  circle  to  be  described  around  the 
triangle  on  the  armband.  This  circle  is  to  be  embroidered  by 
the  Girl  Reserves  themselves. 

Knowledge  Badge:  A  small  owl,  to  be  placed  at  one  side 
of  the  triangle  (sec  diagram  page  — ), 

Service  Badge:  A  blue  star,  to  be  placed  at  one  side  of  the 
triangle  (see  diagram  page  — ). 

Spirit  Badge:  A  Roman  lamp  to  be  placed  above  the  tri- 
angle (see  diagram  page  — ). 

Sew-on  Triangles. 

Patch  triangles:  These  are  Copenhagen  blue  triangles  em- 
broidered on  white  wash  material.  They  are  to  be  worn  on 
middy  blouses,  coats  and  hats. 

Brush-away  triangles:  These  are  Copenhagen  blue  triangles 
embroidered  on  a  transparent  background,  which  brushes  away 
when  the  triangles  have  been  whipped  to  the  ties.  These  are 
to  be  used  on  the  ties  which  grlrls  will  secure  for  themselves. 

49 


Pins. 

These  are  three-quarter-inch  triangles  made  of  gold  and  blue 
enamel  with  the  letters  G.R.  in  the  center. 

Official  Costumes. 

The  official  costume  is  a  white  middy  blouse  worn  with  either 
a  blue  or  a  white  skirt,  a  Girl  Reserve  tie  of  Copenhagen  blue 
or  black  silk,  with  an  embroidered  Girl  Reserve  triangle  on  one 
end  of  it,  and  a  white  d-uck  hat. 

Girl  Reserve  Rings. 

These  are  sterling  silver  rings  with  a  raised  silver  seal  on 
which  is  mounted  the  Girl  Eeserve  triangle  enameled  in  blue 
hard  French  enamel.  The  possession  of  the  Girl  Eeserve  rin£ 
is  the  greatest  honor  that  can  come  to  a  Girl  Reserve,  No  girl 
can  purchase  the  ring.  It  must  be  earned  by  one  of  the  fol- 
lowing methods: 

REQUIREMENTS  FOR  WINNING  THE  GIRL  RESERVE  RING 

Grade  School  Girls. 

When  a  grade  school  girl  has  won  the  required  one  hundred 
and  sixty  honors  necessary  for  the  chevrons,  she  may  work  for 
one  hundred  additional  honors  from  the  Girl  Reserve  List  and 
win  a  Girl  Reserve  ring.  She  is  then  called  a  special  Girl  Re- 
serve aide. 

High  School  Girls. 

High  school  girls  may  win  the  Girl  Reserve  ring  in  either 
of  two  ways: 

(1)  By  working  on  certain  standards  for  health, 
knowledge,  and  spirit  because  the  Blue  Triangle  stands  as  a 
symbol  of  the  finest  kind  of  living.  Any  girl  who  wears  the 
Girl  Reserve  ring  should  feel  that  it  stands  as  a  measure  of 
her  growth  toward  attaining  her  ideal  in  health  and  knowledge 
and  spirit.  These  standards  may  vary  slightly  in  different 
communities,  because  girls  and  advisers  are  helping  to  set 
them,  but  such  things  as  good  posture,  fine  scholarship,  faithful 

50 


club  attendance,  active  service  work,  a  good  team  spirit,  will 
help  to  determine  whether  a  girl  deserves  a  ring. 

Suggestions  for  standards  for  the  winning  of  rings  by  high 
school  girls  may  be  secured  from  the  secretaries  for  younger 
girls  in  the  several  fields.  No  standard  can  be  adopted  until  5t 
has  been  accepted  by  the  field  secretary  for  younger  girls  and 
the  Bureau  for  Work  with  Younger  Girls,  600  Lexington  Ave- 
nue, New  York  City.  In  the  section  on  Material  for  Program 
Building,  page  713,  will  be  found  suggestive  standards  which 
may  be  adapted  by  any  group  to  fit  its  own  needs. 

Very  frequently  a  committee  of  club  girls,  who  will  be, 
probably,  cabinet  or  council  girls,  will  help  the  advisers  in 
choosing  girls  who  should  receive  the  rings. 

(2)  High  school  girls  may  win  the  ring  by  earning  rtwo 
hundred  and  sixty  points  taken  from  the  honor  list  or  from 
lists  which  have  been  approved  by  their  field  secretary  for 
younger  girls. 

Younger  Girls  In  Business  and  Industry. 

Younger  girls  in  business  and  industry  may  win  the  Girl 
Reserve  ring  in  either  of  two  ways: 

Method  I. 

(A)  By  showing   a  desire  to   establish,  good  health  habits 
through : 

(a)  Keeping  the  Girl  Reserve  Health  Code  for  at  least  eight 
months  (see  page  204). 

(b)  A  physical  examination,  if  possible. 

(c)  Personal  first  aid. 

(1)  Knowing  and  observing  proper  care  of  the  body  by 
bathing;   care  of  the   teeth;   care   of  the  hair  and 
skin. 

(2)  Knowing  the  important  organs  of  the  human  body 
and  observing  their  functions. 

51 


(B)  By  trying*  to  become  a  more  intelligent  citizen  and  worker 
through  at  least  six  discussions  of  some  such  topics  as: 

(a)  What  lies  behind  and  ahead  of  the  pay  envelope? 

(b)  Thrift. 

(c)  Books — why?  when?  where? 

(d)  Who  makes  "your  laws  ? 

(e)  Health — personal  and  community. 

(f)  Pictures — good  and  bad. 

Suggestions  for  these  and  other  discussion  topics  will  be 
found  under  "Knowledge,"  in  the  chapter  on  Content  and 
Method  Typical  of  a  Program  for  Younger  Girls  in  Business 
and  Industry.  (See  Section  IV,  chapter  II,  page  209.) 

(C)  By  trying  to  be  a  real  Girl  Reserve  at  home,  at  work,  at 

play,  for  at  least  eight  months.    This  means: 

(a)  Keeping  the   Business   and  Industrial   Code    (see  page 
227). 

(b)  Doing  a  good  turn  daily  or  saying  a  kind  word  daily. 

(c)  Trying  to  make  concrete  through  active  service  work, 
through  personal  reading  and  discussion,  the  motto  of 
the  Y.  W.  C.  A.,  "I  am  come  that  ye  may  have  life,  and 
have  it  more  abundantly." 

These  regulations  might  be  posted  on  a  bulletin  board  in 
the  club  room  or  center  and  the  attention  of  new  girls  called 
to  them  from  time  to  time. 

A   "ring   committee"  might  consisit  of  two  or   more   girls 
chosen  or  elected,  the  girls'  work  secretary  and  adviser. 
Method  II. 

By  winning  260  Honors.  (See  Special  Honor  List  for 
Younger  Girls  in  Business  and  Industry  for  suggestions  for 
such  honors,  page  280.) 

No  girl  under  twelve  years  of  age  can  win  a  Girl  Reserve 
ring  even  though  she  may  have  covered  the  ground  required 
for  the  winning  of  the  ring. 

In  making  application  for  rings  for  grade  school  girls,  the 
age  of  the  girl  must  be  stated. 


CORRECT  PROCEDURE  FOR  ADVISERS  WHO  DESIRE  TO  SECURE  RINGS 
FOR  GIRL   RESERVES   OR  FOR  THEMSELVES 

I.  For  Girls. 

(a)  If  a  girl  is  entitled  to  a  ring  on  the  basis  of  honors, 
the  following  information,  approved  by  the  local  girls' 
work  chairman,  must  be   sent  by  the  local  girls'  work 
secretary  to  the  Bureau  for  Work  with  Younger  Girls, 
600  Lexington  Avenue,  New  York  City,  and  a  copy  of 
it  must  be  sent  to  the  field  secretary  for  younger  girls. 

(1)  A  statement  of  the  honors  either  by  number  in  the 
list  or  written  in  full. 

(2)  The  length  of  time  which  the  girl  has  taken  to  win 
the  required  number  of  honors.     That  is,  when  she 
began  work  on  them  and  when  she  completed  them. 

(b)  If  a  girl  is  entitled  to  a  ring  because  she  has  attained 
the  standards  set  by  her  club,  and  accepted  by  the  field 
secretary   for    Younger    Girls    and1  by   the   Bureau   for 
Work  with  Younger  Girls,  the  recommendations  for  the 
recognition  should  be  approved  by  the  ring  committee, 
the  adviser  In  charge  of  the  group  (and  if  a  high  school 
girl,  by  a  faculty  adviser),  and  by  the  chairman  of  the 
S.  0.  S.  or  the  chairman  of  the  council   (cabinet)   and 
the   local    guisy   work    secretary.     The   recommendation 
must  contain  full  information  as  to  the  kind  of  work 

.   done  and  the  amount  of  time  given. 

If  committee  work  is  part  of  the  standard  set  it  must  ex- 
tend over  the  regular  period  for  which  the  committee  serves  or 
if  the  work  is  done  on  a  special  committee,  the  time  given  must 
be  sufficiently  long  to  prove  a  real  test.  In  either  case,  the 
committee  work  must  be  of  such  character  that  it  demands 
special  interest  aid  effort  in  the  way  of  dependableness,  spirit, 
and  ability. 

If  service  work  is  part  of  the  standard  set  it  must  be  the 
kind  which  really  takes  effort,  and  while  no  definite  time  can 

53 


be  set  as  the  minimum,  it  must  not  be  something  wmcn  can  oe 
accomplished  in  a  few  minutes. 

This  information  and  the  recommendation  must  be  sent  to 
the  field  secretary  for  younger  girls  and  upon  her  approval 
the  ring  will  be  sent  to  the  Girl  Reserve  by  the  Bureau  for 
Work  with  Younger  Girls,  600  Lexington  Avenue,  New  York 
City. 

II.  For  Advisers. 

Any  adviser  who  has  served  for  any  nine  months  during  any 
calendar  year  is  entitled  to  a  Girl  Reserve  ring  on  the  recom- 
mendation of  the  local  girls'  work  committee.  The  basis  for 
making  this  recommendation  should  be  the  following: 

(a)  The  general  reliability  and  dependableness  of  the  leader. 

(b)  Initiative  and  ability  to  hold  the  interest  of  the  girls. 

(c)  Punctuality  and  faithful  attendance  at  meetings.     Five- 
sixths  of  the  meetings  held  during-  the  year  must  be  at- 
tended by  the  adviser  unless  there  is  some  definite  reason 
such  as  unavoidable  illness  or  absence  from  the  city, 

Under  these  circumstances  the  local  girls'  work  secretary 
must  be  notified  of  such  proposed  absence  in  advance  of 
the  club  meeting  and  a  substitute  should  be  provided  by 
the  adviser  in  consultation  with  the  g*irls?  work  sec- 
retary. 

No  ring  can  be  sent  to  any  Girl  Reserve  or  authorized  for 
an  adviser  until  the  information,  as  outlined  above,  is 
sent  in  by  the  local  girls'  work  secretary. 

The  information  under  I  and  II  should  be  sent  direct  to  the 
Bureau  for  Work  with  Younger  Girls,  600  Lexington 
Avenue,  New  York  City,  with  a  duplicate  to  the  field 
secretary  for  younger  girls.  The  recommendation  under 
I~b  must  be  sent  direct  to  the  field  secretary  for  younger 
girls  who  will  forward  it  (to  the  Bureau  for  Work  with 
Younger  Girls  at  Headquarters. 

54 


Rings  for  advisers  (price  $1.25)  must  be  purchased  from 
the  Womans  Press,  600  Lexington  Avenue,  New  York  City. 
(Checks  or  money  orders  should  be  made  payable  to  M.  H. 
Broadwell,  Treasurer).  Applications  for  these  ring's  should  be 
sent  to  the  Bureau  for  Work  with  Younger  Girls;  when  re- 
ceived, they  will  receive  official  recognition  and  an  order  for 
shipment  will  be  forwarded  to  the  Womans  Press.  These  rings 
may  be  given  to  the  advisers  by  local  associations,  or  the  ad- 
visers may  be  authorized  by  the  local  association  to  purchase 
their  own  rings. 

Information  regarding  the  rings  won  by  the  Girl  Reserves 
may  be  obtained  from  the  Bureau  for  Work  with  Younger 
Girls,  600  Lexington  Avenue,  New  York  City. 

APPLICATION  FOR  GIRL  RESERVE  RING 

To  be  filled  out  by  the  local  girls'  work  secretary,  signed  by 
the  field  secretary  for  younger  girls,  and  returned  to  the  Bu- 
reau for  Work  with  Younger  Girls,  600  Lexington  Avenue,  New 
York  City. 

This  is  to  certify  that 

Age ...........  of  the 


(Name  of  the  city  and  state) 

Young   Women's   Christian  Association,   is  entitled  to   a   Girl 

Reserve  ring,  size ,  having  met  one  of  the  following 

requirements : 

No.  of  Honors     Committee  Work       Service  Work 

Grade  School  


High  School 

Younger  Girl  in  Busi- 
ness and  Industry 


55 


NOTE: 

A.  A  Grade  School  girl  is  not  entitled  to  a  Girl  Reserve  ring 
until  she  has  earned  160  honors  necessary  for  the  chevrons 
plus  100  additional  honors  from  the  Girl  Reserve  list. 

A  High  School  girl  may  win  the  Girl  Reserve  ring  in  either  of 
two  ways : 

(1)  By  working  to  meet  certain  standards,  as  outlined  in  the 
special   statement   for  high  schpol  giirls.      (See  page  50, 
Girl  Reserve  Manual  for  Advisers.) 

(2)  By   winning   260  points   taken    from    the   honor   list    or 
honors  which  the  field  secretary  for  younger  girls  con- 
siders equivalent  to  those  in  the  list. 

A  Younger  Girl  in  Business  and  Industry  is  entitled  to  a  Girl 
Reserve  ring  through  either  of  the  following1  methods: 

(1)  The  method  outlined  in  the  special  statement  printed  in 
the  pamphlet,  "The  Younger  Girl  in  Business  and  Indus- 
try," or  found  in  the  Girl  Reserve  Manual  for  Advisers, 
page  51. 

(2)  By  winning  260  points   taken    from   the    honor  list   or 
honors    which    the    field    secretaries    for    younger    girls 
consider  equivalent  to  those  on  the  list.    Please  attach  to 
this  application  blank  the  list  of  honors  which  the  girl 
has  won. 

This  application  blank  must  be  signed  by  the  field  secretary  for 
younger  girls  before  any  ring  will  be  awarded  to  any  girl,  regard- 
less of  whether  she  is  in  grade  school,  high  school  or  a  younger 
girl  in  business  and  industry. 


Girls'  Work  Secretary. 

Field  Secretary  for  Younger  Girls. 
These  blanks  are  to  be  ordered  from  the  field  office. 

56 


SUGGESTED  CEREMONY  FOR  AWARDING  OF  GIRL  RESERVE  RING 

Processional "'Hymn  of  the  Lights" 

(Form  circle  around  table,  finding  place  by  card) 
O,  beautiful  for  spacious  skies 
For  amber  waves  of  grain 
For  purple  mountain  majesties, 
Above  the  fruited  plain! 
America  I    America ! 
God  shed  His  grace   on  thee 
And  crown  thy  good  with  brotherhood 
From  sea  to  shining  sea! 

Salute  to  American  Flag: 

I  pledge  allegiance  to  my  flag,  and  to  the  Republic  for 
which  it  stands;  one  nation  indivisible,  with  liberty  and 
justice  for  all. 

O,  beautiful  for  pilgrim  feet 

Whose  stern,  impassioned  stress 

A  thoroughfare  for  freedom  beat 

Across  the  wilderness! 

America!     America! 

God  mend  thine  every  flaw, 

Confirm  thy  soul  in  self-control, 

Thy  liberty  in  law! 

Salute  to  Christian  Flag: 

I  pledge  allegiance  to  my  flag  and  to  the  Kingdom  for  which 
it  stands — one  brotherhood  uniting  all  in  service  and  love. 

0,  beautiful  for  patriot's  dream 

That  sees  beyond  the  years 

Thine  alabaster  cities  gleam 

Undimmed  by  human  tears! 

America!    America! 

God  shed  His  grace  on  thee 

And  crown  thy  good  with  brotherhood 

From  sea  to  shining  sea! 

57 


Statement  of  requirements  which  have  been  fulfilled.  Each 
girl  in  turn  presents  briefly  the  requirements  which  she  has 

fulfilled. 

Girl  Reserve  Song 

Girl  ReservesI    Who'll  join  us? 

Eager,  glad  for  service, 

Sisters,  daughters,  friends  and  comrades, 

Well  be  true 

Reaching  toward  the  highest, 

Honor,  Truth  and  Beauty 

Find  and  give  the  best  in  life, 

The  world  needs  you! 
Talk  by  the  Adviser  or  Committee  Chairman. 

Closing  Hymn "Hymn  of  Lights" 

Sung  as  prayer 
Prayer  by  the  Adviser 

Presentation  of  rings  to  Girl  Reserves  who  have  won  them. 
Producing  Notes: 

Place  a  small  table  (round,  if  possible)  in  the  centre  or  at 
one  end  of  the  Club  room.  Decorate  the  table  with  club  colors, 
using  them  to  form  a  triangle  or  con-centric  circles.  For  the 
centre  of  the  triangle  or  circles  place  a  bouquet  of  flowers. 
These  flowers  may  be  seasonal  ones  or  they  may  be  the  corps 
or  club  flowers.  Fasten  attractive  place  cards  to  one  end  of 
ribbon  streamers  ;  attach  the  'Girl  Reserve  ring  and  the  other 
end  of  the  ribbons  to  the  stems  of  the  flowers. 

If  this  ceremony  is  used  only  when  a  considerable  number 
of  Girl  Reserves  are  receiving  their  rings,  the  remainder  of  the 
corps  or  club  members  become  an  audience.  If  only  one  or  two 
girls  are  being  awarded  rings,  the  corps  or  club  as  a  wholo 
would  participate  in  the  ceremony.  The  talk  by  the  adviser  or 
the  chairman  should  be  brief  and  very  probably  symbolism 
would  have  some  place  in  it.  Since  the  Girl  Reserve  ring 
represents  real  achievement,  it  is  desirable  that  its  significance 
as  a  measure  of  growth  should  be  stressed. 

If  this  ceremony  is  being  used  by  older  high  school  girls, 


the  talk  might  be  made  by  one  of  the  club  members.  The  pur- 
pose of  the  High  School  club  could  be  incorporated  in  the  cere- 
mony, possibly  at  the  pojnt  where  a  girl  reports  how  she  has 
won  the  ring. 

THE  UNIFYING  OF  GIRL  RESERVE  WORK  IN  A  COMMUNITY 

It  is  advisable  that  all  work  with  Girl  Reserve  groups  in 
a  community  be  unified  and  correlated  so  that  among  all  club 
members  there  is  a  consciousness  of  belonging  to  a  movement 
of  younger  girls  and  not  merely  to  an  isolated  group.  This 
may  be  accomplished  through  a  Girl  Reserve  Council  for  Com- 
munity Wide  Activities.  Such  a  council  should  include: 

One  girl  and  one  adviser  from  every  ten  corps  of  grade 
school  Girl  Reserves. 

One  girl  and  one  adviser  from  each  high  school  club. 

One  girl  and  one  adviser  from  each  younger  girl  in  busi- 
ness and  industry  group. 

The  girls7  work  secretary  and  the  chairman  of  girls'  work 
committee  should  be  ex-officio  member  of  the  Council. 

The  girl  representatives  on  this  Council  should  be  elected  in 
whatever  way  seems  best  to  the  local  units.  Such  a  Council 
should  have  a  girl  chairman  and  a  secretary  elected  from  and 
by  the  group.  It  should  meet  at  least  three  times  a  year.  Its 
purpose  is  to  create  a  sense  of  fellowship  among  all  Girl  Re- 
serves of  the  community,  and  to  make  the  community  aware  of 
the  existence  of  this  group  of  younger  girls  and  of  the  char- 
acter of  their  activities  as  self-governing  units. 

Plans  for  at  least  two  meetings  of  all  Girl  Reserves,  during 
a  year,  should  be  considered  by  this  Council.  A  community- 
wide  piece  of  service  work,  a  pageant,  World  Fellowship  work, 
standards  of  health,  dress,  school  work  and  recreation  should 
all  be  discussed  and  planned  for  by  this  council.  Many  of  these 
plans  will  be  carried  out  in  the  different  clubs  as  integral  parts 
of  their  programs,  but  some  of  them  are  so  important  that 
they  could  easily  be  chosen  as  the  programs  for  the  two  mass 
meetings. 

59 


Section  III. 


THE  ORGANIZATION  OF  GROUPS  OF  GIRLS 
CHAPTER  I. 

PRINCIPLES  OF   ORGANIZATION 

OUCCESSFUL  activities  with  girls  rest  upon  a  foundation 
O  of  organization,  formal  or  informal.  Each  form  has  the 
same  object,  namely,  the  development  of  individual  initiative 
through  self-government  and  the  creating  of  a  group  con- 
sciousness through  group  activities.  The  method  of  procedure 
differs  in  some  respects;  groups  of  girls,  calling  themselves 
clubs,  corps  or  companies,  as  in  the  Girl  Reserve  Movement, 
may  use  either  formal  or  informal  organization.  Formal  or- 
ganization consists  of  the  selection  of  officers,  committees,  such 
as  membership,  program,  social  and  service,  the  drafting  of  a 
constitution  and  the  use  of  a  regular  order  of  business. 

Informal  organization  consists  of  the  appointment  of  a 
chairman  who  presides  at  the  meetings  of  the  group.  She  may 
be  elected  by  the  girls  from  among  their  number  at  the  time 
of  each  meeting  or  she  may  serve  for  a  longer  time.  It  is 
necesessary  also  to  have  some  committees  appointed  to  carry  out 
the  activities  in  which  the  group  may  be  interested.  The  chair- 
man and  members  of  these  committees  serve  just  as  long  as  it 
takes  to  do  their  particular  task. 

Such  organization  is  often  advisable  for  a  type  of  girl  who 
is  not  primarily  appealed  to  by  formal  organization — often 
younger  girls  in  business  and  industry — for  it  is  more  flexible. 

61 


It  requires  as  much  or  even  more  careful  management  than 
does  a  formal  organization,  for  its  purpose  is  the  same  as  that 
of  a  formal  organization,  the  development  of  responsibility  on 
the  part  of  the  girls  themselves,  and  this  is  more  difficult  to 
achieve  when  the  group  is  not  so  closely  organized.  It  is  often 
possible  to  have  informal  organization  lead  to  formal  organiza- 
tion after  several  months  of  work. 

/The  first  few  meetings  of  any  group  of  girls  are  of  great 
importance,  for  it  is  through  them  that  the  girls  gain  their 
impressions  of  what  such  group  work?  can  mean.  For  these 
the  adviser  should  make  the  most  definite  kind  of  preparation. 

No  rule  for  the  exact  method  of  dealing  with  groups  of 
girls  can  be  given;  it  depends  upon  the  personnel  of  the  group 
and  the  personality  of  the  leader.  It  is  not  always  possible  to 
accomplish  much  organization  in  the  course  of  the  first  few 
meetings,  but  surely  within  five  or  six  meetings  the  following 
things  should  result: 

A.  A  short  interesting  talk  on  what  can  be  accomplished  by  a 
group  of  girls  working  together.     In  the  informal  talk  on 
what  a  club  is,  emphasis  should  be  placed  on  the  fact  that 
it  is  self-governing,  that  the  girls  are  responsible  through 
their  own  treasuries  for  club  expenses,  and  that  the  program 
of  the  club  is  in  the  hands  of  the  club  members.     It  is  a 
good  plan  to  -tell  concrete  stories  of  other  clubs,  describing 
club  parties  and  "stunts"  so  the  girls  will  feel  that  in  joining 
a  club  they  are  coming  in  touch  with  a  country-wide  move- 
ment  in   which    many    other    girls    are    participating.      A 
definite  description  of  a  club  program  which  includes  class 
work  is  a  good  thing  to  give.    Pictures  of  other  club  girls, 
convention  pictures  and  banners,  printed  club  programs,  sam- 
ples of  club  yells  and  songs,  all  stimulate  interest. 

B.  Discussion  of  whether  the  girls  wish  to  accomplish  these 
things  through  a  permanent  organization;  if  they  do,  the 
appointment  of  some  such  committee  as  the  following  is 
advisable: 

62 


(a)  A   committee   to   draw   up   a   very  simple  constitution 
(see    page    66).      This    committee    should    consist    of 
three  or  five  girls  who  should  be  nominated  by  the  girls 
and  voted  upon  by  all.     Care  should  be  taken  that  if 
the  group  represents  several  different  cliques  of  girls, 
each  as  far  as  possible  should  be  represented  on  this 
committee.     A   tactful    remark   to    this    effect   can   be 
made  by  the  adviser  presiding-  so  that  the  girls  will 
bear  this    in   mind    in   their   nominations.     "This   com- 
mittee  should   understand   that  it   must   meet   several 
times  with  the  adviser  before  the   next  club  meeting 
to  draw  up  the  club  constitution.    Care  should  be  taken 
that  the  time  for  this  committee  meeting  is  arranged 
and   clearly  understood   by  all.     The  girls  should  not 
leave    the   meeting    without    arranging   for    it,    for    a 
definite  appointment  will  save  much  time  and  trouble. 
Suggested  constitutions  may  be  shown  at  this  meeting, 
but  should  never  be  adopted  "wholesale"  by  the  com- 
mittee, for  the  girls  need  to  realize  that  they  are  con- 
tributing something  to  the  club  through  the  constitu- 
tion which  they  write.    Special  emphasis  should  be  put 
upon  the  wording  of  the  high  school  club  purpose,  which 
should  be  in  the  words  of  the  girls. 

(b)  A  committee  to  nominate  officers:    It  is  sometimes  wise 
to  have  nominations  made  directly  from  the  floor.     In 
choosing   the   nominating   committee,   the   girls   should 
be  warned  to  put  on  it  representatives  of  all  cliques, 
and  not  to  choose  girls  whom  they  eventually  want  for 
officers,  but  girls  who  will  make  a  wise  choice  of  other 
girls  for  officers. 

C.  Discussion  of  club  name  and  colors. 

D.  Discussion  of  club  dues.    -Care  should  exercised  that  the  club 
dues  are  not  excessive. 

E.  At  the  meeting  following  their  appointment,  the  committees 
should  report.    The  chairman  of  the  constitution  committee 
should  submit  the  suggested  constitution  and  it  should  be 

63 


voted  upon.  The  nominating:  committee  should  also  report 
and  voting*  should  follow  at  once.  Voting'  by  ballot  is  far 
more  acceptable  than  voting  by  acclamation.  After  the 
tellers  have  been  appointed  and  are  counting  the  ballots 
there  is  opportunity  to  teach  the  girls  a  cheer  or  a  short 
snappy  song  to  be  sung*  to  the  incoming  officers.  Such  fun 
results  in  esprit  de  corps. 

P.  Discussion  of  what  the  club  is|  going  to  do.  This  might 
result  in  the  election  of  a  program  committee  and  a  com- 
mittee to  plan  the  social  affairs;  also  the  membership  and 
service  committee  chairman  may  be  appointed.  An  adviser 
should  plan  to  meet  with  all  the  officers  and  committee 
members  to  explain  their  duties.  The  club  secretary  should 
be  told  of  the  importance  of  keeping  her  minutes  up  to 
date  in  a  regular  book,  not  on  loose  sheets  of  paper.  The 
form  in  which  minutes  are  usually  kept  should  be  explained, 
and  also  the  value  of  writing  only  on  the  one  side  of  the 
page  and  of  numbering  the  pages.  An  example  of  club 
minutes  may  be  found  in  the  Primer  of  Parliamentary  Law 
(The  Womans  Press,  600  Lexington  Avenue,  New 
York  City,  10  cents).  If  this  is  shown  to  a  girl,  she  usually 
has  a  different  feeling  about  her  work  as  secretary,  for 
with  a  definite  example  before  her,  any  feeling  of  hesitancy 
about  her  work  vanishes  and  she  knows  how  to  begin.  In 
the  same  way  the  treasurer  should  be  shown  a  simple  system 
of  accounting  and  told  that  as  soon  as  possible  club  funds 
should  be  put  in  a  bank  and  club  bills  paid  by  check. 

The  vice-president  should  assist  the  president  in  every 
way.  She  assumes  the  duties  of  the  president  in  case  the 
latter  is  ill,  or  otherwise  unable  to  carry  on  the  duties  of 
the  office  and  may  be  made  the  chairman  of  the  membership 
committee. 

The  president  should  call  the  meetings  to  order  at  the 
appointed  time.  'She  should  preside  at  all  meetings  of  the 
organization.  The  president  should  rise  when  putting  a 

64 


question  to  vote;  otherwise  she  remains  seated.  When  the 
president's  vote  would  have  an  effect  on  the  outcome  of  a 
motion,  or  when  the  vote  is  by  ballot,  she  may  vote. 

G.  Necessary  Committees:  The  following  committees  are 
necessary  for  good  club  work:  (a)  Membership,  (b)  Pro- 
gram, (c)  Social,  (d)  Service.  Five  is  a  good  number  for 
the  membership  of  each  of  these  committees  with  the  excep- 
tion of  the  social  committee,  which  should  have  a  member- 
ship of  seven.  When  the  membership  of  the  club  is  small, 
the  adviser  should  use  her  own  judgment  In  determining  the 
number  of  girls  necessary  to  carry  out  successfully  the 
work  of  each  committee.  In  the  beginning  of  organized 
club  work  it  is  well  to  have  these  committees  serve  for  only 
three  to  six  months;  this  gives  opportunity  for  more  girls 
to  serve  and  gives  the  adviser  greater  chance  to  judge  the 
latent  capacities  of  the  girls.  On  the  social  committee  the 
chairman  should  serve  six  months.  The  other  members 
change  every  three  months  so  that  all  girls  have  an  oppor- 
tunity for  committee  responsibility.  Another  committee 
often  found  necessary  is  the  one  on  "hiking."  The  sug- 
gestions as  to  number  of  members  and  term  of  service, 
given  in  regard  to  other  committees  apply  also  to  this  com- 
mittee. 

H.  Committee  Duties:  The  program  committee  should  be  re- 
sponsible for  planning  the  year's  work  of  the  club.  The 
meetings  which  it  plans  should  draw  the  girls  together 
through  their  mutual  interests.  These  meetings  should  be 
varied;  some  should  be  educational,  some  of  them  should  be 
led  by  outside  speakers,  and,  of  course,  the  social  and  service 
committees  will  be  in  charge  of  some  others  of  them. 

The  membership  committee  of  any  club  should  be  responsi- 
ble for  promoting  a  spirit  of  friendliness  among  the  girls 
in  the  club;  it  should  also  help  to  interpret  real  friendliness 
to  the  girls  of  the  community.  This  committee  should  invite 
new  girls  to  join  the  club,  not  insisting  that  they  should  be 

65 


members,  but  showing  them  how  much  a  girl  receives  from 
membership  in  such  a  group.  The  membership  committee 
should  help  with  publicity  and  enlist  the  girls  in  greater 
loyalty  to  the  Association,  their  respective  Sunday-schools 
and  churches.  If  the  club  desires  some  kind  of  recognition 
service  to  mark  membership  in  it,  this  committee  should 
prepare  this  service  in  consultation  with  the  club  adviser. 

The  social  committee  should  be  responsible  for  the  good 
times  of  the  club,  both  indoors  and  out.  It,  too,  should 
help  to  promote  friendliness  in  the  school  and  the  com- 
munity. The  committee  members  should  plan  the  good 
times  for  several  months  ahead.  'Sometimes  it  is  advisable 
to  have  a  special  group  of  girls  to  help  with  the  "hikes" 
since  they  need  to  be  very  carefully  planned  if  they  are  to 
be  successful. 

The  service  committee  should  provide  various  kinds  of 
service  to  be  done  by  the  club  members.  There  are  many 
kinds  of  service;  for  the  school,  the  church,  for  charity 
organizations,  for  children's  wards  in  hospitals,  and  for 
mission  schools  both  at  home  and  abroad. 

Each  of  these  committees  should  meet  at  least  once  a 
month  to  plan  its  work.  The  club  adviser  meets  with  each 
committee. 

The  following  outline  of  a  very  simple  club  constitution  is 
suggested  as  a  guide  for  groups  of  grade  school  girls  or  younger 
girls  in  business  and  industry.  See  page  95,  for  the  outline 
of  a  constitution  for  High  School  Clubs  of  the  Girl  Reserves. 

Article  I.    Name  and  Purpose. 

Section  1.  The  name  of  this  club  shall  be  the — 

Club  of  the  . 

•Section  2.  The  purpose  of  this  club  shall  be  to  unite  its 
members  in  a  spirit  of  friendliness  and  service,  to  win  other 
girls  to  its  membership,  and  to  stand  for  the  best  things  at 
home,  in  school,  at  work  and  in  church  and  community. 

66 


Article  II.    Membership. 

Section  1.  Any  may  become  a  mem- 
ber of  this  club. 

Section  2.   The  dues  shall  be  (whatever  amount  the 

club  decides — fifty  cents   is  usual),  payable  in  whatever  way 
the  club  decides  is  best. 

Article  III.     Officers. 

Section  1.  The  officers  of  this  club  shall  be  a  president,  a 
vice-president,  a  secretary  and  a  treasurer. 

'Section  2.  The  duty  of  the  president  shall  be  to  preside  at 
all  meetings  of  the  club,  to  appoint  all  standing  committees, 
subject  to  the  approval  of  the  club  and  to  make  such  changes 
in  the  personnel  of  these  committees  as  may  be  required  for 
good  work. 

The  duty  of  the  vice-president  shall  be  to  perform  all  the 
duties  of  the  president  in  the  absence  of  the  president. 

The  duty  of  the  secretary  shall  be  to  keep  full  minutes  of 
all  meetings  and  an  accurate  record  of  attendance. 

The  duty  of  the  treasurer  shall  be  to  have  charge  of  all 
club  funds  and  to  give  a  monthly  report  to  the  club. 

Article ,  IV.     Committees. 

Section  1.  Committees  of  this  club  shall  be  Membership, 
Program,  Service  and  Social.  Other  names  may  be  given  to 
these  committees,  but  the  work  covered  should  be  that  sug- 
gested by  these  names.  The  first  three  shall  be  standing  com- 
mittees for  the  year.  The  social  committee  shall  be  changed 
every  three  months.* 

^Section  2.  The  club  leader  shall  be  ex-officio  a  'member  of 
all  committees. 


*  This  is  a  general  suggestion  and  some  club  work,  as  it  develops,  may 
demand  a  more  permanent  committee  so  that  strong:  standards  of  work  may 
be  built. 

67 


Article  V.    Meetings. 
Section  1.  The  club  shall  hold  weekly  meetings  on 


evenings  at o'clock,  or  afternoons  at 


o'clock.    The  club  shall  hold  a  business  meeting  each  month. 

Section  2.  Two-thirds  of  the  club  members  shall  constitute  a 
quorum. 

Article  VI.     Amendments. 

This  constitution  may  be  amended  at  any  regular  business 
meeting  of  the  club. 

CHAPTER   II. 

THE    ORGANIZATION   OP   GIRL   RESERVE    CORPS   AMONG    GRADE 
SCHOOL   GIRLS 

I.  Essential  questions  to  be  considered  in  organizing  Grade 
School  Corps. 

A.  How  many  grade  schools  are  there  in  the  community? 
Where  are  they  located?  Do  the  locations  of  these 
schools  make  work  at  the  Association  building  pos- 
sible? 

B.  What  might  be  the  limitations  upon  the  work  if  it 
is  carried  on  in  the  school  buildings? 

C.  What  is  the  total  number  of  girls  in  the  seventh  and 

eighth  grades? 

D.  'Is  the  number  of  grade  school  girls  leaving  school 

to  enter  business  each  year  very  large? 

E.  Are  there  school  representatives  doing  placement  or 
vocational  guidance  work  with  grade  school  girls? 

F.  Are  the  churches  of  the  community  doing  work  with 

grade  school  girls?  'How  can  duplication  of  effort 
be  avoided  and  cooperation  become  an  established 
fact? 

G.  How  many  demands  upon  the  girl's  time  are  being 

made  by  the  school  and  its  organizations — such  as 

68 


glee  clubSji  athletic  teams,  and  the  usual  pageants 
and  demonstrations  of  domestic  arts  training  which 
occur  in  the  usual  school  year?  Is  her  loyalty  being 
sought  by  many  groups  with  partially  developed 
programs  of  activities,  such  as  Junior  Ked  Cross, 
Health  and  Thrift  Campaigns  ? 

H.  How  large  a  place  do  commercialized  amusements 
hold  in  the  life  of  the  grade  school  girl? 

I.  What  are  the  school  regulations  in  regard  to  out- 
side organizations  being  allowed  to  approach  the 
girls  at  school,  or  to  use  the  school  buildings  as 
places  for  meetings? 

J.  What  are  the  state  laws  or  local  regulations  relative 
to  the  use  of  the  Bible  in  the  public  schools  and  the 
possibility  of  religious  instruction? 

K.  What  is  the  plan  whereby  mothers  of  grade  school 
girls  will  be  reached  so  that  they  will  understand 
the  corps  work  about  to  be  organized? 

L.  What  is  the  biggest  contribution  that  the  Young 
Women's  Christian  Association  can  make  to  the  life 
of  the  grade  school  girls  in  the  community? 

M.  How  much  work  among  grade  school  girls  is  the 
girls'  work  department  justified  in  undertaking? 
How  shall  the  girls''  work  committee  determine  where 
to  begin?  Does  the  matter  of  space  enter  into  the 
planning?  What  kind  of  mass  work  (the  bringing 
of  several  groups  to  a  common  center)  is  being 
planned  ? 

IT.  The  unit  in  grade  school  organization  is  the  corps,  com- 
posed of  ten  to  twenty  girls  under  the  direction  of  the 
corps  adviser. 

III.  Membership: 

Since  all   Girl  Reserves  must  be  twelve  years  old,  the 
grade  school  corps  usually  have  as  their  members  girls 

69 


who  are  in  the  seventh  and  eighth  grades.  In  some  sec- 
tions of  the  country  the  schools  are  organized  differently, 
and  sixth  grade  girls  who  are  twelve  years  old  are 
eligible  for  membership.  Any  girl  is  eligible  to  member- 
ship who  expresses  her  desire  to  fulfil  the  purpose  of 
the  Girl  Reserve  Movement 

IV.  Advisers: 

The  corps  adviser  may  be  a  young  college  girl,  a  busi- 
ness woman  or  any  girl  or  woman  who  loves  girls  and 
is  willing  to  look  upon  this  position  of  adviser  as  a  real 
opportunity  and  not  a  mere  pastime.  (For  the  duties 
of,  and  suggestions  to,  advisers,  see  'Section  VI.) 

V.  Name: 

Each  corps  chooses  a  name.  The  choice  should  be  guided 
by  the  following  suggestions: 

A.  The  name  should  have  some  real  significance.    It  may 

be  chosen  because  of  some  historic  event  which  oc- 
curred in  the  community.  It  might  be  the  name  of 
some  woman  who  has  achieved  greatness  through 
her  service  to  the  nation  or  the  worldy  or  it  may  be 
the  name  of  the  school. 

B.  It  should  not  be  a  Greek  letter  name. 

VI  Purpose: 

"To  -find  and  give  the  best."    A  grade  school  girl  accepts 
the  slogan,  "To  face  life  squarely,"  the  purpose  and  the 
code.     The  following  interpretation  of  the  meaning  of 
'  the  code  may  be  helpful  to  grade  school  girls. 

THE  MEANING  OF  THE  CO0E 

Learning  to  say  the  code  as  it  is  printed  in  this  manual  is 
not  all  that  is  meant  when  the  requirement  is  made  that,  to  be 
initiated,  a  Girl  Reserve  must  know  the  code,  the  slogan,  and 
the  purpose.  It  means  that  every  girl  who  wishes  to  be  a 

70 


Girl  Reserve  is  accepting  as  a  part  of  her  every-day  living 
standards  of  courtesy,  fair  play,  and  willingness  to  help.  ,She 
is  loyal  to  many  friends,  not  to  one  friend  only;  she  is  willing 
to  help  her  friends  when  they  need  her. 

Purpose  means  that  one  is  guided  toward  a  goal,  just  as  a 
ball  is  directed  toward  the  basket  by  a  practised  wrist.  A 
girl  who  is  earnest  in  purpose  is  a  girl  set  straight  toward  a 
worth-while  goal.  Seeing  loveliness  both  in  people  and  things 
where  a  quick  glance  reveals  seeming  ugliness,  is  a  quality 
which  every  girl  who  is  a  true  Girl  Reserve  will  want  to  have 
in  her  life.  Merely  to  memorize  has  been  always  an  easy  thing 
for  many  girls ;  to  gain  knowledge  which  will  help  not  only  to 
play  games  well  and  to  aid  some  one  in  need,,  but  to  understand 
•what  power  her  life  will  have  if  she  is  reverent  to  God  through 
clean  thoughts  and  pure  living  is  a  victory  over  herself  which 
every  girl  wants  to  win.  People  seeing  her  sincerity  and  depend - 
ableness  will  know  that  she  is  what  she  is  because  she  has  a 
standard  for  living  ;  she  is  seeking  and  finding  the  best;  she  is 
facing  life  squarely. 

VII.  Registration: 

Each  corps  shall  be  known  by  the  number  it  receives  on 
registration  at  the  Girl  Reserve  Headquarters — '300  Lex- 
ington Avenue,  New  York  City — and  by  the  name  of  the 
school.  For  example,  the  "7th  Corps  Girl  Reserves, 
McKinley  Grammar  School."  If  two  or  more  corps  are 
registered  in  one  grammar  school,  the  school  then  has 
a  Company  of  the  Girl  Reserve  Division  in  the  commun- 
ity. For  example,  "Company  B,  of  the  McKinley  Gram- 
mar School/7  composed  of  Corps  8,  9,  11,  14. 

The  company  becomes  a  part  of  the  Girl  Reserve 
Division  of  the  community,  which  is  composed  of  all 
corps,  clubs  and  companies  organized  in  the  community 
among  all  girls  between  twelve  and  eighteen,  L  e.  grade 
school,  high  school,  and  younger  girls  in  business  and 
industry. 

71 


VIII.   Dues: 

If  a  local  Association  is  carrying  forward  its  work  on  a 
fee  basis,  then  the  fifty-cent  membership  fee  of  the  Asso- 
ciation, payable  on  the  instalment  plan,  if  desired,  might 
be  charged,  this  fee  to  include  all  expenses  connected 
with  Girl  Keserve  work  except  the  cost  of  the  insignia 
and  the  Guide  for  Every  Loyal  -Blue  Triangle  Girl.  In 
other  words  if  the  'fifty  cent  fee  is  established  there 
should  be  no  special  corps  or  company  fees. 

All  membership  fees  should  be  paid  directly  by  the 
girls  either  in  full  or  in  part  to  the  chairman  of  the 
service  squad,  or  to  someone  whom  she  may  appoint 
from  her  committee.  After  the  Girl  Reserve  member- 
ship cards  have  been  signed  and  some  payment  made  by 
each  girl,  the  Scout  chairman  and  the  service  squad 
chairman  take  the  cards  and  money  to  the  membership 
secretary  of  the  Association  and  tell  her  that  these  are 
the  applications  of  the  Girl  Reserves  to  become  members 
of  the  Association.  The  secretary  lists  these  names  and 
returns  the  original  cards  to  the  Girl  Reserve  chairman. 
The  girls  should  neither  pay  fees  nor  sign  membership 
cards  at  the  desk  of  the  membership  secretary.  All  this 
is  better  done  with  these  younger  girls  through  their 
own  officers. 

IX.  Committee  Work  and  Officers: 

Committee  Work  of  the  Corps.    Each  corps  has  the  fol- 
lowing committees: 
S  cout — membership. 

Outings  and  Innings — good  times  and  hikes. 
Service  .Squad — service  work. 

The  chairmen  of  these  committees  are  elected  by  the 

girls  of  the  corps  to  serve  for  half  the  school  year.    New 

chairmen   are   elected   for   the   summer   months.     Each 

^chairman   may   appoint  two   or   more   members   of  the 

corps  to  serve  with  her  on  her  committee.    No  girl  should 

72 


be  on  more  than  one  committee  at  one  time. 

The  chairman  of  the  Scout  Committee  is  prac- 
tically the  "president"  of  the  corps.  She  is  called  the 
•Corps  Scout  and  has  the  following;  duties:  first,  she 
presides  at  the  weekly  meetings;  second^  she  is  respon- 
sible, with  the  help  of  her  committee,  for  interesting 
new  girls  and  looking  out  for  the  old  members  of  the 
corps.  One  member  of  the  Scout  Committee  is  responsi- 
ble for  Knowing  at  weekly  roll  call  why  any  of  the  corps 
members  are  absent. 

The  chairman  of  the  Outings  and  Innings  Committee 
acts  as  record  keeper  or  secretary  for  the  corps  and, 
with  her  committee,  which  consists  of  five  or  more 
members  is  responsible  for  planning  with  the  adviser 
for  good  times  and  hikes. 

The  chairman  of  the  Service  Squad  is  responsible  for 
keeping  the  record  of  the  funds  of  the  corps,  i.  e.,  acts 
as  treasurer  and  with  her  committee  and  the  adviser  sug- 
gests forms  of  service  for  the  corps. 

THE  *S.  O.  S/  OR  EXECUTIVE  COMMITTEE 

These  three  chairmen  plus  the  adviser  form  the  *S.  0.  S.J  or 
Executive  Committee,  which  discusses  and  plans  program  work 
in  general  and  refers  its  decision  to  the  corps  as  a  whole.  The 
Scout  Committee  Chairman  presides  at  the  >S.  0.  S.  meetings. 

Insignia. 

A.    General  Insignia. 

Every  grade  school  corps  chooses  its  own  color,  and  each 
girl  may  embroider  on  her  arm  band  in  Copenhagen  blue 
or  the  corps  color  two  bars,  each  two  inches  long'  and 
one-eighth  of  an  inch  wide  (see  diagram,  page  76). 
The  corps  color  is  to  be  used  at  banquets  and  parties  for 
decorative  purposes  and,  if  corps  members  desire,  a  hat- 
band of  that  color  may  be  worn. 

73 


Girls  of  grade  school  age  are  interested  in  insignia, 
in  ranks  and  in  working  for  honors.  For  this  reason  in 
the  grade  school  plan  of  organization  there  are  five 
classes  of  Girl  Keserves  for  a  girl  passing  from  one 
class  to  another  by  the  winning  of  honors. 

The  five  classes  are  the  Volunteers,  the  Fourth  Reserves, 
the  Third  Reserves,  the  Second  Reserves  and  the  First  Re- 
serves. As  soon  as  a  girl  has  passed  the  initiation  test 
(learning  of  slogan,  purpose  and  code)  and  has  won  forty 
points  from  the  list  of  honors  in  Section  IV,  she  becomes  a 
Fourth  Reserve  and  is  entitled  to  wear  a  chevron  embroid- 
ered in  Copenhagen  blue  placed  at  the  right  of  the  triangle 
on  the  arm  band.  Forty  more  points  entitle  her  to  a  second 
chevron  placed  at  the  left  of  the  triangle;  when  she  has  won 
one  hundred  and  sixty  points  and  has  four  chevrons,  two  on 
either  side  of  the  triangle,  she  is  a  First  Reserve.  (These 
chevrons  should  be  one-fourth  inch  wide  and  one  and  one- 
half  inch  from  the  point  on  either  side.  The  best  way  to 
secure  a  pattern  for  them  is  to  use  a  regular  army  chevron.) 

An  effort  should  be  made  to  have  each  girl  earn  some 
honors  from  each  of  the  four  divisions  of  the  Honor  List; 
it  would  not  make  for  balance  if  half  of  the  one  hundred 
and  sixty  points  were  Health  Points. 

B.    Special  Insignia, 

Health  Badge 

Thirty  points  from  the  Honor  List  under  Health  entitle 
a  Girl  Reserve  to  the  special  health  badge,  a  red  circle 
described  around  the  Girl  Reserve  triangle.  See  diagram, 
page  7-8. 

Knowledge  Badge 

Thirty  points  from  the  Honor  List  under  Knowledge 
entitle  a  Girl  Reserve  to  the  special  knowledge  badge,  an 
owl  placed  on  one  side  of  the  triangle.  See  diagram, 
page  7-6. 


Service  Badge 

Thirty  points  from  the  Honor  List  under  Service  en- 
title a  Girl  Reserve  to  the  service  badge,  a  blue  star 
placed  at  one  side  of  the  triangle.  See  diagram, 
page  76. 

Spirit  Badge 

Thirty  pounts  from  the  Honor  List  under  Spirit  entitle 
a  Girl  Reserve  to  the  special  Spirit  insignia,  a  Roman 
lamp  placed  above  the  triangle.  See  diagram,  page  76, 

A  Girl  Reserve  may  work  for  the  required  number  of 
points  under  the  four  headings  Health,  Knowledge,  Serv- 
ice, Spirit,  and  win  the  special  insignia.  These  special 
honors  cannot  be  won  by  grade  school  girls  until  the 
one  hundred  and  sixty  general  honors  have  been  won. 

These  insignia  may  all  be  obtained  from  The  Womans 
Press,  600  Lexington  Avenue,  New  York  'City,  upon 
presentation  of  a  certified  statement  from  the  corps  ad- 
viser that  a  girl  has  won  them. 

Girl  Reserve  Rings: 

A  grade  school  Girl  Reserve,  when  she  has  completed 
the  one  hundred  and  sixty  honors  necessary  to  secure 
her  chevrons,  may  work  for)  one  hundred  more  points 
and  win  a  Girl  Reserve  ring  and  be  callec^  a  Special  Girl 
Reserve  Aide.  For  information  regarding  the  way  to 
secure  this  ring  see  page  50. 

XL    Meetings 

Every  corps  should  meet  regularly  once  a  week  for 
one  and  one-half  to  two  hours.  Once  every  two  months 
or  oftener,  if  desired,  the  various  corps  from  the  seventh 
and  eighth  grades  may  have  a  joint  meeting.  If  it  is 
necessary  to  form  two  corps  in  one  grade,  joint  meet- 
ings may  be  held  as  often  as  desired  or  the  two  corps 
may  meet  together  for  the  opening  ceremony  and  then- 
separate  for  the  program  work. 

75 


THE  COURT  OF  AWARDS 

Girl  Reserves  who  have  passed  the  initiation  test  (learning 
the  slogan,  purpose  and  code),  and  have  won  their  first  forty 
points  or  have  qualified  as  Third,  Second,  or  First  Girl  Re- 
serves, may  appear  before  a  Court  of  Awards,  which  is  com- 
posed of  the  chairman  of  the  girls'  work  committee  in  the  As- 
sociation, the  chairman  of  their  section  of  girls'  work  (grade 
school,  higii  school  or  younger  girls  in  business  and  industry), 
the  girls'  work  secretary,  and  'any  other  members  of  the  com- 
mittee who  may  seem  necessary,  with  a  written  list  of  these 
honors.  This  Court  meets  once  a  month,,  and  has  the  right  to 
judge  a  Girl  Reserve  not  only  for  her  knowledge  of  her  honor 
points,  but  also  upon  her  spirit  of  team-work  and  faithful- 
ness. 


H        F     A 


A.    E 


YW.C.A. 


A. 

AA. 

B. 


Circle — Special  Health  Emblem. 

Corps  Bars. 

Owl — Special  Knowledge  Emblem, 

C.  Star — Special  Service  Emblem. 

D.  Roman  Lamp — Special  Spirit  Emblem. 
Fourth  Reserve  Chevron, 

Third  Reserve  Chevron. 
Second  Reserve  Chevron. 
First  Reserve  Ohevron. 


E. 
F. 
G. 
H. 


The  -Corps  Bars  may  be  omitted  if  desired. 
76 


CHAPTER   III. 

THE   ORGANIZATION   OF  A  JUNIOR  HIGH   SCHOOL   COMPANY   OB  A 
FRESHMAN  HIGH  SCHOOL   CLUB  OF   GIRL  RESERVES 

THE  junior  high  school  has  grown  up  in  democratic  Amer- 
ica as  the  last  chapter  in  the  history  of  the  struggle 
against  the  mediaeval  dual  system.5'  There  are  many  phases 
of-  this  interesting  subject  of  the  development  of  the  present- 
day  junior  high  school  which  cannot  be  treated  in  so  short  a 
space  as  this.  The  movement  is  "about  or  slightly  more  than 
a  decade  old."  Departmentalization  is  a  characteristic  of  the 
school,  and  the  division  of  work  varies  widely.  Some  junior 
high  schools  include  the  seventh,  eighth  and  ninth  grades,  some 
include  only  two  grades  and  some  only  one.  They  also  differ 
as  to  location,  some  being  grouped  with  the  grade  school,  some 
alone,  and  some  with  the  high  school.  TJh.ere  are  many  different 
forms  of  curriculum  and  in  most  cases  the  teachers  are  becom- 
ing more  and  more  highly  trained.  But  however  much  the 
schools  may  vary  in  courses  of  study,  equipment  and  faculty 
grouping,  the  following  are  some  of  the  underlying  facts  of  the 
movement  to-day. 

A.  There  has  come  to  be  more  than  the  traditional  assump- 
tion  that  the  public   schools   are  ^'merely   educative  in 
function."    They  are  becoming  protective  or  conserving 
factors,  and  they  are  attempting  to  lengthen  the  school 
careers  through  helping  the  individual  to  make  better 
adjustments  to  individual  differences.    In  the  school  this 
is  called  educational  guidance.    Between  school  and  work 
this  is  called  vocational  guidance. 

B.  For  many  years  there  was  a  growing  emphasis  upon-  the 
necessity  to   accept  the   seventh  grade-  as   the  natural 
turning  point  in  the  child's  life,  for  the  age  of  adoles- 
cence demands  new  methods  and  wiser  direction, 

C.  Eeports   of   various    committees    in   the   "late  nineties" 
showed  an  increasing  conviction  that  it  was  difficult  to 

77 


relate  a  secondary  education  of  four  years  to  the  ele- 
mentary school  subjects  and  methods. 

D.  Moreover  it  came  to  be  accepted  that  the  scientific  prin- 
ciple of  individual  differences  must  be  recognized;  the 
concept  of  equality  was  interpreted  to  mean  more  than 
mere  uniformity.    Pupils  were  leaving  schools — are  leav- 
ing them  still — because  they  found  in  industry  and  busi- 
ness concessions  to  their  individual  needs. 

E.  Also  the  principle  of  economy  became  a  factor. 

It  has  been  stated  that  the  peculiar  functions  of  the  junior 
high  school  are  as  follows: 

I.  Realizing  a  democratic  school  system  through 

a.  Ketention  of  pupils. 

b.  Economy  of  time. 

c.  Recognition  of  individual  differences. 

d.  Exploration  for  guidance. 

e.  Vocational  education. 

II.  Recognizing  the  nature  of  the  child. 

III.  Providing  conditions  for  better  teaching. 

IV.  Securing  better  scholarship. 

V.  Improving  the  "disciplinary  situation  and  socializing 
opportunities." 

Because  there  are  so  many  variations  in  the  practice  of 
junior  high  school  education  in  this  country  to-day,  it  is  safe 
only  to  say  that  there  are  at  least  these  two  points  of  agree- 
ment: (a)  specialization  on  the  part  of  teachers  so  that  the 
work  is  departmentalized  and  assigned  to  the  various  faculty 
members,  and  (b)  the  manner  or  advancement  of  pupils  (pro- 
motion by  subject)  "curricula  are  widely  different,  standards 
in  the  selection  of  teachers  vary  greatly  from  community  to 
community,  admission  requirements,  methods,  advisory  sys- 
tems, disciplinary  and  social  organization  and  buildings  and 
equipment  range  through  variation  upon  variation.  In  fact  the 

78 


junior  high  school  is  hardly  the  same  thing  in  any  two  com- 
munities." * 

Sjich  facts  as  these  reveal  clearly  to  the  prospective  advisers 
of  junior  high  school  girls  some  of  the  problems  which  they 
face  with  this  particular  group  of  girls. 

In  organizing  a  junior  high  school  or  in  forming  a  fresh- 
man girls*  club,  it  must  be  remembered  that  the  girls  are 
brought  in  many  instances  from  different  sections,  from  varied 
environments,  all  new  to  their  surroundings  and  needing  some- 
thing to  give  them  a  group  consciousness  and  esprit  de  corps. 

To  meet  this  need  the  Girl  Reserves  offers  a  loose  form  of 
organization  which  will  provide  a  constructive  outlet  for  the 
superabundant  energy  of  the  group  through  the  management 
by  the  girls  themselves  of  manifold  activities  in  which  they 
must  be  interested  and  which  should  be  related  to  school  life. 

I.  Essential  points  to  be  considered  in  organizing  junior  high 

school  girls  or  freshman  girls  in  a  large  high  school: 

A.  Is  the  junior  high  school  helping  to  solve  the  difficulty 
of  "keeping*  girls  in  school"  beyond  the  grammar  grades  ? 

B.  How  large  is  the  proportion  of  girls  who  leave  junior 
high  school,  during  the  years  included  in  its  curriculum? 

C.  Is  there  a  dean  of  girls  in  the  junior  high  school;  what 
is  her  relationship   to  the  girls.     Does  she  plan  social 
activities  for  them? 

There  are  many  of  the  essential  points  mentioned  in 
the  organization  of  grade  school  into  Girl  Reserve  corps 
which  should  be  considered  in  planning  for  the  organiza- 
tion of  junior  high  school  groups.  See  page  68. 

II.  The  Unit  of  Organization. 

The  emphasis  in  the  formation  of  a  freshman  club  or 
junior  high  school  company  wants  to  be  not  so  much 
upon  the  corps  but  upon  the  larger  unit,  the  company.  " 


*Staternent  regarding:  junior  high  schools  is  based  upon  "The  Evolution 
of  a  Democratic  School  System,"  Charles  Hubbard  Judd  and  "The  Junior 
High  School"  by  L.  V.  Koos. 

79 


To  make  possible  the  smaller  unit  of  girls  for  pur- 
poses of  discussion,  for  certain  kinds  of  service  work, 
and  for  individual  work  along  certain  lines,  such  as  voca- 
tional worky  the  company  should  be  divided  into  corps 
composed  of  ten  to  fifteen  girls.  This  division  should  be 
alphabetical  or  by  lot  if  large  numbers  of  girls  are  in- 
volved, to  avoid  cliques,  and  if  girls  understand  that  the 
division  is  purely  for  efficiency  in  handling  the  group 
and  not  for  real  organization  no  objections  can  be  made. 
Each  corps  elects  from  its  members  a  corps  leader  who  is 
responsible  for  keeping  in  touch  with  corps  members, 
answering  at  roll  call  for  corps  members,  and  represent- 
ing the  corps  on  the  «,S.  0.  S." 

The  corps  in  the  freshman  company  of  Girl  Reserves 
do  not  choose  corps  colors  or  have  committees.  The  entire 
company  has  a  company  color,  flower  and  the  three  regu- 
lar committees  for  the  entire  company,  and  in  this  way 
the  needed  emphasis  is  upon  the  group  as  a  whole. 

III.  Membership. 

Any  girl  is  eligible  to  membership  who  expresses  her 
desire  to  fulfil  the  company  code  and  the  regular  Girl 
Eeserve  Code, 

IV.  Advisers. 

Each  company  should  have  one  or  more  advisers;  the 
adviser  should  be  a  college  girl  or  a  young  woman  in  the 
community  who  loves  girls  and  who  expects  to  find  in 
her  work  with  these  girls  a  real  opportunity,  not  a  mere 
pastime.  In  many  junior  high  schools,  the  size  of  the 
company;  which  is  organized  may  make  it  necessary  to 
have  several  advisers  and  in  such  case,  it  is  desirable 
to  have  some  of  these  advisers  members  of  the  junior 
high  school  faculty,  since  the  activities  of  .the  company 
are  so  closely  related  to  the  school. 

80 


Some  clubs  of  freshman  girls  may  find  it  desirable 
to  have  the  same  system  of  committee  work  as  the  high 
school  club  has,  and  therefore  it  will  be  necessary  to  have 
at  least  four  advisers,  one  of  whom  will  consult  with  each 
of  the  four  committees. 

V.  Name. 

Each  company  chooses  a  name.     Choice  should  be  guided  by 
the  following  suggestions: 

A.  The  name  should  have  some  real  significance.    It  may  be 
chosen   because   of  some  historic  event  which  occurred 
in  the  community.    It  may  be  the  name  of  some  woman 
who  has  achieved  greatness  through  her  service  to  the 
nation  or  the  world. 

B.  It  should  not  be  a  Greek  letter  name. 

VI.  Purpose. 

The  company  draws  up  its  company  code,  which  must 
be  learned  by  every  girl  in  addition  to  the  regular  Girl 
Keserve  code,   slogan,  and  purpose,  before  she   can  be 
initiated, 
VIL  Registration. 

Upon  receipt  at  headquarters  of  this  code,  which 
should  be  short  and  written  in  the  form  of  a  purpose,  for 
that  is  what  it  is,  the  company  receives  its  registra- 
tion number  and  the  right  to  have  Girl  Reserve  insig- 
nia and  other  Girl  Reserve  privileges. 

VIII.  Dues. 

See  section  on  Dues  under  Organization  of  Girl  Ke- 
serve Corps  among  Grade  School  Girls. 

IX.  'Committee  Work  and  Officers  of  the  Company 

Each  company  has  the  following  committees: 
Scout — Membership. 

Outings  and  Innings — good  times  and  hikes. 
Service  Squad — iService  work. 

The  chairmen  of  these  committees  are  elected  by  the 
girls  of  the  company;  they  may  serve  for  half  "the  school 

81 


year  or  for  the  full  year,  according  to  the  needs  of  the 
group.  Each  chairman  may  appoint  four  or  more  mem- 
bers of  the  company  to  serve  on  her  committee.  It 
seems  desirable  that  no  girl  should  serve  on  more  than 
one  committee  at  one  time. 

The  duties  of  the  chairmen  or  officers  are  the  same 
as  the  ones  outlined  for  the  chairmen  or  officers  of  the 
grade  school  corps  (see  page  73). 

The  "S.  0.  S."  or  Executive  Committee. 

The  "-S.  0.  >S."  consists  of  the  chairmen  of  the  three 
committees,  the  Scout,  Outings  and  Innings  and  Service 
Squad,  plus  the  corps  leaders  of  as  many  corps  as  there 
are  in  the  company,  plus  a  member  of  the  high  school 
faculty,  if  desired,  plus  the  company  adviser,  who  should 
be  a  young  college  woman. 

The  chairman  of  the  "S.  0.  S."  is  the  Scout  Commit- 
tee chairman.  She  presides  at  all  meetings  of  the 
"S.  0.  S." 

The  duties  of  the  "<S.  0.  $.,"  which  should  meet  regu- 
larly once  a  month,  are: 

(1)  To  consider  the  general  program  and  work  of  the  Girl 
Reserve  Company  and  to  see  that  this  work  supplements 
and  does  not  overlap  other  school  activities. 

(2)  To  discuss  school  standards  and  needs  and  see  how  the 
Girl  Reserve  Company  can  be  an  effective  force  in  up- 
holding and  making  these. 

X.  A.  General  Insignia. 

The  insignia  of  the  junior  high  school  Girl  Reserves 
or  of  the  freshman  Girl  Reserves  is  the  regular  arm 
band  with  the  Copenhagen  blue  triangle,  in  the  center 
of  which  are  the  letters  G.  R.  Every  high  school  Girl 
Reserve  outlines  this  triangle  with  tan  floss. 

If  desired,  the  corps  bars,  two  by  one-eighth  inches, 
may  be  embroidered  in  Copenhagen  blue  on  the  arm 

82 


band  at  eacl|   side  of  the  triangle.     (See  the  -diagram 
on  page  76.) 

In    general    it   is    not   best    to    try   to    use   the    one 
hundred  and  sixty  point  honor  system  in  work  for  fresh- 
man high  school  girls. 
B.  Special  Insignia. 

If  any  girl  in  the  freshman  or  junior  high  school 
company  wishes,  she  may  work  for  the  special  honors 
under  Health,  Knowledge,  Service,  and  Spirit,  and  re- 
ceive the  special  insignia  to  be  placed  upon  her  arm 
band.  (See  Insignia,  Grade  School  Corps,  page  74.) 

(Special   Girl    Reserve   rings   may  be   awarded  to   the 
girls  when  they  have  fulfilled  the  requirements  stated  on 
page  50  of  this  Manual, 
XI.  Meetings: 

There  should  be  regular  weekly  meetings  of  the  com- 
pany or  club. 

CHAPTER  IV. 

THE  ORGANIZATION  OF  GIRL  RESERVE   HIGH  SCHOOL  CLUBS 

I.  Essential    points    to    be    considered    in    organizing    high 
school  clubs: 

A.  How  many  high  schools  are  there  in  the  community? 
Where  are  they  located? 

B.  What  is  the   total   number  of  girls   in   all   the  high 
schools?     What   is   the    total   number  in   each   high 
s'chool?     What  is  the  total  number  of  girls  in  each 
class  in  each  high  school? 

C.  What  proportion  of  girls  last  year  left  to  enter  busi- 
ness  at  the   end   of   the  freshman   year;    sophomore 
year;  junior  year? 

D.  Are  more  girls  leaving  this  year  because  of  economic 
readjustments  due  to  the  war? 

83 


E.  Have  yon  a  dean  of  girls  in  your  high  schools?     If 
so,  what  does  her  position  include? 

F.  What  vocational  work   is   done  in  the  high   schools? 
Is  there  any  vocational  guidance  work  done  through 
the  dean  of  girls  or  some  such  person  on  the  faculty? 

<G.  How  many  school  societies  and  organizations  are  there 
in  your  high  school  for  girls?  How  many  demands 
are  made  upon  the  high  school  girl's  time  by  societies, 
churches  and  clubs  in  the  community? 

H.  Is  there  a  council  for  older  boys  and  girls,  organized 
by  the  Sunday-schools  of  the  community?  If  so,  what 
relation  may  a  high  school  club  of  the  Young  Women's 
Christian  Association  have  to  it? 

I.  What  is  the  biggest  contribution  that  the  Young- 
Women's  'Christian  Association  can  make  to  the  life 
of  the  high  school  in  the  community?  Through  what 
kind  of  work  can  this  best  be  effected,  i,  e.,  what  kind 
of  a  club  or  what  group  work  if  any  is  needed  among 
*  the  high  school  girls  ? 

J.  What  are  the  school  regulations  in  regard  to  student 
activities  and  organizations? 

K.  What  are1  the  state  laws  and  ordinances  concerning 
the  use  of  public  school  buildings,  etc? 

L.  What  are  the  state  laws  or  local  regulations  relating 
to  the  use  of  the  Bible  in  the  public  schools  and  the 
possibility  of  religious  instruction? 
II.  'The  unit  in  high  school  organization  is  the  club.     The 

size  of  the  club  may  range  from  a  small  number  of  girls 

in  a  small  high  school  to   several  hundred   girls   in  a 

large  school. 
III.  Membership: 

Membership  in  the  club  is  open  to  any  girl  in  the  high 

school.     In  some  instances  there  may  be  girls  of  high 

school  age  who  are  staying  at  home  and  yet  they  would 

like  to  become  members.    The  local  girls'  work  secretary 

should  make  the  necessary  adjustments. 

84 


IV.    Advisers: 

In  a  club  which  is  part  of  a  city,  town  and  county 
Association,  club  advisers  should  be  chosen  from 
among  mothers,  college  girls,  and  young  married 
women.  The  ideal  number  of  advisers  is  four,  one 
of  whom  would  serve  as  adviser  to  the  program  com- 
mittee and  therefore  to  the  whole  club,  and  the 
others  who  would  advise  with  the  other  regular  com- 
mittees described  below.  It  is  essential  that  one  of 
this  number  be  a  teacher,  representing1  the  school 
in  which  the  club  is  organized.  A  faculty  adviser  is 
sometimes  suggested  by  an  interested  school  prin- 
cipal, or  by  the  girls  or  by  some  member  of  the  Board 
of  Directors  of  the  Y.  W.  -C.  A.  or  by  some  member 
of  the  Association. 

If  there  are  several  high  school  clubs  in  a  com- 
munity, the  club  advisers  automatically  become  mem- 
bers of  that  sub-committee  of  the  local  girls'  work 
committee  which  considers  the  development  of  work 
for  high  school  girls.  This  sub-committee  is  led 
by  a  sub-chairman  appointed  by  the  chairman  of  the 
girls'  work  committee  either  from  this  group  of  ad- 
visers or  from  some  other  group.  (See  Section  VI, 
Chapter  2,  page  614,  of  this  Manual.) 

The  meeting  of  this  group  once  a  month  offers  the 
opportunity  for  discussion  of  problems  and  the  ex- 
change of  ideas  which  is  essential  to  good  work  on 
the  part  of  advisers. 

In  communities  where  the  girls'  work  committee  is 
not  as  yet  divided  into  three  sub-committees — grade 
school,  high  school  and  younger  girls  in  business  and 
industry, — the  high  school  advdsers  may  become  mem- 
bers of  the  girls'  work  committee. 
V.  Name: 

Many  names  for  high  school  club  work  have  l^en 
used  in  various  parts  of  the  country  during  the  past  few 

85 


years.  The  Young  Women's  Christian  Association  has 
always  endeavored  to  avoid  three  of  them:  any  abbrevia- 
tion, such  as  "Hi-Y,"  any  fancy  names,  and  any  name 
containing  Greek  letters.  The  "Hi-Y"  is  the  name  used 
by  the  Young  Men's  Christian  Association  for  work 
among  high  school  boys,  and  is  not  advocated  for  use 
as  a  name  for  a  high  school  girls'  club.  There  are  many 
considerations  to  be  kept  in  mind  in  suggesting  a  name 
but  it  has  seemed  feasible  to  call  by  the  name  Girl  Re- 
serve any  club  group  which  started  under  that, plan  of 
organization,  especially  if  the  purpose  Is  well  understood 
by  the  girls.  However,  it  will  be  necessary  to  make  very 
plain  to  them  that  the  plan  of  organization  and  program 
are  not  the  same  as  those  used  in  grade  school  Girl 
Reserve  work,  but  are  the  ones  advocated  in  the  high 
school  program.  Any  newly  organized  group  of  girls 
may  assume  the  generic  name  Girl  Reserve,  becoming 
for  instance  "The*  Student  Club  of  the  Girl  Reserves." 

VI.    Purpose. 

One  of  the  most  distinctive  features  of  any  high  school 
club  is  its  purpose.  It  should  always  be  written  by  the 
girls,  for  it  then  becomes  an  expression  by  the  group  of 
Its  ideals  of  democracy,  service  for  others,  high  standards 
of  honor  in  school  life  and  personal  living.  Thus  in  the 
very  beginning  of  the  club  is  developed  personal  initia- 
tive. Such  a  purpose  should  necessarily  be  in  accord 
with  the  spirit  of  the  purpose  of  the  Young  Women's 
Christian  Association  which  is  promoting  the  club. 

Any  purpose  should  be  a  growing  one;  the  wording 
of  it,  as  it  is  reconsidered  and  possibly  rewritten  every 
year  should  show  a  steady  growth  toward  the  principles 
underlying  all  Association  work,  a  Christian  fellowship 
both  individual  and  social  which  finds  its  highest  expres- 
sion in  a  personal  loyalty  to  Jesus  Christ  and  his  prin- 
ciples for  everyday  living.  It  is  such  a  purpose  which 
binds  together  all  high  school  girls'  clubs,  wherever  they 

86 


may  be,  In  counties,  towns,  cities  or  independently  af- 
filiated schools. 

Any  purpose  so  written  is  therefore  in  accord  with 
the  spirit  of  the  -Girl  Reserve  'Code.  The  phrases  of  this 
code  epitomize  and  give  in  simple  terms  the  individual 
and  social  elements  which  are  found  in  the  Association 
purpose. 

The  purpose  of  a  high  school  club  thus  becomes  the 
expression  of  the  girl's  own  thinking  about  'Christian 
principles  of  living  which  she  finds  given  to  her  through 
the  code  and  the  Association  purpose.  It  is  desirable  that 
every  high  school  Girl  Reserve  should  know  the  Girl 
Reserve  Code  so  that  she  may  share  to  the  fullest  degree 
in  the  Younger  Girl  movement  of  the  Association ;  but 
the  dynamic  for  work  in  every  high  school  club  should 
be  the  club  purpose,  for  it  is  the  group  expression  of 
the  reason  for  forming  and  maintaining  the  club.  Such 
a  purpose  should  be  always  in  accord  with  the  Associa- 
tion purpose,  although  phrased  in  the  girls'  own  words. 
Small  cards  on  which  are  printed  the  club  purpose  prove 
of  value  in  keeping  members  mindful  of  what  they  have 
agreed  upon  as  their  purpose.  Such  cards,  if  made  by 
hand  or  printed,  should  be  made  of  heavy  cardboard  so 
that  they  may  be  used  as  mirror  cards,  book  marks,  or 
for  memory  books. 
VII.  Constitution: 

Every  high  school  club  should  have  a  constitution, 
which  should  be  based  upon  the  suggested  one  in  this 
Manual.  (See  Chapter  IV,  page  95,  in  this  Manual.) 
A  copy  of  this  constitution  when  written  must  be  sent 
to  the  field  secretary  for  Younger  Girls,  who  will  have 
the  supervision  of  all  work  where  there  is  an  organized 
Association. 
VIII.  Dues: 

The  dues  for  any  high  school  club  which  is  a  part  of 
the  city,  town  or  county  Young  Women's  Christian  As- 

87 


sociation  depend  upon  the  policy  regarding  younger^girl 
membership  as  determined  by  the  membership  committee 
of  the  local  Association  in  consultation  with  the  girls' 
work  committee. 

The  dues  for  any  high  school  club  which  is  affiliated 
directly  with  the  National  Board  of  the  Young  Women's 
Christian  Association  through  the  student  committee  are 
whatever  the  club  votes  to  have  them.  (See  the  Consti- 
tution for  Secondary  Schools.  Secure  from  The  Wonians 
Press,  600  Lexington  Ave.,  New  York  City.) 

IX.  Officers: 

The  officers  of  a  high  school  club  are: 
President 
Vice  President 
Secretary 
Treasurer 

These  officers  are  elected  by  the  girls  for  one  year, 
the  elections  to  take  place  in  the  spring.  The  duties  of 
these  officers  should  be  the  regular  duties  of  such  officers, 
and  will  include  the  following: 

President — presides  at  all  meetings  of  the  club  and 
of  the  council  or  cabinet  (see  below) ;  is  in  general 
touch  with  all  other  officers  and  committee  chair- 
men •  is  responsible  for  the  general  spirit  and  work 
of  the  club. 

Vice  President — presides  at  all  club  and  council  or 
cabinet  meetings  in  absence  of  the  president;  is 
chairman  of  the  membership  committee. 
Secretary — is  responsible  for  minutes  of  each  meet- 
ing; these  minutes  should  be  kept  in  a  regular 
secretary's  book  together  with  written  reports 
which  are  submitted  by  the  chairman  of  the  stand- 
ing and  special  committees.  She  sends  out  notices 
of  meetings;  carries  correspondence  with  all  outside 
clubs  and  organizations. 

88 


Treasurer — is  responsible  for  presenting1  at  each 
business  meeting  a  statement  of  the  club  funds — 
the  treasurer's  book  should  show  complete  record 
of  the  business  transactions  of  the  club — having  a 
debit  and  credit  side.  Every  treasurer  is  respon- 
sible with  the  cabinet  for  making  a  budget  to  cover 
the  club's  expenses  for  a  year, 

X.  Committee  "Work: 

A  committee  must  always  have  a  reason  for  being — 
L  e.,  there  must  be  work  for  it  to  do;  the  following1  con- 
tent should  be  covered  through  the  work  of  a  high  school 
club — membership,  good  times,  service,  and  program  and 
it  may  be  administered  through  four  regular  committees, 
such  as: 

Membership  (Who  We  Are) 

Program  (What  We  Do) 

Social  (Our  Good  Times) 

Service  (How  We  Put  Into  Practice  Our  Ideals) 

If  a  simpler  plan  for  a  small  and  less  mature  group 
is  desired,  the  grade  school  plan  of  three  committees  with 
the  "S.  0.  S."  acting  as  the  program  committee  may  be 
used.  The  three  committees  would  then  be: 

Scout — (Membership) 

Outing  and  Innings — (Social) 

Service 

The  chairmen  of  the  committees  should  be  appointed 
by  the  president  of  the  club  in  consultation  with  the 
other  officers  and  the  club  advisers.  Three  or  more  girls 
form  a  good  working  committee.  Every  chairman  should 
remember  that  as  large  a  number  of  girls  as  possible 
should  be  used  to  carry  out  this  work.  In  some  instances 
it  may  seem  wise  to  have  committees  serve  for  half  the 
school  year,  the  four  chairmen  being  continued  in  office, 
and  the  rest  of  the  committee  rotating. 

89 


It  should  be  realized  that  much  of  the  success  of  com- 
mittee work  depends  upon  the  Initial  interpretation  given 
to  it  by  the  adviser  or  secretary.  Committee  members 
will  need  to  receive  a  clear  definition  of  their  duties. 
This  may  be  given  in  several  ways;  a  "black  board5'  talk 
at  which  a  secretary  or  adviser"  makes  graphic  to  the 
girls  the  real  mechanism  of  a  club  and  the  way  each 
committee  fits  into  the  general  scheme;  by  cabinet  or 
•council  training.  (.See  Section  IV,  page  187.)  Discussion 
and  study  by  each  committee  member  'of  the  committee 
duties  as  outlined  in  the  following  paragraphs  will  be 
helpful,  also. 

COMMITTEE   DUTIES 

A  Membership  Committee  should  be  responsible  for 
promoting  a  spirit  of  friendliness  among  the  girls  in 
school;  for  inviting-  and  encouraging  new  girls  to  join 
the  club;  for  keeping  in  touch  with  members,  encourag- 
ing church  and  Sunday-school  attendance;  for  publicity 
in  connection  with  the  school,  the  Association,  and  other 
clubs  in  the  community  or  in  various  parts  of  the  coun- 
try. This  committee  should  be  responsible,  also,  for  the 
recognition  service  which  marks  formal  membership  in 
clubs. 

The  Social  Committee  should  be  responsible  for  the 
good  times  of  the  club,  which  should  Include  indoor  and 
outdoor  activities.  It  should  cooperate  with  the  mem- 
bership committee  in  looking  after  members  who  are 
ill.  .Service  for  the  school,  such  as  ushering  at  general 
programs  and  being  responsible  for  helping-  to  furnish 
and  keep  attractive  the  girls'  rest  room,  are  also  a  part 
of  their  responsibility. 

The  social  committee  should  do  more  than  plan  par- 
ties and  hikes.  It  should  interpret  to  the  club  and  to  all 
the  school,  principles  of  courtesy  and  friendliness  and 

90 


help  to  set  standards  for  all  kinds  of  recreation.  To 
accomplish  this  it  is  sometimes  advisable  to  have  a  sub- 
committee of  the  Social  Committee  to  be  known  as  the 
Committee  on  Standards,  Such  a  sub-committee  would 
censor  any  social  event  of  the  club  given  either  for  social 
purposes  or  for  the  purpose  of  raising:  money.  Censor- 
ship of  this  kind  should  be  constructive,  not  destructive 
and  should  strive  to  have  all  social  events  in  accordance 
with  the  real  purpose  of  the  club. 

The  Service  Committee:  Every  club  will  grow  in 
interest  and  permanency  in  proportion  to  the  definite- 
ness  of  its  community  service.  .Service  has  come  to  have 
a  new  meaning-  in  the  last  few  years,  and  it  is  being 
realized  that  if  the  spirit  of  the  service  done  abroad  is  to 
continue,  we  must  have  the  finest  interpretation,  of  it 
in  this  country.  The  very  highest  kind  of  service  can  be 
accomplished  in  our  schools  and  communities,  but  it 
means  just  recognizing  needs  near  at  hand.  The  ser- 
vice committee  has  three  channels:  the  school,  the  com- 
munity, and  the  world. 

In  planning  the  service  work  of  the  program,  the 
committee  should  cooperate  with  the  social  and  mem- 
bership committees. 

Care  should  be  exercised  that  as  many  club  members 
as  possible  have  some  share  in  all  committee  work.  This 
may  be  done  in  several  ways: 

(a)  By  changing  the  personnel  of  the  committees  at  the 
close  of  the  first  semester   (it  is  taken  for  granted 
that  the  chairmen  are  retained). 

(b)  By  having  many  sub-committees  on  each  committee. 

(c)  By  providing  service  work  which  will  appeal  to  the 
club  as  a  club  and  work  which  will  appeal  to  certain 
members   as   individuals   to    be   done   in   addition   to 
that  which  is   done  by  the   club   as  a  group.      (See 
Service    Suggestions   in    Section   IV,    Chapter   2,   on 

91 


Content  and  Method  Typical  of  a  High  School  Pro- 
granij  and  Chapter  16,  Section  V,  on  Service  Acti- 
vities, page  600.) 

A  Program  ,  Committee  should  be  responsible  in  con- 
nection with  the  entire  council  or  cabinet  for  a  general 
plan  of  a  year's  work,  if  desired,  or  at  least  for  six 
month's  work.  Such  a  ,plan  should  include  the  inspira- 
tional, informational,  service  and  social  meetings  which  in 
many  cases  will  be  developed  by  the  discussional  and 
demonstration  methods. 

The  program  committee  thus  acts  as  a  "clearing 
house"  for  program  work.  It  should  be  kept  in  mind  in 
shaping  the  program  that  sometimes  there  are  things 
happening  in  the  club  which  will  be  of  interest  to  the 
whole  school  and  therefore  an  invitation  should  be  ex- 
tended through  the  principal. 

'School  recognition  for  certain  program  work  is  de- 
sirable, but  quite  frequently  it  comes  after  the  work 
has  proved  itself. 

The  program  committee  will  also  have  charge  of 
the  planning  for  study  classes  such  as  Bible,  mission 
study,  current  events,  nature  study,  story  tellingy  hand 
work  and  other  social  studies.  These  meetings  should 
not  take  the  place  of  the  regular  club  meeting  and  in 
many  instances,  it  has  seemed  advisable  not  to  have 
them  before  or  after  the  regular  meeting  but  on  another 
day.  The\  program  committee  should  also  plan  for 
Vesper  services  three  or  four  times  during  the  year, 
cooperating  with  the  Religious  Education  Department  of 
the  Association. 

The  actual  planning  and  responsibility  for  all  these 
various  types  of  meetings  rests  upon  the  committee 
responsible  for  the  particular  type  of  work.  For  instance, 
a  service  meeting  should  be  in  charge  of  the  service 
committee  ;  a  world  citizenship  meeting  might  be  cared 

92 


for  by  the  members  of  the  membership  and  service  com- 
mittees; a  party  would  fall  to  the  lot  of  the  membership 
and  social  committees  •  an  inspirational  or  informational 
meeting  might  be  in  charge  of  the  program  committee, 
their  responsibility  being  the  receiving  of  speakers,  mak- 
ing of  general  arrangements,  etc. 

The  responsibility  of  planning  for  conferences  should 
be  shared  equally  by  all  the  committees,  with  the 
treasurer  serving  as  chairman  of  this  special  group.  The 
committee  chairmen  and  members  should  be  interested 
an  raising  funds  to  send  delegates  to  conferences  and 
should  have  this  in  mind  during  the  entire  year. 

The  advisers  and  the  girl's  work  secretary,  while 
helping  the  program  committee  to  plan  the  year's  work 
so  that  it  will  carry  out  the  ideas  expressed  in  the  pur- 
pose, will  always  remember  that  the  ultimate  purpose 
of  all  high  school  club  work  is  to  train  girls  in  the  way 
of  Christian  thinking  and  living.  Therefore  the  girls 
need  to  develop  initiative  and  a  large  sense  of  personal 
responsibility. 

XI.  Cabinet  or  Council  Work: 

The  entire  high  school  club  program  is  made  effective 
through  the  following  groups: 

A.  The  four  officers. 

B.  The  chairmen  of  the  four  standing  committees. 
These  officers  and  chairmen  together  with  the  girls' 

work  secretary  and  one  adviser  complete  the  executive 
council  known  as  either  the  cabinet  or  the  council.  The 
latter  word  is  suggested  as  one  better  suited  to  some 
groups  of  girls;  it  seems  less  formal  than  the  word 
"cabinet"  which  will  come  into  the  girl's  vocabulary  when 
she  goes  into  a  college  association.  Either  name  may 
be  used.  The  council  meets  at  least  once  a  month. 

93 


XII  Inter-club  Council: 

To  give  unity  to  the  club  work  in  a  community  where 
there  are  several  high  schools?,  it  is  suggested  that  an 
inter-club  council  be  formed.  Such  a  council  is  composed 
of  the  presidents  of  the  various  clubs,  one  girl  from  the 
general  membership  and  a  club  adviser  from  each  of  the 
clubs.  "This  council  may  meet  every  three  months  or 
more  frequently  if  desired  and  serves  as  a  clearing  house 
for  all  business,  social  and  service  undertakings  which 
are  community-wide  in  their  scope.  The  girls'  work 
secretary  is  ex-officio  a  member  of  the  inter-club  council. 

In  communities  where  there  is  no  Young  Women's 
Christian  Association,  provision  for  the  organization  of 
high  school  girls  into  the  Association  fellowship  is  made 
through  a  unit  called  an  Independently  Affiliated  High 
'School  Association.  'Such  Associations  can  only  be  organ- 
ized after  consultation  with  a  field  office.  Full  informa- 
tion regarding  the  method  of  ^organization  'may  be 
obtained  by  writing  the  field  office  responsible  for  the 
supervision  of  Association  work  in  that  state. 

(For  list  of  Field  Officers  of  the  Y.  W.  C.  A.  see 
page  797.) 

Programs  for  work  in  such  Associations  are  identical 
in  their  content  and  method  of  presentation  with  the 
typical  one  for  high  school  clubs  suggested  in  Section 
IV,  Chapter  2,  page  169.  All  material  on  the  Training 
of  Leadership  and  "Activities  for  Developing  a  Christian 
Personality"  is  usable  in  High  School  Association  pro- 
grams. 


SUGGESTED   CONSTITUTION   FOE  A  HIGH   SCHOOL   CLUB  PROMOTED 

BY  THE  GIRLS'  WORK  DEPARTMENT  OF  A  YOUNG  WOMEN'S 

CHRISTIAN  ASSOCIATION  IN  A  CITY,  TOWN, 

OR    COUNTY 

Introduction 

A  large  number  of  girls  enrolled  in  the  public  high  schools 
of  to-day  are  in  communities  where  there  are  Young  Women's 
Christian  Associations.  Practically  every  Association  has 
undertaken  some  work  with  this  group  of  girls  which  naturally 
forms  an  important  part  of  the  Girls'  Work  Program  that 
every  Association  is  feeling  called  upon  to  promote. 

Through  the  study  which  the  Department  of  Research  and 
Method  of  the  National  Board  has  made  of  girls'  work,  these 
plans  for  high  school  girls  have  been  definitely  thought*  out. 
Wherever  high  school  clubs  are  organized,  a  copy  of  their  con- 
stitution should  be  filed  at  field  and  national  headquarters. 

CONSTITUTION  OF  THE  HIGH  SCHOOL  CLUB  OF  THE 
YOUNG  WOMEN'S  CHRISTIAN  ASSOCIATION. 

Article  I.     Name  * 
The  name  of  this  club  shall  be  the . 


Article  II.     Purpose 

(Insert  here  the  purpose  written  by1  the  girls  themselves. 
It  should  be  in  accord  with  the  purpose  of  the  Association  under 
which  this  club  is  promoted.) 

Article  III.    Membership 

The  membership  of  this  club  shall  be  divided  into  three 
groups:  general,  advisers,  and  honorary. 

Section  1.  General   members.     Any   girl   in   a   high   school   is 
eligible  to  membership  in  the  club. 


*  AH    abbreviations,    all   fancy   names,    or    Greek-letter   names   should   be 
avoided. 

95 


Section  2.  Advisers. 

a,  The   advisers'  group    shall   consist  of  four  persons 
who  become  members  of  that  sub-committee  of  the 
girls'  work  committee  which  plans  the  development 
of  the  high  school  work. 

b.  The  advisers7  group  shall  be  selected  in  accordance 
with  the  constitution,,  of  the  Association  which  this 
high  school  club  is  a  part,  and  shall  be  chosen  from 
among  the  recent  college  or  high  school  graduates, 
resident  in  the  community,  who  are  willing-  to  train 
for  large  responsibilities.     For  plans  for  the  meet- 
ings of  this  group  of  advisers,  see  Section  VI,  page 
614. 

Section  3.  Honorary  membership.  Any  woman  graduate  of  the 
high  school  or  any  other  person  especially  inter- 
ested in  the  welfare  of  the  club  may  be  suggested 
for  this  distinction  by  the  unanimous  vote  of  the 
club.  Their  duties  and  obligations  shall  be  those 
usually  incumbent  upon  honorary  members. 

Section  4.  tMembership  dues. 

For  Cities 

If  a  city  Association  requires  membership  for  the  use  of 
the  privileges  of  the  building,  the  high  school  club  dues  are 
determined  by  the  girls'  work  committee  and  the  membership 
committee  in  consultation.  In  cities  using  the  new  membership 
plan,  membership  in  the  Association  is  separate  from  club  mem- 
bership and  club  dues  should  be  determined  by  the  members 
of  the  high  school  club  in,  consultation  with  the  girls*  work 
committee. 

For   Towns 

The  dues  for  any  high  school  club  which!  is  a  part  of  a 
town  Young  Women's  Christian  Association  depends  upon  the 
policy  of  each  local  Association.  Where  there  is  an  Associa- 
tion membership  fee,  club  dues  are  determined  by  the  girls' 
work  committee  and  the  membership  committee  in  consultation. 

Qtf 


Where  there  is  no  Association  membership  fee,  as  in  the  major- 
ity of  town  Associations,  the  girls*  work1  committee  and  the 
finance  committee  in  consultation  decide  the  relationship  of 
the  high  school  club  to  the  financial  support  of  the  Association. 

For   Counties 

When  a  high  school  club  in  a  country  or  district  is  affiliated 
with  a  country  or  district  Association,  its  members  are  by  that 
act  members  of  the  Association. 

Where  there  is  an  Association  membership  fee,  club  dues 
are  determined  by  the  girl's  work  committee  and  the  member- 
ship committee  in  consultation. 

Where  there  is  no  Association  membership  fee,  club  dues 
are  determined  by  the  members  of  the  high  school  club  in  con- 
sultation with  the  girls'  work  committee. 

In  either  case  it  is  hoped  the  club  wall  vote  a  proportion 
of  its  budget  toward  the  financial  support  of  the  Association. 

Section  5.  Duties  of  members.  It  shall  be  the  duty  of  all 
members  to  work  together  heartily  in  carrying  out 
the  purpose  of  this  club  and  to  make  it  of  permanent 
value  and  service  to  the  school  and  to  the  community. 

Article  IV.     Officers 

The  officers  of  the  club  shall  be  president,  vice  president, 
secretary,  and  treasurer,  who  shall  perform  the  duties  usually 
required  of  such  officers.  They  shall  be  elected  by  the  .members 
at  the  annual  meeting  of  the  club  and  shall  hold  office  for  one 
year  or  until  their  successors  are  elected. 

Article  V.    Committees 

There  shall  be  such  standing  and  special  committees  as  are 
found  necessary  to  direct  the  various  activities  of  the  club  in 
fulfilment  of  its  purpose. 

Article  VI.  Council  (or  Cabinet) 

The  chairmen  of  all  standing  committees,  tlie  officers  of  the 
club/ the  girls'  work  secretary  and  one  club  adviser  shall  act 
as  the  council  (or  cabinet)  of  the  club.  It  shall  serve  as  a  clear- 

97 


ing  house  for  all  proposed  work  whether  it  originates  in  the 
general  membership,  in  a  committee,  or  in  the  council  itself, 
The  results  of  its  thinking  should  be  crystalized  into  recom- 
mendations which  should  be  submitted  to  the  whole  member- 
ship at  the  following-  club  meeting.  The  council  (or  cabinet) 
shall  meet  regularly  at  least  monthly  and  may  have  special 
meetings  at  the  call  of  the  president. 

Article  VII.     Meetings 
Meetings  of  the  club  shall  be  held  at  regular  intervals. 

Article  VIII.    Amendments 

Amendments  to  this  constitution  shall  require  for  their 
adoption  the  approval  of  the  council  (or  cabinet),  notice  in 
writing  at  a  previous  meeting,  and  a  two-thirds  vote  of  the 
members  present  at  a  regular  meeting. 

BY-LAWS 

I.     Meetings 

Section  1.  The  regular  meetings  of  the  club  shall  occur 
on . 

Section  2.  The  annual  meeting  of  the  club  shall  occur 
on  . 

Section  3. members  of  the  club  shall 

constitute  a  quorum. 

II.    Duties  of  Officers 

Section  1.  The  president  shall  preside  at  all  meetings  of 
the  club  and  of  the  council  (or  cabinet).  In  consultation  with 
the  other  officers  and  the  advisers  she  shall  appoint  all  stand- 
ing committees.  She  shall  appoint  all  special  committees  with 
the  approval  of  the  council,  and  she  shall  be  ex-officio  a  mem- 
ber of  each  committee. 

Section  2.  The  vice  president  shall,  in  the  absence  of  the 
president,  preside  at  all  meetings,  and  shall  serve  as  chairman 
of  the  membership  committee. 

Section  3.  .The  secretary  shall  give  necessary  notice  of 
meetings  and  keep  the  minutes  of  transactions  of  the  club. 


She  shall  also  receive  and  file  written  reports  of  officers  and 
committees. 

'Section  4.  The  treasurer  shall  have  charge  of  the  funds 
of  the  club  under  the  direction  of  the  council  (or  cabinet).  She 
shall  collect  the  dues,  pay  bills  approved  by  the  council,  and 
make  a  report  to  the  club  at  its  regular  and  annual  meetings 
of  all  receipts  and  expenditures. 

III.    Committees 

Section  1.  The  work  of  the  committees  shall  be  planned  in 
consultation  with  the  council  (or  cabinet).  Monthly^  reports 
with  recommendations  shall  be  presented  first  to  the  council 
(or  cabinet)  and  then  to  the  club  for  action  and  filing. 

Section  2.  The  standing  "committees  shall  be  as  follows: 
program,  membership,  social,  and  service. 

.Section  3.  The  duties  and  responsibilities  of  the  several 
committees  shall  be  as  follows: 

a.  The  Program  Committee  shall  plan  with  the  council  (or 
cabinet)   a  year's  program.     Such  a  plan  should  include  the 
inspirational,  informational,  service,  and  social  meetings  which 
in  many  cases  will  be  developed  by  the  discussional  or  demon- 
stration method.    It  shall  also  plan  for  study  classes  such  as 
Bible,  mission  study,  current  events,  the  drama,  nature  study, 
story  telling,  and  hand  work.    It  shall  cooperate  with  the  other 
committees,  so  that  the  various  interests  of  all  the  members 
shall  be  adequately  represented  in  the  year's  work.* 

b.  The   Membership    Committee    shall    be    responsibly   for 
promoting  a  spirit  of  friendliness  among  the  girls  in  the  school; 
for  inviting  and  encouraging  new  girls  to  join  the  club;  for 
keeping  in  touch  with  members;  for  the  enlistment  of  girls  in 
greater  loyalty  to  the  Association  and  to  their  respective  Sun- 
day-schools and  churches;  for  publicity  concerning  the  Associa- 
tion and  other  clubs  in  the  community  or  in  various  parts  of  the 
country  and  for  publicity  within  the  school;  it  shall  also  be 


*  For  suggestions,  see  Section  IV,  page  169,  "Content  and  Method  Typical 
of  a  Program  for  a  High  School  Club." 

99 


responsible  for  the   recognition   service   which   marks   formal 
membership  in  the  club. 

c.  The  Social  Committee  shall  be  responsible  for  the  good 
times  of  the  club,  the  preparation  and  the  conduct  of  all  parties, 
both  indoors  and  outdoors.    It  shall  interpret  to  the  club  and 
the  school  the  principles  of  courtesy  and  friendliness.    It  shall 
cooperate   with   the   membership    committee   in   looking   after 
members  who  are  ill,  and  shall  do  service  for  the  school. 

d.  The  Service  'Committee  shall  provide  for  the  expression 
of  the  Christian  life  and  activity  of  the  club  through  the  various 
forms  of  work  for  the  school,  Sunday-school,  church,  community 
betterment   or   charity   organizations,   such   as   hospitals,   day 
nurseries  and  mission  work  of  all  kinds,  both  at  home  and 
abroad.    It  shall  oifer  a  wide  variety  of  service.    In  coopera- 
tion with  the  Membership  Committee,  it  shall  provide  oppor- 
tunity for  every  club  member  to  enter  some  form  of  service. 

e.  The  responsibility  of  planning  for  conferences  should  be 
shared  equally  by  all  the  committees  with  the  treasurer  serv- 
ing as  special  chairman  of  this  group. 

CHAPTER  V. 

THE    ORGANIZATION    OF    GIRL   RESERVE   WORK   AMONG   YOUNGER 
GIRLS   IN  BUSINESS   AND  INDUSTRY 

Informal  Group  Organization 

THE  name  Girl  Reserves,  standing  as  it  does  for  the  younger 
girl  in  the  Association  and  not  for  one  specific  program, 
offers  a  unifying  element  for  group  work.  To  be  a  Girl  Reserve 
in  such  an  informal  group  it  is  necessary  to  understand  and 
subscribe  to  the  code  and  the  purpose  of  the  Girl  Reserves  which 
means  trying  to  live  up  to  its  standards.  In  many  larg-e  cities 
and  industrial  communities  where  numbers  of  girls  between 
fourteen  and  eighteen  are  employed,  Associations  have  found 
that  an  informal  work  of  this  kind  is  successfully  carried  out 
in  a  center  located  in  a  district  where  the  largest  number  of 


girls  is  to  be  found,  A  center  which  includes  a  rest  room,  some 
kind  of  a  reading  room  and  a  game  room  and  facilities  for 
serving  one  or  more  hot  dishes  meets  a  need  in  the  lives  of 
the  girls  and  they  come  to  it  gladly.  More  and  more  it  is  ap- 
parent that  the  equipment  offered  to  the  girl  for  her  recreation 
and  play  must  be  where  she  is  and  that  it  must  be  so  simply 
and  attractively  designed  that  she  accepts  it  as  her  own  and  is 
proud  of  it.  It  often  happens  that  a  city  Association,  because 
of  its  location  and  the  large  number  of  people  using  its  rest 
rooms,  club  rooms  and  cafeterias,  does  not  offer  sufficient  space 
and  freedom  at  the  very  time  when  this  group  of  younger  girls 
can  come.  In  smaller  cities  and  towns,  however,  many  Associa- 
tions are  able  to  provide  several  rooms  or  one  large  club  room 
where  many  activities  may  be  occurring  at  one  time.  These 
rooms  can  belong  to  this  particular  group  of  younger  girls  and 
can  be  used  and  especially  decorated  for  them.  If  this  can  be 
done  in  any  Association,  an  informal  club  program  can  be 
worked  out  to  great  advantage.  In  other  Associations  it  has 
been  found  possible  to  have  one  or  more  special  nights  when 
club  rooms  and  other  necessary  equipment  are  turned  over  to 
this  group  of  younger  girls  in  business  and  industry. 

Whatever  plan  is  used  by  the  Association,  it  must  be  remem- 
bered that  self-government  and  a  certain  freedom  of  expression 
on  the  part  of  the  girls  must  never  be  overlooked.  If  an 
Association  starts  a  center  in  a  given  locality  the  interest  of 
the  girls  is  naturally  aroused  and  they  come  to  it  with  little  or 
no  urging.  If  the  work  is  being  done  in  the  Association  club 
rooms,  it  is  sometimes  necessary  to  interest  the  girls  through 
personal  invitation,  through  attractive  dodgers  and  through 
older  industrial  girls.  It  has  been  found  feasible  sometimes  to 
appoint  in  each  store  or  factory  a  Girl  Reserve  chairman.  She 
is  a  young  girl  interested  in  Girl  Reserve  work  and  is  respon- 
sible for  interesting  other  girls.  As  the  work  grows  and  more 
and  more  girls  come  to  the  center  or  to  the  Association  club 
rooms  these  chairmen  from  the  different  plants  can  be  formed 
into  what  might  be  called  "The  Girl  Reserve  Executive  Council." 

101 


Little  by  little  they  can  be  made  to  assume  responsibility  for 
planning  activities  and  for  setting-  standards  for  the  work  done 
at  the  center  or  in  the  club  rooms.  From  such  an  executive 
council  and  from  such  informal  noon  recreation  work  will  often 
come  the  demand  on  the  part  of  several  girls  for  definite  club 
organization. 

Formal  Club  Organization 

The  formal  organization  for  Girl  Reserves  in  business  and 
industry  has  usually  taken  the  form  of  three  committees:  the 
first  known  as  the  Scout  Committee,  which  is  practically  a  mem- 
bership committee,  responsible  for  interesting  new  members 
and  keeping  in  touch  with  old  members;  the  second,  the  Outings 
and  Innings  Committee  which  is  the  social  and  recreation  com- 
mittee, and  the  third,  the  Service  Committee  which,  as  its  name 
indicates,  has  full  charge  of  service  work  for  the  club.  Every 
girl  in  the  club  should  be  made  a  member  of  one  of  the  three 
committees.  By  this  method  each  girl  bears  a  real  responsi- 
bility for  a  piece  of  work,  is  more  interested,  and  so  is  a  better 
member.  The  work  of  each  committee  can  be  so  planned  that 
a  large  number  of  girls  can  be  kept  busy  on  each  committee. 

The  chairman  of  these  three  committees,  plus  any  members 
from  those  committees  which  the  girls  desire  to  have,  form 
the  Girl  Reserve  Executive  Council  known  as  the  S.  0.  S.  This 
group  us  responsible  for  planning  general  program  work  and 
submitting  it  to  the  club  as  a  whole  for  its  formal  approval. 
The  chairman  of  the  S.  0.  S.  is  the  Scout  Committee  chairman. 
She  presides  at  all  meetings  of  the  <S.  0.  S.  and  at  all  meet- 
ings of  the  Girl  Reserve  club,  which  may  be  called  either  a 
Girl  Reserve  Company  or  a  Girl  Reserve  Club,  depending  upon 
the  vote  of  the  girls  themselves.  The  S.  0.  S.  should  meet 
regularly  once  a  month  and  should  (1)  consider  the  general 
program  and  work  of  the  club  and  see  that  this  work  supple- 
ments the  needs  of  the  girls  in  the  club  and  sets  standards  of 
•which  a  Girl  Reserve  will  be  proud;  (2)  discuss  how  the  Girl 

102 


Reserve  club  or  company  can  be  an  effective  force  in  upholding 
these  standards  in  their  homes  and  at  work  and  in  the  com- 
munity. 

In  many  cities  and  towns  where  there  are  many  grade  and 
high  school  Girl  Reserves,  there  may  be  formed  a  divisional 
council  for  Girl  Reserves.  This  council  consists  of  representa- 
tives from  the  grade  school,  the  high  school  and  the  Girl  Re- 
serves in  Business  and  Industry.  (See  Girl  Reserve  Manual 
for  Advisers,  page  59.)  They  may  meet  once  in  three 
months  or  oftener  if  desired  to  discuss  general  pieces  of  service 
work  and  to  see  how  the  Girl  Reserve  can  become  as  a  whole 
a  more  effective  force  in  the  community.  The  chairman  of  this 
group  may  be  elected  from  and  by  the  group  itself.  Such  a 
divisional  council  does  much  to  bring  about  a  feeling  of  unity 
among  all  the  girls  and  helps  to  form  a  better  understanding 
between  the  school  girl  and  the  younger  girl  at  work. 

In  addition  to  this  committee  organization,  any  group  may 
elect  the  four  regular  officers — president,  vice  president,  secre- 
tary and  treasurer — to  serve  for  the  time  the  group  desires. 
Older  girls  will  undoubtedly  want  to  organize  in  this  way.  Care 
should  be  taken  that  such  officers  feel  the  responsibility  of  their 
positions  and  understand  the  duties  of  their  office  and  how  to 
perform  these  duties.  (See  Primer  of  'Parliamentary  Drill, 
Womans  Press,  price  ten  cents.) 

Every  group  of  Girl  Reserves  whether  an  informal  or  formal 
club,  should  register  at  New  York  headquarters,-  600  Lexington 
Avenue.  Formal  registration  blanks  may  be  obtained  through 
the  field  office.  Girl  Reserve  code  cards  are  sent  to  each  Girl 
Reserve  as  soon  as  the  application  card  with  the  number  in  the 
group  is  received  in  New  York.  In  case  of  informal  groups,  if 
exact  number  cannot  be  given,  state  approximate  number. 

Meetings 

The  best  time  for  meetings  of  younger  girls  in  business 
and  industry  is  in  many  communities  a  problem.  Where  there 

103 


is  no  center  to  which  the  girls  may  come  at  noon  it  sometimes 
seems  as  if  there  were  no  chance  at  all  really  to  come  in  close 
contact  with  them.  A  problem  of  this  kind  is  necessarily  local 
and  must  be  worked  out  differently  in  each  case. 

There  are  four  times  when  meetings  for  this  group  of  girls 
are  possible: 

(a)  Noon  hour. 

(b)  During    school    hours    at    the    continuation    school 
or  the  Y.  W.  C.  A. 

(c)  At  night. 

(d)  On  Sundays. 

For  suggestive  activities  to  be  used  at  these  times,  see 
Section  IV,  'Chapter  II,  page  195,  on  Content  and  Method  Typical 
of  a  Program  for  Younger  Girls  in  Business  and  Industry. 

Suggested  Methods  of  Approach. 

If  the  approach  to  the  girl  is  to  be  made  through  a  school, 
the  following  kinds  of  school  with  their  curricula  must  be  un- 
derstood and  contacts  made  with  them: 

(a)  'Grade  school  (see  suggestions  above). 

In  some  communities  the  girls'  work  committee  may, 
through  its  share  in  a  community  council  create  inter- 
est on  the  part  of  representatives  of  parochial  schools 
in  their  graduates  or  "drop-outs"  who  are  going  to 
work. 

(b)  Continuation  school. 

(c)  Commercial,  business  or  technical  high  school. 

(d)  Business  college. 

Continuation  Schools 

The  continuation  school  does  not  exist  at  present  in  some 
communities  while  in  many  others  it  is  new  and  is  weighing: 
and  testing  out  methods  to  meet  the  many  demands  placed 
upon  it.  The  recent  federal  education  legislation,  known  as 
the  Smith-Hughes  Law,  the  proposed  Sterling-Towner  Bill,  Sen- 

104 


ate  No.  1252,  H.R.  No.  7  (the  Smith-Towner  Bill  of  the  pre- 
vious session  *)  and  'Federal  Child  Labor  Law,f  raising  the  age 
standard  at  which  children  may  be  employed  in  certain  occu- 
pations, state  legislation  relating  to  the  raising  of  school  at- 
tendance age  and  its  enforcement  plus  the  growing  public  sen- 
timent that  youth  has  certain  rights  which  cannot  be  denied 
nor  abrogated,  have  led  to  the  growth  of  the  continuation 
school  movement.  At  present  the  following  states  have  contin- 
uation school  laws: 

Arizona,  Iowa,  Nebraska,  New  York,  South  Dakota,  Cali- 
fornia, Massachusetts,  Nevada,  Oklahoma^  Utah,  Connecticut, 
Michigan,  New  Hampshire,  Oregon,  Washington,  Illinois,  Mis- 
souri, New  Jersey,  Pennsylvania,  West  Virginia,  Indiana,  Mon- 
tana, New  Mexico,  Rhode  Island,  Wisconsin. 

The  summary  of  the  text  of  these  laws  may  be  secured  by 
writing  to  the  Bureau  of  Education,,  Department  of  Interior, 
Washington,  D.  C.:  W.  R.  Hood,  law  specialist,  and  to  the  State 
Department  of  Public  Instruction  at  the  state  capital. 

Suggested  Methods  of  Cooperation  with  Continuation  Schools. 

If  a  girls'  work  department  an  a  local  Association  is  begin- 
ning work  with  continuation  school  girls,  the  following  course 
of  action  has  proven  a  good  one  in  many  cases. 

(1)  Ask  the  field  secretary  for  younger  girls  to  have  an 
interview  with  the  state  supervisor  for  continuation 
schools,  which  will  explain  that  the  Y.  W.  C.  A. 
is  glad  to  know  whether  it  can  in  any  way  supplement 
the  work  of  the  continuation  schools  in  that  community. 
She  will  explain  that  such  cooperation  will  in  no  sense 
duplicate  continuation  school  plans.  She  will  also  ask 


*  See  Section  VII — Topic :     Legislation,  for  summary  of  these  laws, 
f  See  August,   1920 ,  American   Child — quarterly  journal  published  by  the 
National  Child  Labor  Committee,  105  East  22nd  Street,  New  York  City. 

105 


the  state  supervisor  for  the  list  of  local  principals  which 
then  will  be  forwarded  to  the  various  local  Associations. 
(2)  Request  an  interview  with  the  local  principal  at  which 
the  local  girls'  work  secretary,  and  if  possible  the  field 
secretary  for  younger  girls,  will  be  present.  At  this 
time  should  be  discussed  what  needs,  if  any,  the  Asso- 
ciation can  help  to  meet.  Experience  has  shown  that 
the  following-  are  needs  which  the  Association  can  help 
to  meet:  . 

(a)  Noon  Eecreation  with   the   girls   at    the   Continua- 
tion School. 

This  may  be  held  either  at  the  school  or  the  As- 
sociation, depending  upon  the  equipment  and  desire 
of  the  school.  The  girls'  work  secretary,  a  volun- 
teer worker  trained  for  such  work,  or  the  physical 
director  may  have  this  in  charge. 

One  Association  used  a  nearby  park  in  spring 
and  fall,  urging  the  girls  to  bring  their  luncheons 
there.  Afterward  games  were  played.  Another 
Association  regularly  moves  all  the  furniture  from 
its  sewing  room  and  turns  this  over  to  the  continu- 
ation school  girls  for  a  play  room  at  noon.  In- 
genuity and  a  real  desire  to  serve  will  carry  an 
Association  through  the  many  obstacles  which  at 
first  seem  to  stand  in  the  way  of  work  of  this 
kind. 

(b)  Gymnasium  Work. 

Associations  have  been  glad  to  offer  free  of 
charge  their  gymnasium  and  physical  director  for 
forty-five  minutes  of  work  one  morning  a  week. 
In  other  Associations,  a  trained  volunteer  worker 
has  handled  simple  floor  work.  If  the  physical 
director  is  in  charge,  it  has  been  found  advisable 
for  the  girls'  work  secretary  to  play  the  piano  or 
join  in  the  games  with  the  girls  in  order  to  make 
the  necessary  contracts.  One  Association  has  had 

106 


a  business  arrangement  in  the  continuation  school 
and  a  flat  rate  for  the  year  for  the  use  of  th©  gym- 
nasium and  physical  director  has  been  worked  out. 
In  many  instances  when  the  continuation  school  has 
no  gymnasium,,  they  are  glad  to  make  some  ar- 
rangement with  such  an  organization  as  the  Asso- 
ciation. The  question  of  whether  this  service  from 
the  Association  is  free  or  not  depends  of  course 
upon  the  local  conditions.  The  fact  in  -which  an 
Association  is  interested  is  that  the  continuation 
school  girls  need  this  kind  of  physical  work  and 
play  and  since  it  is  a  community  agency  it  will 
want  to  do  what  it  can  to  cooperate  with  these 
plans. 

(c)    Stimulation  of  the  Social  Activities  in  Continuation 
•School  Circles. 

Many  continuation  schools  are  as  yet  very 
crowded  for  space  and  equipment  and  the  teachers 
are  very  busy.  This  makes  difficult  the  development 
of  a  real  school  spirit  which  will  be  of  the  finest 
kind.  With  the  help  of  an  Association  worker  the 
continuation  school  teachers  through  cheers,  yells 
and  songs  taught  at  parties  or  a  noontime  recrea- 
tion, can  bring  to  the  boys  and  girls  a  feeling  of 
pride  and  joy  in  the  school  of  which  they  are  a 
part.  For  instance,  such  cheers  and  songs  as  the 
following  have  been  used  with  great  effect: 

"Continuation — Continuation, 
Continuations — Continuati  on, 
We  are   cheering,   we   are   cheering, 
Cheering  now  for  Continuation, 
Rah,  rah,  rah!" 

The  famous  Johnny  Smoker  song  (usually  in- 
cluded in  a  collection  of  popular  music)  can 

107 


be  used  most  successfully.     Both  boys  and  girls 
enjoy  singing  it. 

(d)  Assistance  in  Home  Visitation. 

Sometimes  help  Is  needed  in  home  visiting  and 
a  girls'  work  secretary  has  a  real  opportunity  to 
prove  to  the  continuation  school  principal  that  she 
is  one  who  can  be  of  use.  Usually  the  continuation 
school  closes  earlier  than  other  schools  at  the 
Christmas  season  in  order  that  the  girls  and  boys 
may  be  free  for  the  Christmas  rush  in  their  various 
places  of  employment.  'In  a  large  city  a  girls' 
work  secretary  may  be  welcomed  as  an  additional 
home  visitor  at  this  time  and  the  knowledge  which 
she  gains  of  home  conditions  is  one  of  the  most 
valuable  assets  she  can  have  for  constructive  work 
with  the  girls  (e.  g.,  if  Mary  regularly  goes  to 
sleep  at  school  it  may  mean  sleeping  conditions  for 
Mary  at  home  are  not  what  they  should  be). 

(e)  An    Increased    Knowledge    of    Club    Methods    and 
Recreation  Work. 

In  one  section  of  the  country  where  cooperation 
with  continuation  school  staffs  has  been  well 
worked  out,  the  experience  of  the  Association  in 
training  people  for  club  and  recreation  work  has 
been  utilized  in  those  training  schools  where  the 
continuation  school  teachers  are  prepared.  Lec- 
tures and  demonstration  work  often  can  be  fur- 
nished by  the  local  girls'  work  secretary  or  the 
field  girls'  work  secretary  if  they  are  desired  by 
the  continuation  school  supervisor. 

Technical  and  Commercial  High  Schools — Business  Colleges 

This  group  of  schools  differs  from  the  continuation  school  in 
that  the  girl  is  there  for  a  much  longer  period  of  time  every 
day  in  the  week  and  so  the  school  is  a  major  and  not  a  minor 

108 


activity  with  her.  School  life  and  activities  are  necessarily 
more  highly  organized. 

Most  technical  and  commercial  schools  have  a  two  years9 
course  which  gives  the  girl  a  certificate  and  a  four  year  course 
which  results  in  a  diploma.  Large  numbers  of  girls  go  only 
long  enough  to  receive  the  certificates  and  so  at  an  early  age 
enter  the  business  world  as  stenographers,  file  clerks,  and  other 
kinds  of  office  workers. 

In  some  sections  of  the  country,  technical  schools  have  ar- 
ranged to  have  pupils  do  laboratory  work  in  certain  stores  and 
factories.  Thus  the  "hours  of  school"  for  the  girl  are  spent 
partially  at  the  school  building,  partially  in  a  store  or  factory 
at  work.  The  girl  who  through  such  an  arrangement  is  at  work 
and  in  school  at  the  same  time  is  often  in  need  of  the  kind  of 
programs  the  Association  can  offer.  SJie  needs  help  in  those 
adjustments  of  thinking  and  living  which  a  good  Association 
program  should  provide. 

The  approach  to  such  schools  is  through  the  principal — the 
faculty — and  individual  girls.  An  assembly  talk,  recreation, 
camp  work,  all  offer  points  of  contact.  Again  the  closest  kind 
of  cooperation  needs  to  exist  between  the  girls'  work  secretary 
and  the  person  in  the  school  in  charge  of  placing  the  girl  at 
work. 

The  needs  and  the  desires  of  the  younger  business  college 
girl  have  been  considered  in  Section  I  of  this  manual. 

The  Girl  Already  at  Work. 

If  the  approach  is  to  be  made  to  the  girl  at  her  place  of  em- 
ployment, the  first  things  to  be  taken  into  consideration  are 
the  approach  to  the  employer  and  the  ways  of  securing  his  co- 
operation (see  Section  VI  on  "Cooperation  with  Industrial  De- 
partment")- 

There  are  two  possible  ways  of  approaching  the  younger 
girl  already  at  work — one  through  older  girls  connected  with 
the  Association  who  are  at  work  in  the  same  industry  or  busi- 
ness ;  the  other,  by  contagious  enthusiasm  of  the  girls*  work 

109 


secretary  and  the  adviser  who  "become  personally  acquainted 
with  girls  and  who  are  seers  enough  to  believe  that  every  girl 
has  a  gift  to  bring  and  the  Association  has  one  to  give.  This 
latter  method  means  getting  acquainted  with  the  girls  "over  the 
counter"  and  at  noontime  in  the  factory  or  by  visits  to  offices 
where  the  girls  are  employed.  It  may  seem  a  slow  process  but 
eventually  it  does  win  the  confidence  of  girls  who  become  a 
nucleus  for  larger  results.  Efforts  of  this  sort  imply  the  most 
careful  cooperation  and  understanding  with  any  welfare  or 
service  workers,  junior  superintendents,  and  nurses  employed 
by  the  management.  Through  them  it  is  possible  to  gain  access 
to-  the  girls  at  noontimes  in  their  rest  rooms  or  dining  rooms 
and  permission  to  place  on  bulletin  boards  attractive  posters 
and  announcements  of  hikes,  summer  camp  or  general  enter- 
tainments. Often,  also,  it  is  possible  to  cooperate  with  the 
management's  plan  for  noon  recreation  in  a  place  provided  by 
the  management  in  the  plant  itself,  dn  a  nearby  park  or  a 
vacant  lot.  A  schedule  for  handling  such  recreation  if  requested 
by  the  management,  should  be  worked  out  in  cooperation  with 
the  physical  director  and  the  industrial  secretary. 

Whether  the  Association  maintains  a  center  outside  the 
building  and  particularly  for  the  use  of  the  younger  girls  in 
business  and  industry,  or  whether  a  room  or  whole  floor  in  a 
local  Association  building  is  given  over  to  their  use,  the  at- 
mosphere should  be  that  of  a  place  which  is  utterly  their  own. 

A  little  money  combined  with  much  thought  and  ingenuity 
can  make  attractive  a  room  in  an  Association  or  any  space 
rented  to  serve  as  a  center.  The  luxury  an  both  color  and 
equipment  found  in  the  modern  department  store  where  many 
younger  girls  are  employed,  and  the  glitter  of  the  "movie  pal- 
ace" and  other  places  of  commercialized  recreation  overstimu- 
late  the  girls'  love  of  color,  and  it  is  necessary  therefore  for 
the  Association  to  compete  by  some  method  which  through  its 
very  beauty  and  simplicity  will  attract  and  help  brighten  their 
perspective. 

110 


Many  of  the  town  Associations  with  their  plain  home-like 
rooms  will  prove  attractive  to  the  younger  girl  in  business  and 
industry,  once  she  knows  the  Association  secretaries.  Both  the 
executive  and  the  associate  need  to  know  and  understand  as  fully 
as  possible  the  needs  and)  desires  of  this  younger  girl  who  is 
such  a  vital  part  of  the  town  community.  Sometimes  she  comes 
with  a  definite  need,  such  as  a  job  or  a  place  to  live.  That  is 
the  time  to  serve  her  well  and  make  her  acquaintance.  The 
chances  of  service  by  the  town  Association  are  many  and  great 
and  sometimes  the  finest  piece  of  work  in  a  town  or  in  a  city 
is  not  through  organized  club  work  but  through  individual  per- 
sonal service  and  informal  recreation. 

The  following  suggestions  may  prove  helpful  to  a  secretary 
or  adviser  who  is  approaching  the  girl  already  at  work  in  a 
town  or  a  city: 

(a)  Read  the  "want  ads"  and  advertisements  in  the  daily 
and  Sunday  newspapers.  "Want  ads"  supply  informa- 
tion about  the  kind  of  job  offered,  the  kind  of  business 
concerns  using  this  method  of  obtaining  girls,  and 
something  of  the  labor  turnover  among  floating  groups. 

Advertisements  in  both  daily  and  Sunday  papers  give 
an  idea  of  the  "personality"  of  the  various  stores.  Every 
employee  in  a  store  is  affected  by  an  "Annual  White 
Sale,"  a  "July  Clearance  Sale"  or  a  "Red  Tag  Bar- 
gain Sale,"  and  the  stores  having  this  type  of 
•sale  have  a  different  "personality"  from,  tthe  stores 
with  another  kind  of  bargain  sale.  It  is  es- 
sential for  a  girls'  work  secretary  to  know  of  such  sales 
in  order  that  she  may  be  intelligent  about  the  kind 
of  program  needed,  the  time  that  camp  is  possible  for 
girls  and  the  kind  of  recreation  and  club  supper  needed 
if  club  night  falls  on  sale  day.  A  girl  who  has  been  all 
day  in  a  store  with  a  "Red  Tag  Bargain  Sale"  going  on 
needs  a  certain  kind  of  food  and  recreation.  Most  girls 
read  the  newspapers — at  least  parts  of  them;  conversa- 

111 


tion  is  not  so  difficult  if  the  secretary  and  adviser  have 
also  read  of  the  same  current  topics  and  know  of  such 
an  event  as  a  big  sale. 

(b)  Eead  in  current  magazines  stories  and  articles  with  such 
titles  as  the  following.    They  give  color  and  information 
about  store  life  and  methods  of  work: 

"$16.50  Trimmed." 

^How  Department  .Stores  Watch  One  Another." 

(c)  Watch  theatre  and  movie  announcements  also.     Special 
attractions    of  the   various   commercialized   amusement 
places.    Know  when  the  "big  dance"  is  to  be  at  one  of 
the  popular  halls  and  when  free  refreshments  are  being 
served  at  any  one  of  them. 

(d)  ^Learn  to  understand  the  vocabulary  of  the  younger  girl 
in  business  and  industry  and  to  talk  with  her  intelligently 
of  things  she  understands,  appreciates,  and  works  with 
daily.    For  instance,  understand  such  expressions  as  the 
following:  tube  room,  the  "cage,"  time-keeper,  jogger, 
models,  comptometer,  ticket   sorter,   dictaphone,   calla- 
phone. 

These  are  but  a  few  examples  of  terms  in  the  daily 
vocabulary  of  the  younger  girl  in  business  and  industry. 
They  must  be  known  to  the  person  working1  with  her. 

(e)  Know  how  working  papers  and  permits  are  secured.    Try 
to  know  personally  the  official  in  charge  of  issuing  these, 

(f )  Secure  from  business  houses  and  industrial  plants  sample 
copies  of: 

a.  Blanks  which  applicants  for  work  must  fill  out. 

b.  Health  certificates  if  required. 

Show  these  to  girls  and  discuss  them  so  that  when 
application  is  made,  the  girl  will  not  feel  ill  at  ease. 

(g)  Know  the  name,  address,  policy  of  work  (free  or  pay) 
of  the  various  employment  agencies  in  the  community* 
(This  information  should  be  secured  through  the  employ- 
ment secretary  of  the  Association  and  all  work  connected 
with  employment  done  in  close  cooperation  with  her.) 

112 


(h)  Have  full  information  regarding  the  location,  hours,  and 
method  of  work  of  free  clinics,  emergency  hospitals,  good 
dentists,  oculists,  and  doctors. 

(i)  Know  when  civil  service  examinations  are  to  be  given.  By 
information  about  the  requirements  and  opportunities  of- 
fered, many  a  girl  may  be  helped  to  better  positions  and 
more  interest  in  her  work. 

(j)  Have  a  file  containing  the  following  information: 

(1)  Catalogues  and  bulletins  of  business  colleges. 

(2)  Catalogues  of  schools  of  salesmanship. 

(3)  Papers  published  by  local  stores  and  plants. 

(4)  Names  and  addresses  of  girls  who  just  "drop 
into"  the  Association  and  who  do  not  seem  to 
want   anything   offered.     Some    day  word   sent 
them  about  a  definite  meeting  or  "stunt"  may  at- 
tract them. 


CHAPTER   VI. 
THE  ORGANIZATION  OF  YOUNGER  BUSINESS  COLLEGE  GIRLS  * 

THERE  are  two  kinds  of  organization  possible  among 
younger  business  college  girls.  One  4s  the  regular  club 
organization  with  the  usual  officers  and  committees,  and  the 
other  a  more  informal  organization  an  which  the  business  of  the 
group  is  handled  by  committees  elected  whenever  there  is  need 
to  put  into  execution  any  of  the  desires  of  the  group.  This  does 
away  with  overhead  machinery  which  sometimes  is  not  wanted 
by  these  girls.  See  preceding  pages  for  a  discussion  of  formal 
and  informal  organizations. 


*This  is  suggestive  material  to  be  adapted  and  changed  as  the  needs  of 
the  girls  demand,  for  no  two  communities  can  use  the  same  program  in  the 
same  way.  It  is  hoped  that  this  material,  together  with  that  prepared  for 
older  business  and  professional  women  by  the  Business  and  Professional 
Women's  Bureau,  will  form  the  basis  for  a  consecutive  and  constructive  piece 
of  work  with  these  groups  which  should  be  closely  allied  in  all  interests. 

113 


If  a  club  is  organized',  it  should  have  a  constitution  and  a 
purpose  which  are  in  line  with  those  of  the  older  Business  and 
Professional  Women's  Club  in  the  Association.  (See  "Suggested 
Program  for  Business  and  Professional  Women's  Clubs,  The 
Womans  Press,  600  Lexington  Avenue,  New  York  City,  $.25.) 
The  club  of  older  women  should  feel  itself  responsible  for  the 
younger  girls,  both  individually  and  in  club  work.  The  girls' 
work  secretary,  the  chairman  of  the  girls'  work  committee,  a 
group  of  business  and  professional  women  from  the  older  club 
and  when  possible  a  representative  from  the  business  school  or 
college  should  be  responsible  for  initiating  work  among  the 
younger  business  college  girls,  and  for  all  policies  and  programs 
carried  on  in  connection  with  this  kind  of  work.  Such  a  commit- 
tee of  older  business  women  might  well  be  made  part  of  the 
service  committee  of  the  Business  and  Professional  Woman's 
Club  when  such  a  club  exists. 

Since  the  work  among  younger  business  college  girls  is  new, 
it  has  seemed  wise  not  to  suggest  a  name  but  to  leave  that  mat- 
ter to  each  local  community.  If  the  girls  desire  to  be  a  part  of 
the  younger  girl  movement  of  the  Young  Women's  Christian 
Association,  known  as  The  Girl  Reserve  Movement,  they  may 

do  so  by  designating  themselves  as  the Club  of 

the  Girl  Reserves/ by  registering  themselves  at  headquarters, 
600  Lexington  Avenue,  New  York  City,  and  by  receiving  and 
using  the  Girl  Reserve  code  posters. 

This  official  connection  with  the  younger  girl  movement  of 
the  Young  Women's  Christian  Association  may  or  may  not 
seem  wise.  This  probably  will  depend  upon  the  way  in  which 
the  Girl  Reserve  Movement  has  been  presented  to  the  community 
If  it  has  been  conceived  of  as  a  program  for  school  girls  and  not 
as  a  movement  providing  programs  for  all  girls  under  eighteen — 
grade  school,  high  school,  younger  girls  in  business  and  industry, 
and  younger  business  college  girls — the  girls  may  not  care  to 
be  related  to  it,  feeling  that  it  is  a  single  program  for  school 
girls. 

114 


But  the  advantages  of  this  connection  are  obvious.  It  pro- 
vides at  this  very  experimental  stage  of  the  work,  a  definite 
channel  of  organization  and  purpose,  expressed  in  posters  and 
code  cards  and  other  supplementary  material,  all  of  which  will 
be  extremely  valuable  to  the  older  business  woman,  who  for  the 
first  time  interests  herself  in  the  leadership  of  younger  girls. 
At  the  same  time,  this  connection  in  no  way  interferes  with  the 
kind  of  program  to  be  used  with  this  group  of  younger  business 
college  girls.  It  merely  provides  a  framework  for  the  program. 

LEADERSHIP 

The  leadership  of  younger  business  college  girls  should  come, 
in  so  far  as  possible  from  among  the  older  business  and  profes- 
sional wonten  of  the  community,  and  whenever  there  is  a  Busi- 
ness and  Professional  Women's  Club,  it  should  come  from  that 
membership.  The  older  business  and  professional  women  have 
more  to  contribute,  probably,  than  any  other  group  of  women  in 
the  community,  in  the  way  of  standards  of  living  and  of  work. 
The  object  of  such  a  club  among  younger  girls  is  to  develop  the 
girls  themselves  for  positions  of  leadership,  and  those  who  are 
sponsoring  the  workr  therefore,  should  be  very  sure  that  the 
club  is  a  self-governing  one. 


115 


Section 


PROGRAM    PLANNING 
CHAPTER  I. 

A  CLUE  TO  PROGRAM  PLANNING 

THE  purpose  of  the  Association,  and  hence  of  all  its  pro- 
grams and  activities,  is  essentially  the  bringing  of  the  girl 
to  her  full  development.  In  response  to  many  requests  for  a 
program  which  shall  bring  about  such  a  development,  this 
philosophy  of  program  making  is  suggested.  Our  task  in,  life 
is  to  live  in  a  way  which  completely  develops  through  user 
powers  of  body,  mind,  spirit.  In  the  development  of  Christian 
womanhood  there  are  four  fundamental  expressions  of  life,  any 
one  of  which  may  be  inclusive  of  the  others.  The  necessary 
thing  is  that  all  four,  with  their  Christian  interpretation,  shall 
contribute  to  a  developing  personality. 

These  fundamental  expressions  are: 

First:      Work — a    creative    production,    both    mental    and 

manual, 
Second:    Kecreation — a  renewal  of  life,  emotional,  physical, 

mental  and  spiritual, 
Third:     Fellowship — a  consciousness  of  the  value  of  other 

personalities   expressed   through   an   outgoing   of   spirit 

and  manifested  by  good  acts, 
Fourth:      Eeligion — a    consciousness    bf    God    in    lifej,    the 

dynamic  for  action. 

117 


A  well  developed  life  program  needs  to  include  plans  to 
make  one  a  better  workman,  means  of  renewing  life,  avenues 
for  growing  fellowship,  and  ways  of  coming  to  know  God 
better.  What  are  the  processes  of  growth?  What  is  involved 
in  growing?  What  are  the  tests  by  which  we  measure  plans 
that  will  help  us  in  our  growing?  First  of  all  we  ask,  in  what 
ways  do  we  need  to  grow?  Second — How  is  this  to  be  achieved? 
Third— Is  it  worth  while?  Fourth— Out  of  the  many  possibili- 
ties which  the  study  and  planning  and  evaluation  have  brought 
forth,  which  will  we  actually  follow  out  ?  Again  we  are  driven 
back  to  the  worth  while  things  of  life,  to  the  fundamental  ex- 
pressions, by  means  of  which  we  achieve  development  of  per- 
sonality. 

This  is  always  found  through  work.  Work  is  essential  to  a 
developing  personality,  defining  work  as  the  expression,  use  or 
exercise  of  our  abilities  in  the  actual  participation  in  the  in- 
dividual and  collective  production  of  the  world.  Unless  one's 
tasfc  is  truly  a  complete  expression  of  self,  is  it  enough  to 
work?  Through  the  days  and  through  the  years  it  is  by  means 
of  recreation,  the  renewal  of  life  that  we  continue  in  happiness 
and  growth.  Renewal  of  life  occurs  when  the  use  of  our 
emotional  force,  the  powers  of  our  body,  mind,  and  spirit,  no 
matter  what  the  form  of  expression,  fulfills  the  aims  and  de- 
sires of  our  whole  personality,  producing  rest,  satisfaction, 
peace  and  joy.  Yet  can  we  find  complete  development  of  per- 
sonality alone  ?  Plants  are  best  in  gardens,  sheep  are  loveliest 
in  flocks;  all  of  us  iind  ourselves  at  our  best  when  we  reach 
out  to  other  people  in  a  growing  fellowship  and  friendship. 
Yet  one  thing  is  lacking. 

What  is  it  that  furnishes  the  urge?  What  is  it  that  gives 
one  the  sense  of  responsibility  for  the  use  of  life?  What  is  it 
that  sends  one  reaching  out  to  a  joyous  sense  of  brotherhood? 
What  makes  the  garden  truly  fair  when  the  cool  of  the  day  is 
over  all?  Is  it  not  the  presence  of  God  in  the  garden?  Our 

118 


lives  express  themselves  through  work  and  in  the  giving  of 
gifts,  because  it  is  God  that  worketh  in  us,  and  work  and 
recreation  and  fellowship  take  on  a  new  meaning  and  new 
glory  when  permeating  them  all,  encircling  them  all  is  the 
consciousness  of  God. 

Do  we  measure  each  of  life's  projects  by  these  tests?  Do 
we  balance  our  lives  by  these  fundamental  measures?  Are  we 
truly  growing  into  the  measure  of  the  stature  of  the  fullness 
of  Him  who  found  his  joy  in  giving  of  Himself  in  work,  who 
never  missed  the  perfect  balance,  who  loved  even  the  least  and 
lowliest,  who  lived  his  life  in  the  conscious  fulfillment  of  the 
purpose  of  his  Father  and  ours? 


119 


EXPRESSIONS    OF    LIFE 


WORK 

RECREATION 

FELLOWSHIP 

RELIGION 

Creative 

A    Renewal    of 

A  Conscious- 

A Conscious- 

Production 

Life,  Emo- 

ness of  the 

ness  of  God  in 

Mental 

tional,  Physical, 

Value  of  Other 

Life  —  the 

and 

Mental, 

Personalities 

Dynamic  for 

Manual 

Spiritual 

'Expressed 

Action 

i.  Social  contri- 
bution. 

I.  Evaluation 
of  leisure 

Through  an 
Outgoing  of 
Spirit  and 

I.  Sense    of 
freedom  in 

2.  Economic 
independence. 

time. 

2.  Restoring  of 
balance. 

Manifested  by 
Good  Acts. 
I.  Growing 

action. 

2.  Sense  of 
brotherhood. 

3.  Development 

3.  The  play 

neighborli- 

of   skill. 

spirit. 

ness. 

3.  Urge  of  life. 

2.  Appreciation 

4.  Craftsman- 

4.    Freeing    of 

of   people; 

4.  Sense  of   re- 

ship. 

Mastery  Sense. 

understanding 

sponsibility. 

of    their    be- 

havior, be- 

liefs, 

customs. 

3.  Trust  of 

purposes. 

4.  Spirit   of   co- 

operation. 

120 


Too  often  our  programs  have  created  interest  among  certain 
girls  but  have  failed  to  reach  and  satisfy  the  needs  of  others. 
This  is  because  we  have  not  taken  into  account  the  fact  that 
there  are  in  each  individual  unformed,  developing  desires,  many 
times  unexpressed,  which  must  find  satisfaction  if  the  girl  is  to 
develop  normally  and  richly.  A^  girl  has  many  interests,  or 
latent  interests,  but  too  often  no  definite  plan  or  purpose  for 
her  life.  Most  of  her  future  power  and  happiness  depends  upon 
the  way  these  interests  and  the  demands  they  make,  are  met. 
These  forces  of  her  personality  cannot  be  repressed  without 
danger.  The  opportunities  offered*  her  should  therefore  be 
•rich,  stimulating,  and  varied. 

Study  needs  and  desires  of  group 

Select  the  avenue  of  expression  for  the  year's  work. 

Choose  the  emphases 

Build  the  project 

Analyze  the  project  by  the  program  tests 

Therefore,  in  building  a  program  we  have  in  mind  four 
supreme  avenues  of  expression — work,  recreation,  fellowship 
and  religion.  First  we  study  the  girls  and  find  what  is  their 
greatest  need.  We  also  discover  what  things  they  want  in  the 
way  of  program.  For  instance,  the  adviser,  knowing  that  a 
group  of  girls  cares  for  nothing  but  dancing  and  other  forms 
of  physical  activity,  also  realizes  keenly  that  the  same  girls 
need  certain  character  standards  developed.  Therefore,  when 
the  girls  choose  for  their  year's  emphases  in  their  club  pro- 
grams, nothing  but  forms  of  amusement,  the  adviser  keeps 
always  in  mind  such  emphases  as  will  give  the  girls  through 
recreation,  properly  developed,  not  only  all  the  play  and  fun 
they  want*,  but  also  activities  from  which  develop  ideals  of 
Christian  character. 

The  program  emphases  now  being  decided  upon,  the  adviser 
studies  whether  these  emphases  will  bring  to  the  girls  elements 
of  work,  recreation,  fellowship  and  religion.  Satisfied  that 
they  will,  she  decides  through  which  one  of  these  four  avenues 

121 


of  expression  the  girls  will  find  most  normally  complete  develop- 
ment. Next,  the  group  in  consultation,  chooses  the  methods  by 
which  not  only  immediate  interests  are  satisfied,  but  also  ways 
(of  which  they  are  not  immediately  cognizant)  in  which  their 
lives  may  be  given  proper  balance  and  power  of  growth. 

To  illustrate:  This  group  of  girls  who  desire  only  physical 
activity  chooses  to  form  a  basketball  team.  A  few  of  the  group 
want  to  have  a  class  in  candy  making;  others  want  to  learn 
to  cook  •  still  others  want  to  do  some  good  reading.  Tha 
adviser  acquiescing  in  all  these  desires,  immediately  sees  oppor- 
tunities in  the  basketball  and  cooking  classes,  and  especially 
in  the  study  of  literature,  to  do  the  work  fundamental  to  the 
formation  of  character  standards,  which  she  feels  this  group  of 
girls  so  badly  needs.  The  major  emphasis,  or  main  expression, 
for  the  year  then  is  recreation,  a  basketball  team  with  minor 
emphasis  on  candy  making,  cooking  and  literature.  The  ad- 
viser's knowledge  of  the  character  standards  which  are  to  be 
the  permeating  and  integrating  element,  is,  where  advisable, 
to  be  kept  in  the  background.  The  project  would  then  start 
with  a  skeleton  outline  as  follows: 

A  group  meets  for  supper,  which  the  class  in  cooking  pre- 
pared under  the  guidance  of  a  capable  instructor.  After  supper 
while  the  basketball  team  practices,  or  plays  a  game,  the  class 
in  candy  making  goes  to  work,  and  the  class  in  literature  goes 
off  under  their  adviser.  When  the  basketball  team  is  tired,  the 
girls  all  come  together  in  the  club  room  for  the  final  hour  of 
the  evening;  the  adviser  or  some  other  girl  chosen  from  the 
class  in  literature,  tells  a  story  or  reads  some  poems,  and  time 
is  given  for  discussion.  This  is  the  adviser's  great  opportunity. 
The  candy  makers  pass  their  wares  and  the  evening  ends  with 
a  note  of  fellowship. 

With  a  plan  similar  to  this  in  mind,  the  group  is  satisfied 
because  each  girl  feels  that  her  needs  are  to  be  met.  The 
project  is  thus  built.  Ideally,  this  should  cover  a  year's  club 
work  and  should  be  broad  enough  to  meet  the  girPs  interest 

1.2.2 


at  the  moment,  and  yet  carry  her  forward  to  new  fields  of 
growth  and  understanding1.  For  illustrations  see  the  suggested 
project,  page  124. 

When  the  project  is  complete  in  the  minds  of  the  girls 
and  the  adviser,  and  before  it  is  entered  upon,  it  should  be 
analyzed  by  the  following  tests  of  a  program: 

A.  Acquisition  of  knowledge. 

B.  Development  of  technique. 

C.  Formation  of  habits. 

D.  Character  expressed  through  action. 

Is  the  girl  able  to  learn  through  basketball,  the  laws  of 
health,  hygiene,  the  value  of  team  play,  and  honesty?  Through 
a  cooking  class,  does  she  learn  something  of  dietetics,  cleanli- 
ness, the  relation  of  a  balanced  diet  and  good  habits  of  life  to 
a  well  body?  Through  candy  making,  does  she  learn  accuracy 
of  weighing  and  sifting  and  testing?  Something  of  social  ser- 
vice perhaps?  Through  literature,  the  use  of  English,  the 
influence  and  style  of  great  writers,  the  lives  of  men  and 
women  in  'their  relation  to  one  another  and  to  'God  ? 

If  the  proposed  project  answers  these  tests,  it  will  result 
not  only  in  meeting  the  unexpressed  and  developing  desires  of 
the  girl  at  the  moment,  but  will  lead  her  on  into  a  fuller  and 
richer  growth  of  Christian  womanhood. 

And  what  is  Christian  womanhood?  It  is  typified  by  a 
woman  whose  sympathies  are  as  broad  as  the  needs  of  people; 
whose  understanding  is  as  deep  as  the  unfathomed  heart  of  a 
girl,  whose  life  is  rich  and  full  and  joyous  with  the  joy  of  Christ 
because  she  has  learned  of  Him  the  meaning  of  friendship  and 
gives  herself  in  wholehearted  devotion  to  all  His  friends.  A 
woman  who  stands  as  He  stood,  dauntless  and  unafraid,  cham- 
pioning the  oppressed,  righting  hideous  wrongs,  pouring  balm 
on  wounded  hearts,  comforting  the  sorrowing,  rejoicing  with 
the  joyous,  living  the  abundant  life. 

123 


The  success  of  the  project  can  be  determined  only  at  the 
close  of  the  year's  work.  If  there  have  opened  to  the  girl  new 
vistas  of  knowledge,  skill  in  the  use  of  technique,  contacts 
resulting  in  a  greater  appreciation  of  peoples,  a  consciousness 
of  <God  in  all  of  life,  the  project  has  been  a  success. 

The  following  project  on  fellowship  has  been  prepared  to 
illustrate^  the  way  in  which  the  program  planning  just  out- 
lined may  be  carried  out  by  a  group  of  younger  girls. 


A  PROJECT  IN  WORLD  FELLOWSHIP   FOR  YOUNGER   GIRLS'   CLUBS 

Time:  From  six  weeks  to  three  months  depending  upon 

the  comprehensive  treatment  of  the  project. 

First  Step:  In  magazines  and  books  find  pictures  of  girls 
of  other  countries,  Japan,  China,  India,  North 
American  Indian,  South  American  Indian,  Poland, 
Bulgaria,  iSyria,  Italy,  Czechoslovakia  and  any 
other  countries  desired. 

Se-cond  Step:  From  these  draw  and  color  designs  for  costumes. 
At  these  meetings  the  leader  tells  interesting 
facts  about  these  countries — how  religion  and 
tradition  have  been  formative  influences  in  the 
lives  of  the  women  and  girls  of  these  lands.  Dif- 
ferent girls  would  add  items  of  interest  which 
they  have  discovered  In  their  search  for  the 
pictures. 

Third  iStep:  The  making  of  costumes.  This  offers  an  oppor- 
tunity for  a  class  in  sewing.  Also  in  order  to 
get  proper  shades,  the  material  could  be  dyed 
and  this  could  occupy  one  step  of  the  project. 
The  making  of  the  costumes  should  not  be  hur- 
ried. Again  the  leader  or  adviser  seizes  every 
opportunity  to  sympathetically  interpret  girls 
and  women  of  the  various  countries  which  have 
been  chosen  for  representation  in  this  project, 

124 


At  some  meetings  a  story  hour  may  be  used  by 
someone  telling  a  foreign  story  while  the  girls 
sew.  A  part  of  each  meeting  during  the  sewing 
period  is  devoted  to  recreation,  to  playing  games 
of  foreign  countries.  Music  can  be  used  also — 
the  leader  or  someone  secures  for  this  purpose 
teaching  the  songs  and  pointing  out  the  main 
differences  in  Oriental  and  Occidental  music. 
Poetry  can  be  read  at  certain  meetings  and  in- 
terpreted to  reflect  the  religious  ideals  of  the 
country  and  also  to  instill  a  sympathetic  under- 
standing and  appreciation  of  non-Christian  cul- 
ture and  religion. 

Fourth  'Step:  When  the  costumes  are  nearing  completion,  or 
earlier  if  desired,  simple  folk  dances  can  be 
learned — the  girls  and  advisers  studying  the  sym- 
bolic nature  of  these  dances,  their  relation  to  the 
religions  of  the  country.  When  the  dances  are 
learned,  and  the  costumes  completed,  advance 
to  the 

Fifth  Step:  Which  is  in  the  nature  of  a  simple  pageant  or 
style  show.  This  should  be  entirely  in  pantomime 
and  can  be  worked  out  in  any  form  the  group 
desires.  The, following  is  merely  suggestive. 
A  Court  of  Nations  with  Columbia  posed  in 
simple  dignity  is  arranged.  Each  nation  is  rep- 
resented by  one  or  more  girls  in  costume  and 
appears  either  singly  or  in  groups,  each  girl 
carrying  some  flower  or  tree  which  is  character- 
istic of  her  country.  (Cherry  blossoms  for  Japan, 
maple  leaves  for  Canada,  etc.)  The  girl  advances 
slowly,  seeking  to  express  the  idea  of  the  country 
she  represents  in  gesture  and  posture,  (This 
should  have  been  carefully  thought  through  and 
planned  beforehand.)  She  makes  obeisance  and 

125 


deposits  her  offering  at  the  feet  of  Columbia. 
She  then  beckons  to  the  entrance  from  which 
she  came;  a  group  of  girls  run  out  and  join 
her  in  the  folk  dance  of  her  country.  In  the 
end  Columbia,  wi'th  gestures — symbolic  of  pro- 
tection^ understanding  and  appreciation,  wel- 
comes all  the  girls  Into  a  circle  of  friendship 
which  is  formed  by  the  girls  joining  hands  and 
forming  some  simple  and  beautiful  tableau. 
The  same  costumes,  music  and  dances  can  be 
used  again  in  a  bazaar  given  for  money-making 
purpose  at  which  times  booths  decorated  to 
represent  the  countries,  could  be  most  effectively 
used  and  merchandise  peculiar  to  that  nation 
sold. 

Again  at  a  special  vesper  service  the  same  cos- 
tumes and  music  can  be  used  in  presenting  The 
Prayers  of  the  Nations  (printed  in  this  Manual). 
A  number  of  the  honors  listed  under  KNOWL- 
EDGE can  be  made  into  Interesting  projects— 
e.  g.,  No.  4,  7,  8,  10. 

References:  Pictures  for  costumes:  The  National  Geographic 
magazine — Asia — back  copies  of  The  "World  Out- 
look— Koka. 

Games:  See  "Children  at  Play  In  Many  Lands/' 
by  Katherine  S.  Hall,  Missionary  Education 
Movement,  156  Fifth  Avenue,  New  York  City. 

Bancroft  Game  Book,  Music:  Native  Melodies — 
Missionary  Education  Movement,  156  5th  Ave., 
New  York  City. 

Two  selections  from  Chinese  tone  poems  in  low 
voice  by  John  Alden  Carpenter,  Schirmer,  New 
York.  Two  selections  from  Gitanjali  (Tagore), 
John  Alden  Carpenter,  Schirmer,  New  York. 

126 


Folk  Songs  of  Many  Peoples,  The  Womans  Press, 
600  Lexington  Avenue,  New  York. 

Poems; 

The  Crescent  Moon Rabindranath  Tagore 

Fruit  Gathering.. Poems  12,  19,  27,  57  and  79 

The  Broken  Wing Sarojini  Naidu 

Bird  of  Time Sarojini  Naidu 

The   Golden  Threshold Sarojini  Naidu 

Hispanic  Anthology,  arranged  by  Thomas  Walsh 

(Poems  from  Spanish) 

Anthology  of  Jugoslav  Poetry, 

B.  'Stevens  /Stanoyevich 

Stories : 

Girl  Reserve  Book  List, 
Children  of  India, 

Janet  Harvey  Kellerman — Chap.  2 

Children  of  Japan 

Janet  Harvey  Kellerman— The  Story  of 
Hamojuchi 

African  Adventures 

Jean    Mackenzie— ^Chaps.    25-28— A    Girl's 
Bravery 
Japanese  Fairy  World 

William      Elliott      Griffis— The      Firefly's 
Lovers 
Woodcraft  Manual  for  Girls 

Indian  Stories — page  107 

Story  of  Cornsmut  Girls  (A  Hopi  Legend) 
The  Seven  Swans,  How  We  Found  the 
Great  Spirit.  Page  119. 

Junior  Mission  Story Margaret  Applegarth 

"The  Story  of  Jill" .(Southern  Highlander) 

Dancing Frazer   (for  Hindu  Folk  Dances) 

127 


CHAPTER  II. 
TYPICAL   PROGRAMS   FOR   GROUPS   OF    GIRLS 

The  following  programs  have  been  included  in  this  Manual 
because  they  typify  some  of  the  necessary  elements  which  must 
be  present  both  in  the  content  and  method  of  all  project  building 
as  stated  in  the  preceding  pages.  The  fundamental  way  of  build- 
ing a  program  which  contributes  to  the  fulness  of  life  of  a 
developing  personality  is  an  ideal  toward  which  all  educational 
programs  in  the  Association  will  be  directed  henceforth.  But 
because  all  advisers  and  secretaries  are  still  finding  their  way 
into  the  study  of  program  building,  it  has  been  considered  wise 
to  assemble  many  topics  or  manifestations  of  'the  four  avenues 
of  expression,  and  to  develop  them  as  units  which  may  be  com- 
bined into  a  project  on  work,  recreation,  fellowship  or  religion. 

To  illustrate  this  by  a  diagram,  a  large  circle  may  be  drawn 
which  may  be  divided  into  four  equal  parts*,  or  right  angles,  each 
of  which  would  represent  one  of  the  four  avenues  through  which 
a  developing  personality  expresses  itself.  But  the  needs  and 
desires  of  the  group  might  make  it  necessary  to  have  the  major 
emphasis  upon  recreation.  Therefore  the  project  would  be  pic- 
tured by  a  circle  equal  in  diameter  to  the  other,  but  with  the 
angle  representing  the  emphases  placed  upon  recreation  equal 
to  two  hundred  or  two  hundred  and  seventy  degrees  approxi- 
mately. The  remaining  degrees  may  include  emphases  upon 
any  one  or  more  of  the  other  avenues  of  expression,  in  terms  of 
their  Christian  interpretation.  The  life  of  a  girl  or  the  life  of 
group  of  girls  will  grow  as  any  project  stands  the  tests  men- 
tioned before  and  represented  diagrammatieally  by  a  series  of 
concentric  circles,  the  smallest  of  these  representing1  the  develop- 
ing personality,  which  grows  as  it  acquires  knowledge,  develops 
technique  or  skill  which  will  be  utilized  in  all  further  life  experi- 
ences, forms  good  habits  and  expresses  all  its  development  in 
action,  thus  becoming  a  social  factor  for  good. 

128 


1'  A  DtHtADTlM  Tt 

'"TESTS 


"TUt 


129 


THE  TEST  OF  A  PROGRAM 

The  test  of  a  club  program  is  the  way  in  which  it  holds'  the 
girls'  attention.  Variety  is  an  essential  which  must  not  be  over- 
looked and  yet  underneath  there  should  be  a  continuous  theme 
which  will  make  for  growth  in  the  life  of  the  girl.  Each  activity 
should  be  a  definite  step  toward  this  goal.  Fullness  of  life  for 
the  girlhood  of  to-day  will  make  a  responsible  womanhood  for 
to-morrow. 

In  the  chart,  "Activities  for  Developing  the  Girl  Citizen," 
the  activities  which  girls  enjoy  and  need  have  been  grouped  under 
four  divisions:  the  girl's  physical  life,  the  girl's  mental  or  intel- 
lectual life,  the  girl's  social  life,  and  the  girl's  spiritual  life. 
These  terms  are  descriptive  of  processes  which  are  measured  by 
the  four  expressions  of  life  indicated  dn  the  preceding  pages  of 
this  chapter,  recreation,  work,  fellowship,  and  religion. 

The  weekly  program  of  every  club  should  provide  one  major 
activity  and  some  supplementary  activities  from  any  one  of 
these  divisions,  depending  upon  the  kind  of  project  which  has 
been  undertaken  by  the  decision  of  the  group.  The  chart  will 
help  to  serve  as  a  guide.  (Page  128.) 

PROGRAMS 
CONTENT  AND  METHOD  TYPICAL  OF  A  GRADE  SCHOOL  CORPS 

PROGRAM 

THE  following  program  demonstrates  in  a  very  simple  way 
certain  principles  which  an  adviser  needs  to  bear  in  mind 
as  she  plans  her  program,  First,  the  assignment,  made  at  least 
a  week  in  advance  of  the  regular  meeting;  second,  a  list  of 
material  to  be  prepared  or  secured  by  the  adviser;  third,  the 
actual  meeting. 

It  is  only  suggestive,  for  it  is  clearly  recognized  that  the 
sort  of  topics  listed  here  will  not  be  applicable  to  situations 
existing  in  certain  communities.  As  this  program  stands,  no 
provision  has  been  made  for  the  opening  and  the  closing  of  the 
meetings.  In  other  words,  an  adviser  planning  for  a  meeting 

130 


must  have  in  mind  these  three  distinct  parts  of  the  program, — 
the  opening,,  the'  major  activity,  and  the  best  way  to  spend  the 
last  haft-hour.  This  program  deals  only  with  the  major  activity 
and  somewhere  in  the  program  should  occur  one  half-hour  of 
carefully  planned  recreation.  (For  suggestions  in  regard  to 
the  opening  of  the  meeting,  and  recreation,  see  pages  157,  348, 
748. 

To  show  how  the  Honor  System  becomes  the  basis  of  any 
program  or  any  single  meeting  in  the  year's  work,  there  have 
been  included  in  the  directions  for  the  preparation  of  these 
meetings  direct  reference  to  the  kind  of  honor  it  represents 
and  to  the  number  of  that  honor  in  the  revised  list  of  honors 
which  appears  elsewhere  in  this  Manual.  For  example,  Honor 
No.  19,  Health,  placed  at  the  right  of  the  directions  for  the 
meeting  means  that  members  of  the  corps  or  company  will 
have  an  opportunity  to  begin  and  perhaps  complete  that  par- 
ticular honor,  because  the  subject  of  the  program  Is  one  which 
is  included  under7  Health  in  the  Honor  List. 

One  meeting  each  month  should  be  a  business  and  good- 
times  one,  and  therefore  only  three  are  outlined  in  the  program 
which  follows. 

It  is  not  always  possible  to  have  the  first  meeting  of  a  Girl 
Reserve  Corps  in  the  fall  one  where  a  complete  program  is 
attempted.  Especially  is  this  true  if  the  corps  is  a  new  one,  or 
is  being  reorganized.  Therefore,  the  outline  for  two  meetings 
has  been  stated  in  the  following  way,  so  that  the  new  girls 
will  understand  what  the  whole  plan  is.  After  this  point  in 
organization  has  been  passed,  it  is  easy  to  undertake  the  con- 
tent of  the  program  suggested,  and  carry  it  forward  in  the 
way  best  suited  to  meet  the  girls'  needs. 
First  Meeting: 

(A)  Have  ten  to  fifteen  minutes  of  good  lively  recreation 
so  that  the  girls  will  feel  at  ease.  See  "Ice-Breakers" 
by  Edna  Geister  for  suggestions  for  games;  pub- 
lished by  The  Womans  Press. 

131 


(B)  Explain  in  an  interesting  and  graphic  way  what  the 
Girl  Reserve  Movement  is,  stressing  the  fact  that 
it  is  part  of  a  national  and  international  movement; 
show  what  the  Blue  Triangle  means  to-day  in  the 
world  and  what  the  Blue  Triangle  girls  are  doing 
here.48  Have  pictures  of  club  girls,  insignia,  etc.,  to 
show.    This  talk  should  not  be  over  fifteen  minutes 
in  length. 

(C)  Let  the  girls  ask  questions.     Have  slips  of  paper 
ready  for  the  girls  to  write  their  names  and  ad- 
dresses if  they  want  to  be  Girl  Reserves.     Appoint 
time  for  next  meeting, 

(D)  Play  games.      Have  general  good  times  for  fifteen 
to  twenty  minutes  at  close  of  meeting.    Girl  Reserve 
cheers   and  yells   can  be   used   at   this   meeting   if 
desired. 

Sample  yells: 

(1)  We're  here — we're  there 
We're  everywhere 

Girl  Reserves. 

(2)  (Spell  slowly,  emphasizing  italicized  letters) 
G-I-R-L   R-E-S-E-R~F~E-$ 

Girl  Reserves! 
Second  Meeting: 

It  is  not  always  possible  to  organize  at  the  second  meeting, 
as  the  girls  are  not  always  ready  for  organization  for  several 
meetings.  In  such  a  situation,  continue  a  good  recreation  pro- 
gram, working  in  some  of  the  regular  Girl  Reserve  program. 

If  possible,  however,  try  to  do  the  following  at  the  second 
meeting: 

/(I)  "Roll  call,"  e.  g.,  read  names  of  girls  handed  in  at 

last  meeting  to  see  how  many  more  are  present. 
(2)  If  many  new  girls  are  present,  explain  the  three 
committees  and  have  the  election  of  the  three  chair- 
men.   It  is  well  to  tell  clearly  what  these  three  girls 

132 


must  do  and  to  bring  out  that  girls  must  not  be 
chosen  because  they  are  "popular/'  but  because  they 
are  able,  faithful,  and  to  be  relied  upon.  The  first 
officers  of  any  group  are  apt  not  to  be  the  right 
girls. 

(3)  If  possible,  have  a  little  formality  connected  with  the 
nomination  of  the  chairmen  and  have  the  voting  by 
ballot. 

(4)  While  the  ballots  are  being  counted  have  the  girls 
learn  some  cheers  and  make  up  short  songs  to  be 
sung  to  the  incoming  officers. 

(5)  Selection  of  name  of  corps,  color,  flower  if  desired. 

(6)  Decision   as    to   regular   time   and   place   for   corps 
meetings. 

(7)  Explanation  and  discussion  of  the  "Honor  System.'' 
Show  girls  how  record  of  honors  is  to  be  kept.     (See 
pages  255-294.) 

(8)  Recreation  for  at  least  twenty  minutes.     Use  good 
team  games   which  the  girls   can  be  learning,  and 
which  will   count  later  as  an  honor  under  "Indoor 
Activities." 

SEPTEMBER  •  Honor  No.  12 

Knowledge 

First  Meeting.     A  School  Girl's  Wardrobe. 
Assignment: 

Have  the  girls  make  a  list  of  the  clothing  necessary 
for  a  girl  who  is  going  to  school,  giving  the  approximate 
cost  of  each  article.    Each  girl  should  bring  pencil,  note- 
book and  scissors  to  the  club  meeting. 
Material  needed  by  the  adviser: 

The  adviser  should  prepare  a  list  of  the  clothing  neces- 
sary for  a  girl  who  is  going  to  school  and  should  secure 
samples  of  material.  It  would  be  wise  to  secure  samples 

133 


of  different  grades  of  material  so  the  girls  may  select 
the  best.  Designs  may  be  secured  from  fashion  maga- 
zines. %  The  adviser  will  also  need  scissors  and  paste. 

Club  Meetings: 

Discussion  centering  about  the  lists  submitted  by  the 
girls  may  be  stimulated  through  such  questions  as  the 
following: 

What  should  be  one's  standard  of  values  in  regard 

to  clothes? 

Do  clothes  make  a  girl? 

How  far  should  a  girl  be  influenced  by  what  others 

wear? 

"Be  not  the  first  by  whom  the  new  is  tried, 
Nor  yet  the  last  to  lay  the  old  aside." 

Let  each  girl  make  a  fashion  book  containing  pic- 
tures cut  from  fashion  magazines,  illustrating  the  various 
articles  in  a  girl's  wardrobe;  place  beside  each  "cut-out" 
samples  of  the  material  and  the  prices.  Impress  the  fact 
that  simplicity,  durability  and  girlishness  are  qualities 
which  are  desirable. 

Second  Meeting.  It  is  often  desirable  to  have  two  club  programs 
on  plain  sewing,  following  such  a  discussion  as  suggested 
in  the  first  meeting. 

Honor  No.  79 

Knowledge 
Assignment: 

Have  the  girls  bring  needles,  scissors,  thread,  and 
pins  and  white  goods. 

Material  needed  by  the  adviser: 

Obtain  simple  patterns  of  undergarments.  Send  to 
Extension  Service,  New  York  State  College  of  Agricul- 
ture, Cornell  University,  Ithaca,  New  York,  for  Junior 

134 


Extension  Bulletins  1  and  2*  Similar  material  may  be 
secured  from  almost  any  of  the  State  Colleges  of  Agri- 
culture. 

Club  Meetings: 

See  that  the  girls  make  use  of  the  different  kinds  of 
seams  and  stitches  as  they  work  together.  Insist  on 
accuracy  and  neatness.  Assign  some  home  work  "to  be 
done  and  plan  to  complete  the  garments-  at  the  next 
meeting.  While  the  girls  work  there  is  opportunity  for 
teaching  group  songs. 

Third  Meeting.     This  meeting  is  a  continuation  of  the  second 
meeting.    Make  a  doll's  dress. 

Honor  No.  80 
Knowledge 

OCTOBER  "  Honor  No.  32— Spirit 

Honor  No.  33— Spirit 
First  Meeting.    Girls  the  World  Around. 
Assignment: 

Use  during  this  month  the  Third  Inch  of  the  Inch 
Library,  which  may  be  secured  from  The  Womans  .Press, 
600  Lexington  Avenue,  New  York  City.  Assign  to  three 
6f  the  girls  the  stories  of  the  (a)  "Geographical  Adven- 
tures in  Friendship,"  (b)  "One  of  the  Shining  Ones," 
(c)  "Carmela." 
Material  needed  by  the  adviser: 

The  Third  Inch  of  the  Inch  Library,  and  "Children 
at  Play  in  Many  Lands,"  by  Katherine  Stanley  Hall. 
Club  Meeting: 

Locate  on  the  map  the  lands  mentioned  dn  these 
stories.  Have  the  girls  read  or  tell  their  stories.  Show 
any  curios  from  these  countries  which  an  adviser  may  be 
able  to  secure.  If  possible,  choose  from  "Children  at 
Play  in  Many  Lands"  games  to  be  played  by  the  giris 
during  their  recreation  period. 

135 


Second  Meeting.     Girls  the  World  Around   (continued). 

Assignment: 

Choose  three   other  girls   and  ask   them   to   read   or 
tell   the  following   stories   from   the  Third   Inch   of  the 
Inch    Library:      (a)    "The    Russian    Stage    Coach,"    (b) 
'"East  of  Suez/'  (c)  "The  Mark  on  the  Loaf." 
Material  needed  by  the  adviser: 

"Children  at  Play  in  Many  Lands."     The  Third  Inch 
of  the  Inch  Library. 
Curios. 

Club  Meeting: 

Use  the  map  as  before.  Have  the  girls  play  the 
games  and  tell  the  stories. 

Third  Meeting.     Girls  the  World  Around  (continued). 

Assignment: 

Choose  three  other  girls  and  ask  them  to  read  or  tell 
the  following  stories  from  The  Third  Inch  of  the  Inch 
Library:    (a)  "Saki,  the  New  Woman,"  (b)  "Nat  So  Very 
Different,"  (c)  "Bargains." 
Material  needed  by  the  leader: 

The  same  as  for  the  previous  meetings. 

Club    Meeting: 

Use  the  map  as  before  and  make  the  people  real  to 
the  girls. 

NOVEMBER 

Honor  Nos.  1-2-5-24-31-32 
Service 

Honor  No.  31 
Knowledge 

First  Meeting.     The  Why  and  How  of  Cooking. 
Assignment: 

Decide  on  the  desired  food  to  be  prepared  and  have 
the  girls  bring  the  necessary  materials,  notebooks  and 
pencils. 

136 


Material  needed  by  the  adviser: 

All  the  necessary  cooking  equipment.  Secure  from 
the  Metropolitan  Life  Insurace  Company,  1  Madison 
Avenue,  New  York  City,  the  Metropolitan  Cook  Book. 
Mothers  of  club  members  are  often  very  glad  to  help  in 
such  a  demonstration. 

Club  Meetings: 

Demonstration.  The  following  questions  are  sug- 
gestive: 

Why  is  food  necessary  to  the  human  body? 

What  foods   are   tissue  builders? 

Which  ones  are  energy  builders? 

What  foods  should  growing  girls  eat?  What  should 
they  avoid? 

Demonstrate  the  way  to  set  a  table  correctly  and 
attractively. 

How  should  flowers  be  used? 

Why  are  salads  and  meats  garnished? 

Honor  No.  43,  Service 
Honor  No-.  1,  Knowledge 

Second  Meeting.    The  Why  and  How  of  Cooking  (continued). 
Assignment: 

See  above.    Ask  the  girls  to  think  about  this  question: 
How  can  a  Chouse  be  arranged  to  save  steps  and  labor? 
Material  needed  by  the  adviser: 

The  same  as  stated  for  the  first  meeting.  Secure 
from  the  Bureau  of  Public  Health  Education),  City  of 
New  York,  "Keep  Well  Leaflet,"  No.  17,  "Sample  Whole- 
some Luncheon  for  Working  People" ;  also  special  bulle- 
tins on  "The  Home"  from  the  Department  of  Agriculture, 
Washington,  D.  C.,  and  from  the  Extension  Department 
of  State  Agricultural  Schools.  Farmers'  Bulletin  927, 
"Farm  Home  Conveniences,"  is  especially  helpful. 

137 


Club   Meeting: 

Use  such  questions  as  the  following  to  stimulate  dis- 
cussion: 

What  labor-saving  devices  are  there  in  your  home? 
What  would  you  like  to  have  or  use? 

Third  Meeting.     Recipe  Party.  Honor  No.  11 — Service 

Assignment: 

Have  each  girl  bring  to  the  meeting  her  favorite 
recipe;  also  the  menu  for  a  dinner. 

Material  needed  by  the  adviser: 

The  adviser  should  secure  several  good  recipes  for 
dishes  usually  served  at  a  dinner  to  be  served  in  courses. 
She  should  also  review  the  proper  way  to  serve  and 
clear  a  table,  finding  the  directions  for  this  in  some 
Domestic  Science  textbook. 

Olub   Meeting: 

Discuss  and  exchange  recipes.  Plan  several  balanced 
meals.  Demonstrate  the  serving  of  a  meal  and  the 
clearing  of  a  table. 

DECEMBER 

First  Meeting.     A  Christmas  Play. 

During  this  month  it  is  often  advisable  to  prepare  for  an 
entertainment  to  be  given  by  the  cluB  during  the  holidays, 
•Suggested  plays:  "The  Christmas  Story/'  by  Jean  Miller, 
and  "The  Ruggles  Party"  from  "The  Birds  Christmas  Carol." 
See  the  full  list  of  Christmas  Plays  included  in  A  Second 
List  of  Plays  and  Pageants,  The  Womans  Press,  600  Lexing- 
ton Avenue,  New  York  City.  Price  35e.  The  T.  S.  Dennison 
Company,  154  West  Randolph  Street,  Chicago,  111.,  has 
excellent  catalogues  of  plays  and  stunts;  also,  Samuel 
French,  28  West  38th  Street,  New  York  City;  The  Penn 
Publishing  Company,  536  South  Clark  Street,  Philadelphia, 

138 


Penna.,  and  the  Walter  H.  Baker  Company,  Hamilton  Place, 
Boston,   Mass.     Whatever  play  is   decided  upon   should  be 
ordered  early.    Probably  at  the  first  meeting  the  girls  would 
be  interested  in  exchanging  ideas  for  Christmas  presents. 
Assignment: 

Let  each  girl  bring  to  the  meeting-  some  very  simple 
gift  suggestions. 
Material  needed  by  the  adviser: 

Secure  from  popular  women's  magazines  such  as  the 
Woman's  Home  Companion  or  the  Ladies'  Home  Journal 
many   suggestions   for   small    inexpensive   gifts.     These 
plans  should  be  shared  with  the  girls  at  club  meeting. 
Club    Meeting: 

Read  aloud  some  Christmas  story  while  the  girls  work 
on  their  gifts.  The  second  and  third  meetings  are  similar 
to  the  first  and  include  rehearsals  for  the  play  and  gift 
making. 

JANUARY 
First  Meeting.  How  Much  Do  I  Cost  ? 

Honor  No.  40 

Knowledge 
Assignment: 

Have  the  girls  write  down  what  they  think  they  cost 
per  year. 

Even  though  a  girl  is  living  at  home,  she  can  estimate 
from  prices  in  the  community  the  approximate  cost  of 
her  living. 

Material  needed  by  the  adviser: 

The  adviser  should  carefully  estimate  what  she  considers 
the  amount  necessary  to  care  for  a  girl,  considering  living 
expenses,  cost  of  clothing,  education  and  amusement. 

Club   Meeting: 

Discuss  the  girls'  outlines^  comparing  amounts. 
Through  carefully  guided  discussion,  a  girl  /may  'be 

139 


taught  to  appreciate  more  fully  her  home.  She  becomes 
more  conscious  of  her  own  value  in  the  home  and  realizes 
her  responsibility. 

Discuss  also  the  value  of  keeping  accounts  during 
the  year.  Why  should  a  girl  budget  her  income  when 
she  first  starts  to  work?  Should  the  housekeeper  have 
a  budget  system? 

Second  Meeting.    What's  in  a  Letter?  Honor  No.  20 

Knowledge 

Assignment: 

Have  the  girls  bring  to   the  meeting   a  letter  to   a 
publishing  house  regarding  the  changing  of  an  address, 
an  invitation  to  a  luncheon,  and  a  "bread  and  butter" 
letter. 
Material  needed  by  the  adviser:  « 

The  adviser  should  write  similar  letters,  neatly,  and 
paying  special  attention  to  spacing  and  paragraphing. 
C'lub  Meeting: 

'Suggestive  questions:  What  is  the  value  of  a  well- 
written  business  letter?  A  neatly  addressed  envelope? 
Discuss  the  letters  the  girls  have  written.  If  it  is 
at  all  possible,  secure  a  man  or  woman  from  a  nearby 
department  store  or  business  firm,  who  can  talk  about  the 
value  of  good  letters. 

Third  Meeting.    Mistakes  I  Hear  Every  Day;      Honor  Nos.  56-57 


Assignment  : 

Have  the  girls  bring  in  a  list  of  the  mistakes  in  speech 
which  they  hear  every  day. 

Ask  the  girls  to  think  about  the  following  question: 
Does  a  person's  speech  make  any  impression  on  her 
hearer  ? 
Material  needed  by  the  adviser: 

The  adviser  should  note  carefully  the  conversation  of 
her  girls  ;  she  must  remember  that  for  every  incorrect 

140 


and  uncouth  expression  removed  from  their  conversation 
a  substitute  must  be  provided,  otherwise  they  will  become 
timid  and  inarticulate. 

Club  Meeting: 

Suggestive  questions:  What  are  the  ordinary  gram- 
matical mistakes  one  hears  every  day?  How  did  slang 
originate?  When  is  slang  not  slang? 

Even  though  a  person  may  be  able  to  express  exactly 
what  she  means  in  a  correct  way,  one  requisite  is  a  well- 
modulated  voice.  In  how  far  can  a  girl  determine  the 
nature  of  her  voice?  If  she  has  not  the  kind  of  a  voice 
she  admires,  how  can  she  cultivate  it?  Does  the  man- 
ner of  expressing  a  statement  influence  its  interpre- 
tation? 

FEBRUARY 

Honor  Nos.  1,  2,  3,  4 

Knowledge 
First  Meeting.     Care  of  -the  Sick  Room. 

Assignment: 

What  effect  does  the  room  in  which  a  patient  is  lying 
have  upon  her  condition?  Bring  to  the  club  a  small 
floor  plan  of  a  bedroom,  indicating  on  it  the  things  one 
would  wish  if  one  were  ill. 

Material  needed  by  the  adviser: 

The  adviser  should  carefully  study  the  things  neces- 
sary in  a  sick  room.  It  would  be  well  for  her  to  draw 
a  plan  of  a  model  bedroom  simply  furnished  with  the 
essentials  of  home  nursing.  Pamphlets'  may  be  secured 
from  the  'Metropolitan  Life  Insurance  Company,  1  Madi- 
son Avenue,  New  York  City. 

Club  Meeting: 

If  it  is  possible,  hold  this  meeting  in  the  home  of  the 
adviser  or  at  the  home  of  one  of  the  girls.  Have  the  girls 
prepare  one  of  the  bedrooms  as  a  sick  room. 

141 


Suggestive  questions:  In  what  part  of  the  house 
should  a  sick  room  be?  Does  a  patient  like  to  have 
many  pictures  on  the  wall?  How  should  the  lighting  of 
a  room  be  arranged?  Where  is  the  best  place  for  a 
bed?  When  the  doctor  comes,  what  should  be  ready  for 
his  use? 
Second  Meeting.  Care  of  the  Sick  Person. 

Assignment: 

Ask  the  different  girls  in  the  group  to  come  prepared 
to  tell  how  to  take  care  of  patients  having  such  diseases 
as:  scarlet  fever,  pneumonia'.,  diphtheria,  the  usual  dis- 
eases of  childhood. 

Material  needed  by  the  adviser: 

The  adviser  should  secure  pamphlets  from  the  Met- 
ropolitan Life  Insurance  Company,  as  they  will  be  helpful 
to  her  in  carrying  on  these  discussions  with  the  girls. 
Pamphlets  regarding  the  special  care  of  children  may  be 
secured  from  the  Child  Health  Organization,  370  Seventh 
Avenue,  New  York  City. 

Club  Meeting: 

Girls  like  things  to  be  concrete,  therefore  it  is  ad- 
visable to  have  the  meetings  in  one  of  the  homes  where 
a  girl  may  be  the  patient.  The  girls  should  learn  the 
symptoms  and  method  of 'treatment  of  each  disease. 

Suggestive  questions:  What  is  the  most  comfortable 
way  for  a  patient  to  lie  in  bed?  Where  should  the  pil- 
lows be  placed  to  ease  the  weight  the  most?  Fix  a  chair 
upside  down  for  the  patient's  back  so  that  she  may  sit 
up  in  bed. 

"hird  Meeting.  Honor  No.  31 

Knowledge 
Assignment: 

Ask  the  girls  to  bring  to  the  next  meeting  a  diet  for 
the  patient  suffering  from  the  different  diseases  which 
they  have  learned  to  treat. 

142 


Material  needed  by  the  adviser: 

Secure  information  regarding  the  diet  of  a  sick  per- 
son, the  care  of  utensils,  the  disposal  of  the  food.  The 
pamphlets  secured  for  the  previous  meeting's  contain 
helpful  suggestions. 

If  possible  secure  the  services  of  a  nurse  or  doctor 
at  the  meeting.     If  this  is  not  possible,  be  sure  to  con- 
sult one  or  the  other  before  the  meeting. 
Club  Meeting: 

Suggestive  questions:  Why  does  the  food  for  a  sick 
person  have  to  be  considered  so  carefully?  If  a  person 
is  on  a  liquid  diet,  how  many  things  can  be  named  which 
would  be  appetizing  and  nourishing?  Why  should  care 
be  used  in  sterilizing  dishes  which  have  been  in  the  sick 
room?  How  soon  should  they  be  sterilized?  Why  is  it 
so  necessary  to  dispose  of  the  food  which  has  been  re- 
turned from  the  sick  room?  How  should  this  be  done? 
'How  may  a  tray  for  a  sick  room  be  made  attractive? 

MARCH 
First  Meeting.    What  am  I  Going  to  Be?      Honor  Nos.  28-29 

Knowledge 
Assignment: 

Have  the  girls  bring  in  a  list  of  as  many  occupations 
as  they  know  are  open  to  women  and  what  preparation 
is  essential  for  each;  also  information  as  to  where  such 
preparation  may  be  secured. 
Material  needed  by  the  adviser: 

See  material  in  this  Manual  on  Vocational  Guidance, 
page  503. 

•Secure  from  the  standard  colleges  catalogues  show- 
ing what  scholarships  are  available  for  girls. 
Club  Meeting: 

Go  over  with  the  girls  the  vocations  which  are  open 
to  women.  Discuss  the  amount  of  preparation  necessary 
for  each  and  where  it  can  best  be  secured. 

143 


Suggestive  questions:  What  is  the  value  of  being 
well  trained  for  work;  does  training  make  possible  great- 
er enjoyment  of  work  ?  How  much  will  it  cost  to  be  well 
trained  for  the  work  one  wishes  to  do?  To  what  college 
should  one  go? 

Explain  how  scholarships  may  be  obtained  and  the 
usual  amount  which  is  to  be  secured. 

Second   Meeting.     What   My   Community   Needs   Most. 

Honor  Nos.  38,  39,  40 
Service 
Honor  No.  30 
Knowledge 
Honor  No.  34 

Service 
Assignment: 

Ask  the  girls  to  think  very  definitely  of  the  things 
that  they  would  give  their  communities  were  they  finan- 
cially able  to  do  so  j  also  to  be  able  to  answer  the  fol- 
lowing questions: 

Where  is  the  county  poor  farm? 
How  many  people  live  there? 

Where  are  the  insane  people  of  our  community  sent? 
Where  is  the  state  penitentiary? 
Are  there  any  state  reform  schools? 
How  are  the  poor  in  our  community  cared  for? 
Material  needed  by  the  adviser: 

The  adviser  should  acquaint  herself  with  everything 
regarding  the  community  and  should  be  able  to  answer 
the  questions  assigned  to  the  girls.  She  should  be  able 
to  explain  to  the  girls  the  various  systems  whereby  the 
community  disposes  of  its  garbage,  how  the  water  supply 
is  kept  pure  and  how  sanitation  for  the  whole  community 
is  achieved. 

144 


Club  Meeting. 

Have  the  girls  discuss  the  above  questions:  also  seek 
answers  to  the  following: 

What  are  the  needs  of  our  community? 

How  are  they  met?     Hew  should  they  be  met? 

What  can  our  club  do  as  a  piece  of  service  work  for 
our  community? 

Third  Meeting.     Citizenship. 

Honor  No.  44  (d) 
Knowledge 
Honor  No.  54 
Knowledge 
Assignment: 

Have  the  girls  think  of  what  it  means  to  be  a  citizen 
in  their  community.  Assign  to  some  of  them  the  life 
stories  of  women  who  have  served  their  communities  in 
splendid  ways. 

Suggested  names  are:  Jane  Addams;  Anna  Howard 
Shaw ;  Mary  McDowell ;  Catherine  Breshkovsky,  "the  Lit- 
tle Grandmother  of  the  Russian  Revolution";  Mary  Lyon; 
Frances  Willard. 

Material  needed  by  the  adviser: 

Secure  stories  of  the  lives  of  these  women  and  of  others 
who,  through  forming  public  opinion  and  through  being 
good  citizens,  have  brought  great  good  to  the  women 
of  the  world.  Be  able  to  lea^l  the  discussion  in  the  club 
meeting  in  such  a  way  as  to  have  it  mean  something 
definite  in  the  lives  of  the  girls.  See  material  in  this 
Manual  on  Citizenship. 

Club  Meeting: 

The  following  questions  might  be  used  to  start  dis- 
cussion: 

What  is  citizenship? 

What  is  .the  responsibility  of  a  girl  or  woman  citizen 
in  a  community? 

145 


Am  I  a  good  citizen?    How  can  I  be  a  better  one? 
What  is  the  value  of  a  woman's  vote? 
How   is   the  ballot   an   instrument    to    form    public 
opinion  ? 

How  is  public  opinion  created? 

What  am  I  doing  to  be  well  educated  for  citizenship  ? 

What  should  I  know  to  be  able  to  vote  intelligently? 


APRIL 

First  Meeting.    When  We  Go  Traveling. 

Honor  No.  56 
Knowledge 
Assignment: 

Have  the  girls  bring  to  the  club  meeting  a  list  of  the 
things  they  would  need  to  take  for  a  two-weeks'  trip. 

Material  needed  by  the  adviser: 

The  adviser  should  also  make  such  a  list.  Secure  from 
the  railroad  offices  a  time-table,  a  hotel  guide,  and  a 
large  map  to  trace  the  journey. 

Club  Meeting: 

The  following  questions  are  suggested  to  help  in  the 
discussion: 

What  should  we  take  when  traveling? 

How  should  a  girl  be  dressed? 

How  should  she  conduct  herself? 

If  she  is  not  sure  what  to  do  <in  the  station,  from 
whom  should  she  ask  directions? 

Should  she  tip  the  porter? 

How  should  she  act  in  a  diner?  See  material  in  Sec- 
tion VII— "When  I  Go  Traveling." 

Have  a  demonstration  of  how  to  buy  a  ticket,  a  Pull- 
man berth  or  secure  a  chair  in  a  parlor  car;  show  how 
to  check  baggage;  arrange  for  a  transfer;  use  of  a  time- 
table. 

146 


Second  Meeting.    When  We  Go  Traveling  (continued). 

Third  Meeting.     When  We  Go  Tiaveling  (continued). 

Assignment: 

Have  the  girls  make  out  the  tour  they  wish'  to  take, 
mentioning  as  many  places  of  interest  as  they  possibly 
can  which  they  wish  to  visit. 

Material  needed  by  the  adviser: 

Suggestive  travel  material  can  be  secured  from 
Thomas  Cook  &  Son,  245  Broadway,  New  York  City; 
Agwi  Steamship  News,  published  by  the  Atlantic  Gulf 
and  West  India  Steamship  Line,  165  Broadway,  New 
York  City;  New  York  and  Cuba  Mail  Steamship  Com- 
pany, foot  of  Wall  Street,  New  York  City;  Ideal  Tour, 
Almon  C.  Judd,  Waterbury,  Conn.  Very  attractive  book- 
lets usually  may  be  secured  from  the  ticket  offices  of 
various  railroads. 

Club  Meeting: 

During  these  two  meetings,  take,  the  girls  on  an  im- 
aginary tour,  carefully  planned  and  followed  on  a  map. 
It  is  well  to  include  the  approximate  cost,  for  some- 
time it  may  be  possible  for  some  of  the  girls  to  take 
such  a  trip.  Discussions  of  the  places  visited  in  this  im- 
aginary trip  should  have  in  them  the  elements  of  "fel- 
lowship" or  understanding  of  the  customs  and  beliefs  of 
the  people  in  these  particular  sections  of  our  country  or 
the  world. 

MAY  Honor  No.  7 

Knowledge 

First  Meeting.     Insect  Study — "Little  teenty  things  down  be- 
low that  most  folks  never  see." 
Assignment: 

Have  the  girls  bring  to  the  club  meeting  a  list  of  all 
the  insects  they  know,  giving  some  description  of  them 
by  which  they  can  be  identified. 

147 


Material  needed  by  the  adviser: 

Secure  "Nature  in  Camp"  (price  ten  cents,  from  The 
Book  Shop,  600  Lexington  Avenue,  New  York  City, 
Pages  4  and  5  and  the  questions  on  page  8  deal  specifi- 
cally with  insects.  Bulletins  may  be  secured  from  Cor- 
nell University,  Ithaca,  N.  Y.,  and  from  the  Department 
of  Agriculture,  Washington,  D.  C. 

Club  Meeting: 

Base  the  discussion  for  the  club  group  on  the  ques- 
tions on  page  8  of  "'Nature  in  Camp." 

Second  Meeting.    Birds. 

Honor  No.  9 
Knowledge 
Honor  No.  10 
Knowledge 
Assignment: 

Have  the  garls  bring  to  the  club  meeting  a  list  of  all 
the  birds  they  know,  mentioning  some  distinctive  char- 
acteristic of  each. 
Material  needed  by  the  adviser: 

•See  page  4  and  the  questions  on  page  7  of  the  pamph- 
let "Nature  in  Camp,"  which  will  serve  as  very  good  bases 
for  the  meeting.  Pamphlets  may  be  secured  from  the 
Department  of  Agriculture,  Washington,  D.  C.,  and  from 
•Cornell  University,  Ithaca,  N.  Y.  (Farmers7  Bulletin 
630  is  especially  helpful.)  Attractive  nature  study  cards 
in  color  may  be  secured  from  George  B.  Brown  and 
Company,  38  Lovett  Street,  Beverly,  Mass. 

Club  Meeting:. 

Base  the  discussion  of  birds  on  "Nature  in  Camp." 
Take  the  girls  on  a  field  trip  to  see  whether  they  can 
identify  any  of  the  birds.  Begin  a  "bird  calendar,"  not- 
ing on  it  the  name  of  the  girl  who  saw  the  bird  and  the 
date  upon  which  it  was  recognized. 

148 


Third  Meeting.    Stars,  and  Out-of-Door  Cooking. 

Honor  No.  5 

Knowledge 

Honor  No.  6 

Knowledge 

Assignment; 

Have  the  girls  learn  as  much  as  they  can  regard- 
ing the  stars  and  constellations.  Plan  definitely  for  an 
out-door  supper.  The  social  committee  should  have 
charge  of  preparing  the  supper. 

Material  needed  by  the  adviser: 

"Nature  in  Camp"  also  contains  helpful  study  mate- 
rial about  the  stars.  The  Monthly  Evening  Star  Map  for 
May  may  be  secured  from  Leon  Barritt,  150  Nassau 
Street,  New  York  City,  for  ten  cents.  This  will  be  very 
helpful  in  locating  the  constellations.  The  Boy  Scout 
Manual  and  the  Woodcraft  Manual  for  Gdrls  both  have 
good  material  in  them.  Secure  from  the  public  library 
stories  about  the  stars  and  especially  any  myths  con- 
nected with  them.  See  also  "Trees,  Stars,  Birds,"  by 
Edwin  Moseley,  World  Book  Company,  Yonkers,  *N.  Y. 
($1.40.) 

Club  Meeting: 

Take  the  girls  on  a  hike,  starting  late  in  the  afternoon.  Let 
them  cook  their  supper  out  of  doors.  Return  home  after 
the  stars  come  out,  so  that  they  may  be  studied. 

JUNE 

Honor  Nos.  21,  25 

Service 

Honor  Nos.  8,  22 
Knowledge 
Honor  No.  75 
Knowkdge 

149 


First  Meeting1. 
Assignment: 

Have  the  girls  bring  to  the  club  meeting  a  list  of  all 
the  trees  and  flowers  which  they  know  in  their  com- 
munity and  ask  them  to  be  able  to  describe  them. 

Material  needed  by  the  adviser: 

Secure  from  Cornell  University,  Ithaca,  N.  Y.,  and 
the  Department  of  Agriculture,  Washington*  D.  C., 
pamphlets  about  trees  and  ffowers.  "Nature  in  Camp" 
also  contains  valuable  material. 

Club  Meeting: 

Take  the  girls  on  a  hike  which  has  Been  very  care- 
fully planned  so  that  they  may  identify  trees  and  flowers. 
Note  the  discussion  on  the  questions  given  in  "Nature  in 
Camp." 

Have  the  Social  Committee  responsible  for  games  in 
some  open  space,  as  a  field  or  meadow. 

Second  Meeting.    What  Shall  I  Do  to  Keep  Well? 

Honor  Nos.  1,  22 

Health 
Assignment: 

Have  the  girls  bring  a  written  list  of  the  things 
which  help  to  keep  a  person  in  good  health.  Include  in 
this  personal  and  home  hygiene  and  community  sanita- 
tion. 

Material  needed  by  the  adviser: 

The  adviser  must  map  out  carefully  a  discussion  on 
health.  See  pages  316-374,  of  this  Manual  on  Health 
Education.  Other  helpful  material  may  be  secured  from 
the  -Child  Health  Organization,  370  Seventh  Avenue,  New 
York  City;  Metropolitan  Life  Insurance,  1  Madison  Ave- 
nue, New  York  City;  Ten  Talks  to  Girls  on  Health,  The 
Womans  Press,  600  Lexington  Avenue,  New  York  City. 

ISO 


Club  Meeting-: 

The  following  questions  are  suggestive  in  discussion: 

How  should  a  girl  "keep  fit"  ? 

What  is  the  comparative  importance  of  health,  edu- 
cation, skill  and  genius? 

Is  the  old  saying,  "An  ounce  of  prevention  is  worth 
a  pound  of  cure,"  still  true? 

What  are  the  essentials  of  good  health? 

What  can  I  do  to  keep  myself  up  to  the  proper 
standards  of  health? 

Third  Meeting.     Care  of  the  Hair  and  Hands. 

Honor  Nos.  15,  19,  20 

Health 
Assignment: 

Suggested  questions: 

Is  it  worth  while  to  care  for  one's  personal  appear- 
ance? 

Should  one  make  oneself  as  attractive  as  possible? 
.Should  one  make  oneself  attractive  only  on  special 
occasions,  or  should  one   constantly  take  care  of  one's 
personal  appearance? 

Material  needed  by  the  adviser: 

Plan  for  a,  demonstration  of  care  of  the  nails  and 
the  hair;  this  usually  proves  very  successful.  Ask  one 
of  the  girls  whether  she  will  serve  as  a  model  at  the 
club  meeting.  Ask  her  to  bring  her  own  toilet  articles, 
good  soap,  etc. 

Club'  meeting: 

Have  the  demonstration,  letting  some  of  the  girls 
help  in  dressing  the  hair.  This  will  give  opportunity 
for  direct  questions  about  the  ways  of  dressing  the 
hair;  should  it  be  a  la  mode  whether  it  is  becoming  or 
not? 

These  questions,  may  stimulate  the  discussion: 

What  makes  beautiful  hands? 

151 


How  should  we  care  for  them? 

Is  it  of  any  importance  to  keep  one's  hair  combed? 

JULY 

Honor  Nos.  8,  14 

Spirit 
Honor  Nos.  34,  45,  46,  47,  58,  61 

Knowledge 

F-irst  Meeting-.    Stories  and  Music. 
Assignment:    B 

Assign  to  different  girls  some  short  stories  and  ask 
them  to  be  prepared  to  read  or  tell  them  at  the  next 
meeting.  A  list  of  well-known  songs  that  the  girls  like 
should  be  selected  and  some  girl  should  be  asked  to 
tell  about  them  at  the  next  meeting. 
Material  needed  by  the  adviser: 

Secure    several    books    containing    short    stories;    see 
,the  bibliography  suggested  in  Chapter  II,  on  "Books  and 
Beading  in  the  Life  of  a  Girl/7  in  this  Manual,  page  483. 
The  adviser  also  needs  a  list  of  songs  which  the  girls 
know  or  could  learn.     The  following  are  suggested  and 
can  be  found  in   most  song  books.      (See   Chapter   13, 
on  The  Place  of  Music  in  the  Girl  Reserve  Movement.) 
The  Star^Spangled  Banner. 
The  Battle  Hymn  of  the  Republic. 
Dixie. 
Ben  Bolt. 
Swanee  River. 
Hark,  Hark  the  Lark. 
Club  meeting: 

The  program  should  be  carefully  planned,  with  the 
stories  and  the  songs  alternating.  These*  should  be 
chosen  wiith  the  purpose  of  forming  the  program  for 
the  community  evening  program  to  be  given  some  time 
in  the  third  week  of  the  month. 

152 


Second  Meeting1.    Stories  and  Music. 

Honor  No.  36 

Service 
Assignment: 

Ask  the  girls  who  told  their  stories  successfully  to 
repeat  them  at  the  next  club  meeting.  Assign  stories 
to  the  girls  who  had  not  been  asked  to  tell  them  pre- 
viously. <Song  practice  should  be  continued.  Complete 
arrangements  for  the  community  program.  Ask  the 
girls  to  make  posters  inviting  their  parents  and  friends 
to  a  community  meeting-  and  sing. 
Material  needed  by  the  adviser: 

Additional   stories  and  music. 
Club  meeting: 

Practice  for  the  Community  Meeting  and  Sing.  Have 
the  girls  choose  the  stories  and  songs  to  be  used  in  the 
program.  No  admission  should  be  charged  but  if  refresh- 
ments are  to  be  sold,  arrangements  for  them  should  be 
perfected. 

Third  Meeting-.    The  Community  Meeting  and  'Sing. 

All  the  details  of  this  program  must  be  very  carefully 
planned  by  the  adviser.  It  will  be  necessary  to  have  a 
complete  rehearsal  before  the  program  is  given.  It 
would  help  very  much,  if  interested  mothers  would  assist 
in  the  serving  of  refreshments.  Proceeds  from  the  sales 
could  be  used  for  club  expenses. 

The  people  present  at  the  Community  Party  will 
understand  the  purpose  of  the  club  and  its  place  in  the 
community  if  one  of  the  girls  is  prepared  to  tell  about 
it,  the  organization  of  committees,  and  what  the  club 
is  planning  to  do. 

AUGUST 

First  Meeting.     Canning  Fruits  and  Vegetables. 
No.  1  (c)  1  (e)  1  (f)— Service. 

153 


Assignment: 

Ask  the  girls  to  bring  a  list  of  the  vegetables  and 
fruits  that  are  easily  canned.  Ask  them  to  find  how 
much  time  is  required  for  the  cooking  of  each. 

Material  needed  by  the  adviser: 

Secure  Farmers'  Bulletin  No.  839,  and  Department 
Circular  No.  3,  and  descriptive  pamphlets  from  the  Direc- 
tor of  Boys'  and  Girls'  Extension  Work,  through  the 
Department  of  Agriculture  at  Washington,  D.  C.  These 
pamphlets  contain  material  about  the  drying  of  vege- 
tables and  the  one-period  cold  pack  method.  Also  secure 
any  publications  of  the  Extension  Department  of  some 
State  Agricultural  School. 

Club  Meeting: 

Plan  to  have  this  meeting  in  one  of  the  homes  where 
it  will  be  possible  to  do  some  canning. 
Suggested  questions  are: 
What  is  the  value  of  preserving  food? 
Why  does  heating  preserve  it? 
Why  should  the  jars  be  scalded? 
Why  should  the  jars  be  dipped  in  paraffine? 

Second  Meeting.     Canning  Fruits  and  Vegetables   (continued) 
Assignment: 

Secure  answers  to  the  following   questions:     What 
does  the  word  dehydrate  mean?     What  vegetables  and 
fruits  can  be  so  treated? 
Material  needed  by  tho  adviser: 

Secure  from  the  Department  of  Agriculture,  Wash- 
ington, D.  C.,  the  bulletins  on  dehydrating  and  the 
making  of  a  dehydrator.  The  adviser  should  make  a 
simple  dehydrator  to  use  in  experimentation.  Secure 
one  fresh  vegetable  to  dehydrate  at  the  club  meeting. 
Club  Meeting: 

Plan  to  have  this  meeting  in  a  home  where  it  will 
be  possible  to  demonstrate  the  process  of  dehydration. 

154 


Explain    the    construction    of    the    dehydrator   and   the 
method  of  work.     Prepare  the  vegetables  or  fruits. 

Suggested  questions  are:  Why  does  it  take  such  a 
long  time  to  dry  it?  What  are  the  advantages  com- 
pared with  canning?  The  disadvantages?  How  is 
dehydrated  food  prepared  for  table  use? 

Third  Meeting.    Party. 

Have  the  Social  Oommlittee  in  charge  of  a  party. 
Suggestions  are: 

Colonial  Tea  or  Reception. 

Book  Party. 

Baby  Party. 

Tacky  or  Hard  Times  Party. 

THE  INITIATION  OP  A  GIRL  RESEKVE 

No  girl  can  wear  the  Girl  Reserve  insignia  until  she  has 
been  formally  initiated.  Initiation  meetings  should  come  once 
every  four  weeks,  and  a  girl  must  have  attended  three  meet- 
ings and  have  learned  and  understood  the  Girl  Reserve  slogan, 
purpose  and  code  before  being  eligible  to  the  Initiation  meet- 
ing. She  is  called  a  Volunteer  Girl  Reserve  until  her  initia- 
tion, after  which  she  is  a  real  Girl  Reserve. 

INITIATION  SERVICE 

(1)  Girls   march  in,   with  the   chairmen  leading.     The   Corps 
Scout  carries  the  Christian  flag;  the  Outings  and  Innings 
chairman  carries  the  American  flag.     The  three  chairmen 
with  the  Corps  advisers  and  the  girls  form  a  square. 

(2)  Salute  the  American  flag. 

Sing  the  first  verse  of  "America"  or  the  second  verse  of 
"0  Beautiful  for  Spacious  Skies." 

(3)  Salute  the  Christian  flag,  v 

Sing  the  last  stanza  of  "America"  or  the  last  verse  of  the 
hymn  "0  Beautiful  for  Spacious  Skies,"  or  use  &  prayer. 

155 


(4)  Corps  Scout  says:    "Have  we  Volunteer  Reserves  for  ad- 
mission to  membership  In  Corps  of  the  Girl 

Reserves?" 

Outings  and  Innings  Chairman:     "We  have Volunteer 

Reserves  for  admission  to  membership  in  the • 

Corps  of  the  Girl  Reserves." 
Corps  Scout:     "Have  they  been  examined?" 
Outings,  and  Innings  Chairman:     "They  have." 
Corps  Scout:    "You  may  present  them  for  initiation." 
The  Outings  and  Innings  Chairman  brings  the  girls  in  and 
they  form  in  line  facing  the  Corps  Scout.     Each  Vol- 
unteer has  a  yellow  candle. 

Corps  Scout:  "Do  you  wish  to  become  a  Girl  Reserve?" 
Volunteer:  "I  do." 

Corps  Scout:    "What  is  your  reason?" 
Volunteer:    "I  wish  to  face  life  squarely  and  to  find  and 

give  the  best," 

Corps  Scout:  "How  as  a  Girl  Reserve  will  you  do  this?" 
Volunteer:  "As  a  Girl  Reserve  I  will  be"  (repeat  code). 
Corps  Scout:  "Can  I  trust  you  on  your  honor  to  try  to 

keep  this  code  and  to  be  a  loyal  Girl  Reserve?" 
Volunteer;    "I  will  try  on  my  honor  to  keep  this  code  and 

to  be  a  loyal  Girl  Reserve." 

(The  official  insignia  is  then  placed  upon  the  girl's  arm  by 
the  -corps  or  the  division  advisers.) 

Each  Girl  Reserve  then  gives  the  salute. 
The  adviser  gives  a  short  talk  on  the  meaning  of  the  Blue 
Triangle,  ending  with  the  following: 

"Our  bodies  shall  be  as  physically  perfect  as  we  can  mate 
them — clean,  holy,  fit  temples  for  the  most  high  God  to  dwell  in. 
"Our  minds  shall  be  keen  and  alert;    our  thoughts  shall  be 
clean  and  pure  and  kind. 

"Our  spirits  shall  be  put  in  the  care  of  our  friend  Jesus 
Christ,  who  will  keep  them  lovely  and  loving  to  Him  and  to  all 
his  children  everywhere. 

156 


"These  three  in  one — body,  mind,  and  spirit — we  shall  give 
to  the  service  of  God  and  of  our  country  and  girls  the  world 
over. 

"In  your  hands  you  hold  the  yellow  candle  of  service. 

"Before  me  stand  the  red  candle  of  health,  the  blue  candle 
of  knowledge,  and  the  white  candle  of  spirit. 

"Will  you  in  dedication  of  yourself  in  body,  mind,  and  spirit, 
in  service  as  a  loyal  Girl  Reserve,  light  your  candle  at  these 
three?" 
(5)  Sing:    "Hymn  of  the  Lights." 

OPENING  CEREMONY 

The  use  of  this  ceremony  is  optional,  and  if  it  does  not 
meet  local  needs,  another  may  be  substituted. 

The  Girl  Reserves  form  in  a  line,  led  by  the  'Corps  Scout, 
followed  by  the  other  Corps  officers. 

The  Corps  Scout  carries  the  iflag  and  takes  her  posi- 
tion in  the  center  of  the  room;  others  form  in  a  square 
facing  flag. 

(1)  Salute  and  Pledge  to  the  Flag: 

I  pledge  allegiance  to  my  flag  and  to  the  republic  for 
which  it  stands;  one  nation  indivisible,  with  liberty 
and  justice  for  all. 

(2)  Repeat  Girl  Reserve  Code. 

(3)  Five-minute  talk  by   a   Girl   Reserve   on   one  phase 
of   code   or  upon   something   interesting   and  worth 
while.     (See  The  Meaning-  of  the  Oode,  page  46.) 

(4)  .Sing  one  verse  of  a  Girl  Reserve  song  or  some  hymn 
or  patriotic  song. 

If  desired,  one  of  the  following  prayers  may  be  used 
in  connection  with  the  opening  ceremony;  also  the  salute 
to  the  Christian  flag: 

Prayer: 

Dear  Father  of  us  all,  bless  us  as  we  meet  together. 
We  axe  girls,  just  girls,  not  old  and!  wise  with  years 
and  experience,  but  young  and  eager  for  life.  Make 

157 


us  care  for  the  best  thing's  in  thy  world.  Help  us  to 
think  of  every  other  girl  as  our  sister,  whether!  she  be 
rich  or  poor,  quick  of  wit  or  slow  of  understanding. 
Let  us  not  leave  a<  girl  to  be  lonely,  or  sad,  if  we  can 
cheer  her.  And  remind  us  always  that  the  thing  we 
do  for  another  is  done  for  Thee,  if  we  want  it  to  be  so. 
Amen. 

Prayer: 

"0  may  I  be  strong  and  brave  to-day, 

0  may  I  be  kind  and  true! 

May  I  meet  all  men  in  a  gracious  way 

With  frank  good  cheer  Jin  the  things  I  say, 

And  love  in  the  things  I  do. 

May  the  simple  heart  of  a  child  be  mine, 

And  the  grace  of  a  rose  in  bloom. 

May  I  fill  the  day  with  a  hope  divine 

And  turn  my  face  to  the  sky's  glad  shine 

With  never  a  cloud  of  gloom. 

With  the  golden  levers  of  love  and  light 

I  would  lift  the  world,   and  when, 

Through  a  path  with  kindly  deeds  made  bright, 

I  come  to  the  calm  of  the  starlit  night, 

Let  me  rest  dn  peace!     Amen!" 

Salute  to  the  Christian  Flag: 

"I  pledge  allegiance  to  my  flag  and  to  my  Saviour 
for  whose  Kingdom  it  stands — one  brotherhood  uniting 
all  in  service  and  love." 

The  Christian  flag  has  a  white  background  with  the 
Cross  in  red  on  a  blue  field  in  the  upper  left-hand  corner 
may  be  made,  or  obtained  from  The  Presbyterian 
Board  of  Publication  and  Sabbath  School  Work,  (The 
Westminster  Press)  George  W.  Brazer,  Mgr.,  156  Fifth 
Avenue,  New  York. 

158 


They  are  made  an  the  following  materials: 

A.  Victory  Bunting  Flags  Size  2x  3ft.  —  $2.00 

3x  5ft  —     2.00 

(2  ply  cotton  bunting)  4x  6  ft.  —    4.00 

8x12  ft.  —  11.50 

B.  Printed  on   Silk, 

mounted  on  stick  Size  16x24  in.  —    1.50 

24x36  in.  —    2.50 

C.  Wool  Bunting  Flags,  canvas 

heading   and   gromets  Size  2x  3  ft.  —    3.00 

3x  5  ft.  —  5.00 
4x  6  ft.  —  7.50 
8x12  ft.  —  21.00 


SUGGESTED  PROGRAM  FOR  JUNIOR  HIGH  SCHOOL  COMPANY  OF  GIRL 
RESERVES   OR  FRESHMAN  HIGH  SCHOOL  CLUB 

(This  program  has  been  arranged  to  start  with  the  month 
following  the  opening  of  school,  probably  October;  it  is  difficult 
to  do  any  organization  work  with  girls  during  the  opening 
month  of  the  school  term.) 

I.  Recreation    meeting,    such    as    a    track   meet  j(for   full 
description  see  "Icebreakers,"  by  Edna  'Geister). 

At  this  meeting  it  is  necessary  to  create  among 
the  girls  a  sense  of  group  consciousness — of  belonging 
to  something.  Nothing  is  more  effective/  than  a  good 
cheer.  The  following  might  be  used.  (Either  Girl  Ee- 
serves,  or  Young  Women's  Christian  Association  may  be 
used.) 

We  are  the  girls  of  world-wide  fame, 

Y.  W.  O.  A.  is  our  name, 

Tall  girls,  short  girls,  fat  girl&,  thin, 

Y.  W.  C.  A.,  takes  them  all  in. 

You  don't  need  money  and  you  don't  need  pearls, 

Anybody,  everybody,  just  so  you're  girls. 

159 


II.  Organization  meeting.     (With  every  club  it  is  not  possi- 
ble to  have  an  organization  meeting  at  the  second  meet- 
ing  it  may  have  to  be  delayed  and  more  recreation  meet- 
ings put  in.) 

(A)  Elect   chairmen   of   Scout   Committee,   Outings   and 
Innings  Committee,  and  Service  Squad.     The  elec-- 
tion  of  officers  should  be  formal.     While  the  ballots 
are  being  counted  have  the  rest  of  the  girls  learn 
cheers  and  songs  to  sing  to  the  incoming  officers. 

(B)  Recreation,  good  active  games   (see  "'Ice-Breakers" 

for  suggestions). 

III.  "A  Long,  Long  Trail." 

River  or  shore  party.  (Have  several  older,  attrac- 
tive high  school  girls  talk  informally  on  some  such  sub- 
ject as  "Sign  Posts  on  the  Trail,"  e.  g.,  experiences  in 
high  school  life  which  will  give  the  younger  girls  in- 
sight into  the  many  new  relationships  which  they  are 
entering  such  as  "purpose  of  high  school  organizations," 
"place  of  athletics,"  "how  to  be  an  all-round  girl  in  high 
school/7  "standards  of  honor,"  "faculty  relationships/') 

IV.  Service  Meeting. 

(A)  Open  this  meeting,  if  desired,  by  the  use  of  the 
regular  opening  ceremony  of  the  Girl  Reserves, 
into  which,  through  discussion,  stories,  talks  and 
poems,  can  be  worked]  the  spirit  of  the  Girl  Re- 
serve movement.  ,As  the  group  becomes  more 
homogeneous,  what  might  be  called  an  informal 
Bible  class  can  be  given  in  these  few  minutes.  The 
girls  often  like  to  call  such  a  period  "Serious  time." 
Suggestions  for  this  time — 

(1)  Ask  the  girls  some  such  questions  as  "What  are  the 
greatest  war  songs  that  you  know?  National  airs 
and  poems  will  be  given.  Discuss  these.  Then  ask 
if  they  ever  knew  that  some  of  the  Psalms  were  the 
greatest  war  songs  ever  written.  Read  and  encour- 


age  them  to  learn  some.  From  such  discussion  with 
the  right  kind  of  leadership  will  develop  a  real  under- 
standing of  the  Bible  and  a  desire  to  study  it. 

(2)  Give  in  a  series  of  vivid,  interesting  talks  the  history 
of  the  making  of  the  Bible,  showing  why  it  is  such 
a  precious  book. 

(3)  Ask  such  a  question  as  "What  is  the  insignia  of  a 
lady?     Is  it  the  clothing  a  girl  wears,  an  arm  band, 
or  what  is  it?" 

(B)  Initiation  of  girls.      (See  the   suggested  ceremony, 
page  155.) 

(C)  Red   Cross   or   Community   Service.     See   Section  V, 
Chapter  16. 

(D)  Recreation — games,    general    good    time    (thirty    to 
forty  minutes). 

V.  Organized  Hike. 
VI.  Business  Meeting. 

(A)  Opening  ceremony,  Girl  Reserves. 

(B)  Bring  linto  this  in  an  interesting  way  points  about 
Parliamentary  drill. 

(C)  Recreation  (thirty  to  thirty-five  minutes). 
VII.  Thanksgiving  Party. 

Kitchen  Garden  party  to  which  guests  are  invited  to 
come  dressed  as  vegetables.  (Have  short  one-act  play, 
or  pantomime  or  tableaux  illustrating  Thanksgiving 
spirit.) 

See    a    Second   List   of    Plays    and    Pageants    (35c), 
obtained  from  The  Womans  Press,  -600  Lexington  Avenue, 
New,  York  'City,  and  Section  V,  Chapter  6,  of  this  Manual. 
VIII.    "The  Land  of  Cherry  Blossoms" — Japan. 

Costumes  and  customs. 

People  and  play. 

Houses  and  health. 

See: 

"The  Lady  of  the  Decoration,"  "Little  Sister  Snow," 
by  Frances  Little. 

161 


"Japan  To-day,"  by  Ruth  Emerson. 
"It  Happens  in  Japan." 

The  purpose  of  this  meeting  and  the  following-  ones 
on  China,  South  America  and  India  is  to  arouse  in  the 
girls  a  sense  of  world  citizenship.  As  much  color  and 
atmosphere  as  possible  should  be  put  into  this  work  and 
therefore  it  is  suggested  that  these  meetings  be  social  in 
nature.  Decorations,  costumes  and  dramatic  work,  table- 
aux, charades,  may  all  be  used.  The  foreign  trunks 
obtained  through  the  Field  Offices  contain  material  which 
will  be  very  helpful.  Plan  for  this  meeting  sufficiently 
in  advance  so  that  one  of  these  trunks  may  be  secured. 

IX.  Service  Meeting. 

(A)  Regular  opening  ceremony  of  Girl  Reserves.     Initia- 
tion ceremony  if  necessary. 

(B)  Make  arrangements  for  the  giving  of  a   Christmas 
party  (this  might  involve  a  short  business  meeting 
and   would    unquestionably   be    the   time    to    string 
popcorn,  make  other  decorations  for  the  Christmas 
party,  and  also  to  rehearse  games  to  be  played  at  the 
Christmas    party,    and   make    preparations    for   any 
pantomime  to  be  given  there.)     See  Section  V.  Chap- 
ters 2  and  6,  for  suggestions. 

X.  "In-as-much"  Christmas  Tree  Party. 

Each  club  member  is  responsible  for  being  Santa 
Claus  to  some  child.  Children  may  be  invited  from  the 
settlements,  Associated  Charities,  etc.  Have  a  tree, 
presents,  refreshments,  singing  of  carols,  and  an  enter- 
tainment by  the  company  or  club  girls,  such  as  the 
pantomime  entitled  "The  Night  Before  Christmas." 

XL  "The  Land  of  the  Dragon" — China 
Costumes  and  customs. 
People  and  play. 
Houses  and  health. 

162 


See: 

"Shanghai  Sketches,"  by  Jane  Ward. 
"My  Chinese  Days/'  by  Gulielma  Alsop. 
"Mook,"  by  Evelyn  Worthley  Sites. 

XII.  Baby  Welfare  Work  or  "First  Aid  to  Beauty"  Meeting. 
(•See  Section  V,  Chapter  2  of  this  Manual.) 

(A)  Opening  ceremony  of  the  Girl  Reserves  if  desired. 

(B)  Baby  welfare  work  demonstrating  the  proper  bath- 
ing and  dressing  of  a  baby  or  under  the  title  of 
"First  Aid  to  Beauty,"  give  demonstration  of — 

(1)  Proper  care  of  the  hands  (for  this  have  orange 
sticks   and  files). 

(2)  General  care  of  body — that  as,  use  of  soap,  powder 

and  perfume;  proper  bathing. 

(3)  Eecreation   (thirty  to  forty-five  minutes). 

XIII.  Business  Meeting. 

(A)  Opening  ceremony  of  Girl  Eeserves  if  desired. 

(B)  Discussion  of  plans  for  supper  of  next  week;  possi- 
ble  election   of  new   officers. 

(O)  Recreation — Eskimo    party    (see   "Ice-Breaker  s\"  by 
Edna  Geister). 

XIV.  Girl  Reserve  Supper. 

Either  one  of  the  following  "stunts"  is  suggested  for 
such  a  supper: 

(A)  A  Backwards  Party.    Do  everything  backwards;  for 
instance,  girls  come  dressed  backwards,  eat  dessert 
'first,  sing  songs  backwards. 

(B)  Registration  Day  at  high   school.     The   girls   may 
register   with    either   of   the   three   following    pro- 
fessors: 

I.  M.  Bowin,  professor  dramatic  art. 
Miss  D.  Sign,  professor  interior  decorations. 
Miss  Carry  Callory,  professor  domestic  science. 
All  girls  registering  under  dramatic  art  prepare 
the    "stunts"   for    the   evening ;    all   under   interior 

163 


decorations   decorate  tables  and  make  place  cards; 
all  under  domestic  science  get  supper  ready. 
Note: — Have  the  registration  cards  which  all   girls 
sign   include   foolish   questions   as:     "How   many   teeth 
were  you  born  with?"    "Do  you  expect  to  marry?" 

Decorations,  of  course,  should  be  simple,  and  made  in 
a  very  few  minutes.  Have  clever  toasts  which  shall  be 
greeting's  to  the  officers  elected  at  previous  meeting. 

XV.  "The   Land  of  the  -Coffee  Berry"  or  "The  Land  of  the 
Llama"  or  "The  Christ  of  the  Andes"— South  America. 
Costumes  and  customs. 
People  and  play. 
Houses  and  health. 

XVI.  'Baby   Welfare   Work,   or   "First   Aid   to    Beauty"    (con- 

tinued). 

(A)  Formal  Girl  Reserve  opening  ceremony,  if  desired. 

(B)  Under  baby  welfare  give  proper  feeding  and  use 
charts.     Under  First  Aid  show  proper  method   of 
shampooing. 

(C)  Valentine  Party  with  stunts. 

XVII.  Business  Meeting. 

(A)  Formal  Girl  Reserve  opening  ceremony,  if  desired. 

(B)  Reports  of  committees,  etc. 

(C)  "Town  Topics,"  e.  g.,  talks,  discussions,  tableaux  or 
charades  illustrating  fire  department,  police  depart- 
ment,   health   department;    or    "Where,   When    and 
What,"  a  dramatic,  presentation  of  how  to  introduce 
one  person  to  another — social  courtesies   at  home. 
Remember  that  a  girl  of  high  school  age  is  "keen" 
to   do   things   correctly  and  in   an   up-to-date  way. 
She  will  accept  this  kind   of  teaching  and  follow 
it  because  the  Girl  Reserve  company  is  standing  for 
it,  and  it  becomes  a  group  matter.     (See  Section 
V,  Chapter  7,  in  this  Manual.) 

(D)  Fun  and  recreation. 


XVIII.  Colonial  Tea. 

Have  the  host  and  hostess  represent  George  and 
Martha  Washington,  and  have  a  colored  butler  to  an- 
nounce the  guests.  Dance  the  minuet;  story  telling, 
for  instance,  the  story  of  Betsy  Ross.  Have  games  and 
other  stunts  which  are  in  accordance  with  Washington's 
Birthday.  For  refreshment  have  gingerbread  and  tea  or 
lemonade,  served  by  a  colored  mammy.  (See  Section 
V,  Chapter  2,  for  suggestions  about  Boy  and  Girl  Parties.) 

XIX.  "The  Land  of  Jeanne  d'Arc"— France.      (See  Section  V, 

Chapter  7,  for  suggestions  regarding  discussions.) 

Have  one  of  the  Girl  Reserves  tell  the  story  of  Jeanne 
d'Arc,  and  have  one  of  the  Girl  Reserves  play  "The 
Marseillaise/* 

Discussion:  "At  the  Sign  of  the  Blue  Triangle  in 
France,"  "What  does  the  French  girl  .think  of  me?" 
"What  do  I  owe  to  her?"  "Is  there  a  Young  Women's 
Christian  Association  like  ours  an  France?" 

Read  from  "Dere  Godchild,"  by  Margaret  Bernard — 
Edith  Serrell. 

XX.  "Spring  Opening,"  or  "How  to  Dress  and  How  not  to 
Dress."  This  may  be  put  in  dramatic  form  by  repre- 
senting the  suit  and  cloak  department  of  a  store.  The 
girls  may  be  used  as  salesladies  and  as  customers.  Cor- 
rect modes  of  dress  may  be  illustrated  by  ill-chosen  and 
well-chosen  costumes. 
XXL  Business  Meeting. 

(1)  Parlimentary  drill  (five  to  ten  minutes). 

(2)  Committee  reports. 

(3)  "Town  Topics"  or  "Where,  When  and  What"  (thirty 
minutes). 

(4)  Fun  and  recreation. 
XXII.  "Book  Party." 

•Girls  may  come  dressed  to  represent  either  one  char- 
acter in  a  book  or  the  entire  book.  Have  guessing  con- 

165 


tests-  provide  story-telling.  Suggested  stories  for  this 
are,  "Of  Water  and  the  Spirit,"  by  Harriet  Montague, 
or  "The  Happy  Prince,"  by  Oscar  Wilde.  (If  Girl  Re- 
serve Book  List  has  not  been  used  before  this  use  it  at 
this  time.  See  Section  V,  Chapter  11,  and  Section  VII— 
"Book  Friends/' 

XXIII.  Service  Meeting  for  Easter. 

(1)  Girl  Reserve  opening  ceremony,  if  desired.     Tell  the 
Easter  Story  or  read  a  poem  from  "Christ  in  the 
Poetry  of  To-day." 

(2)  Make  bean  bags  for  day  nursery,  or  stencil  flower 
pots,  or  make  Easter  baskets,  have  an  Easter  egg 
hunt   (forty-five  minutes). 

(3)  Recreation — general  good  time   (thirty  minutes). 

XXIV.  Outdoor  Meeting. 

(1)  Plan  for   either — 

(a)  Hare  and  Hounds. 

(b)  Trailing. 

(c)  Treasure  Hunt.     Send  group  to  certain  place  where 
directions  will  be  found  under  a  stone  or  on  tree 
for  a  continuation  of  the  Treasure  Hunt.     End  with 
"bacon  bat"  or  a  picnic  supper. 

(d)  Penny  Hike.    Divide  the  group  of  girls  into  .two  or 
more  parts.    Each  group  takes  a  penny.    Tossing  it 
up,  the  leader  says:     "Heads,  we  go  to  the  right," 
or  "straight  ahead"  or  any  direction  she  wishes  to 
indicate.     Then  the  group  goes  as  rapidly  as  they 
choose  to  the  next  corner  as  indicated  by  the  toss  of 
the   penny.     There   another   girl   tosses    the   penny 
and  names  the  direction  she  wishes  the  group  to 
go.     The  object,  of  course,  is  to   see  which  group 
gets  back  to. the  starting  point  first,  and  it  is  neces- 
sary that  they  go  as  the  penny  indicates  each  time. 
It  is  wise  to  have  the  first  two  tosses  named  so  that 
they  will  take  the  girls  away  from  the  goal. 

166 


XXV.  Business  Meeting. 

(1)  Parliamentary  drill   (five  to  ten  minutes). 

(2)  Committee   reports. 

(3)  World  citizenship  program. 

(4)  Fun  and  recreation. 

XXVI.  Mother  and  Daughter  Banquet. 

This  banquet  should  be  for  the  entire  Girls'  Work 
Department  and  mothers  of  all  the  girls  should  be  the 
guests.  (See  Section  VII  for  suggestions  regarding 
a  Mother  and  Daughter  Week.) 

XXVII.  "Where  Are  You  Going,  My  Pretty  Maid?" 
A  Vocational  Meeting. 

Have  a  good  vocational  talk  on  the  value1  of  staying 
in  school.  Use  the  vocational  "Ready  for  Service"  blanks 
if  not  filled  out  previously.  Calling  the  girl's  attention 
to  what  she  is  going  to  do  is  an  essential  part  of  every 
program.  While  technical  vocational  guidance  is  in  no 
sense  the  work  of  the  Young  Women's  Christian  Associa- 
tion, it  is  within  its  province  to  stimulate  a  girl  to  make 
the  most  of  her  life.  Therefore  any  program  for  girls 
should  include  some  emphasis  on  this  topic.  The  voca- 
tional conference,  one  day  or  a,  half  a  day  long,  is  the 
logical  outgrowth  of  any  incidental  work  done  at  such  a 
meeting  as  the  one  above.  Through  the  use  of  attractive 
posters  and  charts  at  the  meeting,  by  putting  in  dramatic 
form  the  right  and  wrong  way  to  apply  for  a  "job,"  by 
having  a  business  woman  or  a  vocational  expert  present 
"the  value  of  staying  in  school/'  much  can  be  done  to 
interest  a  girl  in  the  conference.  For  further  sugges- 
tions regarding  the  place  of  vocational  guidance  in  the 
regular  program,  see  Section  V,  Chapter  12,  page  510, 
in  this  Manual. 

5CXVIIL  "Census  of  the  Woods." 

Competent  leaders  should  take  groups  of  ten  girls  to 
certain  sections.  Equipped  with  notebooks  and  pencils, 

167 


a  certain  length  of  time  is  given  to  note  the  foliage, 
plant  and  insect  life  in  that  section.  At  the  end  of  the 
time  all  groups  return  and  compare  notes.  This  can  be 
made  the  beginning  of  work  to  be  carried  on  during  the 
summer.  -See  Section  V,  Chapter  3,  for  further  resources 
regarding  Nature  Lore. 

£XIX.  Business   Meeting. 

(1)  Formal  Girl  Reserve  opening. 

(2)  Reports  of  committees. 

(3)  Election  of  summer  chairmen. 

(4)  Consideration  of  summer  work  and  of  next  year's 
work. 

This  might  be  called  "Alice  Through  the   Looking 
Glass." 

(5)  Fun  and  recreation. 

XXX.  Garden  Party. 

An  opportunity  to  raise  conference  funds  will  be 
afforded  by  a  "Mother  Goose"  party  at  this  time.  Girls 
may  be  dressed  as  characters  in  Mother  Goose  rhymes; 
for  instance,  milkmaid,  selling  either  milk  or  ice  cream; 
Simple  Simon  and  the  Pieman  selling  pastry;  Little 
Bo-Peep,  selling  sandwiches;  Jack  Horner  with  a  large 
grab  bag;  Jack  and  Jill  with  a  bucket  of  lemonade;  Queen 
of  Hearts  selling  tarts.  Handkerchiefs,  aprons  and  other 
fancy  articles  may  be  sold  from  the  clotheslines  of  the 
"Maid  in  the  Garden  hanging  up  the  clothes." 

Stunts  to  do: 

"Old  Woman  in  the  Shoe"  pantomime,  taken  from 
"Mother  Goose"  or  any  fairy  tale. 

This  program  provides  for  a  monthly  business  meet- 
ing. This  is  not  necessary  if  it  seems  wiser  to  have  two 
fifteen-minute  business  meetings  as  part  of  two  of  the 
monthly  meetings.  The  entire  program  is  suggestive 
and  should  not  be  followed  absolutely.  It  includes  much 

168 


recreation   but   every   so-called   "party"   is   worth,  while 
and  educational. 

This  program  has  its  beginning  in  the  month  of  Octo- 
ber, a  more  promising  time  for  organizing  work  with 
girls  than  September — if  school  does  open  in  September. 
This  schedule  presents  three  meetings  in  October,  four 
during  the  intervening  months,  and  the  regular  com- 
pany or  club  work  closes  the  last  week  in  May. 


CONTENT  AND  METHOD  TYPICAL  OF  A  HIGH  SCHOOL  CLUB 
PROGRAM 

The  suggested  content  of  this  program  centers  about  school 
and  community  life  and  may  serve  as  a  nucleus  about  which  a 
program  combining  variety,  balance  and  continuity  may  be 
built. 

It  is  understood  that  the  building  of  any  high  school  pro- 
gram is  in  the  hands  of  the  program  committee/  made  up  of 
girls  assisted  by  an  adviser.  An  adviser  knowing  the  needs 
and  desires  of  the  girls  will  be  able  so  to  shape  their  thinking 
that  the  activities  chosen  will  be  built  into  projects  as  described 
in  "A  Clue  to  Program  Planning."  The  work  of  any  group 
of  girls  thus  itself  becomes  a  part  of  the  whole  project  idea. 
These  suggestions  presuppose  only  two  meetings  of  the  club 
each  month,  the  other  two  times  being  given  over  to  committee 
and  council  meetings  respectively.  The  first  and  third  meet- 
ings might  be  general  club  meetings  and  the  others  should  be 
devoted  to  the  committee  and  council  work. 

Past  developments  of  high  school  work  have  suggested  that 
much  of  the  content  and  method  of  club  work  rest  upon  a  cycle 
which  falls  somewhat  into  seasonal  lines.  This  division  is  by 
no  means  a  hard  and  fast  one  but  may  be  helpful  to  a  girls' 
work  secretary  in  planning  a  year's  work.  The  cycle  as  de- 
veloped here  is  indicated  by  grouping  the  months  according  to 
the  seasons, — fall,  winter,  spring,  and  summer. 

169 


The  word  "content"  is  here  used  ito  indicate  club  material 
which  may  be  ined  in  the  general  meetings  and  by  "method"  is 
meant  the  means  by  which  a  girls7  work  secretary  and  her 
club  advisers  successfully  promote  the  program  for  the  high 
school  club. 

FALL  MONTHS 

.September  and  October 

This  is  the  time  for  perfection  of  the  club  organization, 
securing  and  training  club  advisers,  the  approach  to  school 
authorities,  and  the  first  get-together  of  the  former  club  girls. 
If  delegates  have  been  present  at  a  girl's  conference  reports 
should  be  given  by  them. 

These  first  few  weeks  of  a  school  year  may  be  used  in  two 
ways,  depending  upon  the  development  of  girls'  work  in  a  com- 
munity. A  girls'  work  secretary  may  have  an  established 
club  to  deal  with  or  she  may  be  in  a  community  where  no  work 
has  been  doVie  heretofore  and  so  faces  new  work.  In  the  case 
of  the  high  school  work  already  organized,  the  following  sug- 
gestions may  be  of  use: 

A.  The  first  get-together  of  club  girls  may  be  a  combina- 
tion picnic  and  business  meeting,  held  out-of-doors  if 
possible.  At  this  meeting  such  things  as  the  follow- 
ing should  be  considered  in  relation  to  the  club  work 
as  a  whole: 

1.  How  to-  interest  new  girls: 

(a)  Secure  lists  of  names  of  new  girls  from  the 
school  office. 

(b)  Posters:  planning  and  permission  to  display 
them  in  the  school  building. 

(c)  Plan*  a  party  to  be  given  to  new  girls* 

(d)  Recognition  service  plans. 

2.  General   reports  from   the   committee   chairmen, 
noting  vacancies  on  committees. 

170  ' 


B  In  case  of  forming  a  new  club,  this  meeting*  is  also 
social  and  business,  but  the  work  of  organization 
must  be  launched.  Two  committees  should  be  chosen 
by  acclamation: 

1.  'Constitution  Committee: 

All  constitutions  must  be  submitted  to  the  Field 
Secretary  for  Younger  Girl  Work,  a  copy  being 
filed  in  the  field  office. 

2.  Nominating  Committee: 

(These  committees  will  report  at  the  following 
club  meeting.) 

3.  Interpretation  of  possible  names: 

(a)  Student  Club. 

(b)  Friendship  Circle. 

(c)  Girl  Reserves  as  a  generic  name;  e.  g.,  "The 
Student  Club  of  the  Girl  Reserves,"  or  "The 
Friendship  Club  of  the  Girl  Reserves"  or  just 
"The  Girl  Reserves." 

4.  .Recreation  and  refreshments. 

5.  Announcements:  time  and  place  of  the  next  meet- 
ing.    For  both  club  groups  the  second  meeting  is 
a  continuation  of  the  work  launched  at  the  "get- 
together." 

Method. 

For  suggestions  in  regard  to  the  securing  and  training  of 
club  advisers  see  Section  VI. 

For  approach  to  the  school  authorities,  see  suggestions  in 
Section  III,  Organization  of  Groups  of  Girls. 

Content. 

I.  World  Citizenship. 

Topics:     To  be  used  at  meetings  of  the  club.     These 
•topics  may  be  developed  by  the  discussional  and  demon- 
stration methods  when  desired: 
"Who  is  My  Neighbor?" 
"How  Large  Is  Your  World?" 

171 


"Things  That  Sting." 
"Americanization." 

II.  Thanksgiving. 

Topics:  An  inspirational  service,  with  an  outside 
speaker  if  possible. 

This  meeting  might  possibly  be  a  Vesper  -Service. 
Service: 

Preparation  of  Thanksgiving  baskets. 

A  "sing"  at  some  home  for  aged  people,  the  blind 
or  shut-ins. 
Social: 

Hallowe'en  Party. 

'^Harvest  Home  Party." 

Presentation  of  "The  Wayside  Piper." 

Method. 
Topics 

"How  Large  Is  Your  World  ?  Use  a  map  of  the  com- 
munity and  also  one  of  the  world.  Have  the  girls  see  for 
themselves  the  boundaries  of  their  own  worlds  as  made 
by  their  own  interests. 

"Things  that  Sting."  See  The  Association  Monthly 
for  August,  1919. 

Americanization.  See  pamphlets  from  The  Depart- 
ment of  the  Interior,  Bureau  of  Education,  American- 
ization Division.  Use  the  poem,  "I  Am  the  Immigrant," 
included  in  Section  VII,  Material  for  Program  Building. 

Service: 

In  preparing  the  Thanksgiving  baskets,   care  should 
be  taken  that  when  ready  they  are  dlistributed  through 
the  channels  of  recognized  social  agencies  in  the  com- 
munity. 
Social: 

Hallowe'en  Party:  Suggestions  for  carrying  out  a 
successful  Hallowe'en  party  are  scarcely  necessary  here 
since  there  are  so  many  splendid  plans  given  in  every 

172 


book  on  "Home  Entertainments,"  etc. 

Harvest  Home  Party:  This  kind  of  party  can  be 
given  very  successfully  in  mid-autumn  when  brightly 
colored  leaves  are  abundant  and  shocks  of  corn  can  be 
secured  for  decorating  a  house  or  a  large  barn.  Lively 
games,  and  charades  and  seasonal  refreshments  make 
for  its  success. 

vThe  Waysidei  Piper"  may  be  secured  from  The 
Womans  Book  Shop,  600  Lexington  Avenue,  New  York 
City. 

WINTER  MONTHS 
December,  January,  February 

These  months  are  the  time  for  presenting  vocational  guid- 
ance, for  emphasis  on  school  standards,  for  interesting  in  the 
club  new  girls,  who  are  entering  high  school  at  semester  time, 
for  the  reorganization  of  committee  personnel  (if  the  com- 
mittees are  reorganized  at  this  time,  the  girls'  work  secretary 
should  be  careful  to  include  the  ndW  girls  in  the  committee 
work);  it  is  a  good  time  for  boy-and-girl  parties  at  the  Asso- 
ciation building  or  in  the  school  and  for  promoting  a  "-Mother 
and  Daughter"  banquet  or  tea  or  reception.  Discussions  center- 
ing about  the  home  and  school  standards  of  honor  may  be  used 
ft  this  time. 

Content. 

I.  School  Standards: 

Topics.  To  be  used  at  the  club  meetings.  These 
topics  may  be  developed  by  the  discussional  and  demon- 
stration methods  when  desired: 

"Everything  real,  nothing  artificial." 
"I  will  be  square 
In  what  I  say 
In  what  I  do 
In  what  I  am." 
"What  is  a  snob?" — cliques. 
"Popularity  vs.  Success." 

173 


II.  Our  Attitude  toward  Foreign-speaking-  Girls. 
Topic: 

"If  I  were  from  France  or  Russia." 

"The  Kindest  Person  I  Know." 

"Customs,  Costumes,  and  Courtesy." 

III.  Vocational  Guidance. 
Topic: 

"Fits  and  Misfits." 

"My  Grandmother's  Job  and  Mine." 

IV.  Bible  Study 
Topics: 

"Is  Your  Book  Dusty?" 
V.  Christmas. 
Topics: 

"What  Does  It  Mean?" 

VI.  Open  Programs   (when  the  school  is  invited  to  share  in 
a  club  program.) 

Topics: 

"Patriotism  Old  and  New." 

"What  Is  Real  Patriotism?" 
"  "A  Perfect  Tribute"  Day    (February  12). 
Service: 

Singing   of   Christmas   carols. 

Preparation  of  Christmas  baskets. 

A  Christmas  party  for  needy  children. 

Decoration  of  the  school  corridors  and  rooms. 
Social: 

A  Colonial  party  (for  boys  and  girls). 

Mother   and   Daughter   banquet. 

Father  and  Daughter  party. 

Method. 
Topics: 

"If  I  were  from  France  or  Russia."     For  this  and 
other  similar  ones,  use  "The  Immigrant's  Appeal."     (See 

174 


Section  VII,  Material  for  Program  Building.)  Secure 
material  from  The  Division  on  Work  for  the  Foreign- 
Born,  600  Lexington  Avenue,  New  York  City. 

"Fits  and  Misfits."     (See  Section  V,  Chapter  12.) 

"My  Grandmother's  Job  and  Mine."  See  the  Second 
Inch  of  the  Inch  Library,  published  by  The  Womans 
Press,  600  Lexington  Avenue,  New  York  City. 

"Is  Your  Book  Dusty?"  The  girls'  work  secretary 
who  suggests  the  use  of  this  topic  will  recognize  that  it 
is  one  way  of  saying,  "Why  have  Bible  study?"  See 
Lynn  Harold  Hough's  "A  Living  Book  in  a  Living  Age," 
and  the  Girls7  Year  Book  with  its  teaching  outline  for 
Section  I;  also  Section  V,  'Chapter  1,  of  thiis  Manual. 

"Christmas — what  does  it  mean?"  This  may  be  de- 
veloped through  the  use  of  tableaux,  a  pageant,  or  by  the 
story  method. 

"Patriotism,  Old  and  New,"  and  "What  is  Real  Patriot- 
ism" and  "A  Perfect  Tribute"   may  offer  opportunities 
for  .the  use  of  outside   speakers  who  will  bring  a  real 
message  to  the  club. 
Service: 

Preparation  of  Christmas  baskets  and  the  giving  of  a 
party  for  needy  children  should  have  the  same  careful 
consideration  as  was  suggested  in  the  comment  regarding 
the  preparation  of  the  Thanksgiving  baskets.  See  that 
the  baskets  a*-e  distributed  through  some  recognized  local 
agencies  and  that  the  children  who  are  invited  to  the 
party  come  as  family  groups,  since  disappointment  so 
often  comes  to  several  when  one  child  is  chosen  to  go 
to  a  party  and  several  others  are  left  at  home. 
Social: 

"A  Colonial  Party"  offers  a  means  of  cooperation  be- 
tween the  Young  Men's  Christian  Association  wlxen 
members  of  the  Hi-Y  clubs  may  be  invited  to  the  party 
or  the  girls  may  invite  their  own  boy  friends. 

175 


"The  Mother  and  Daughter  Banquet"  offers  an  op- 
portunity to  acquaint  the  mothers  with  the  ideals  and 
purpose  of  the  club  work,  and  it  very  often  reveals  a 
mother  to  a  daughter  in  a  new  way.  Through  a  cleverly 
arranged  toast  program  the  mothers  may  express  their 
appreciation  of  the  club  and  what  it  means  to  the 
girls.  (See  Section  VII,  Material  for  Program  Building, 
page  726.) 

"The  Father  and  Daughter"  Party.  In  so  far  as  the 
Boys'  Work  Department  of  the  Young  Men's  Christian 
Association  is  having  "Mother  and  Son"  parties,  it  would 
seem  that  "Father  and  Daughter"  parties  might  well 
be  a  part  of  the  Girls'  Work  program  of  the  Young 
Women's  Christian  Association.  For  a^good  many  years 
it  has  been  very  usual  to  have  the  relationship  between 
father  and  son  and  between  mother  and  daughter  stressed 
much  more  than  the  relationship  between  father  and 
daughter  and  mother  and  son. 

SPRING  MONTHS 
March,  April,  May 

These  months  are  the  time  for  presenting  plans  for  a  voca- 
tional conference,  for  planning  a  St.  Patrick's  party,  for  the 
election  of  officers,  for  planning  Mothers'  and  Daughters'  week, 
for  a  discussion  of  summer  camps,  summer  conferences,  Senior 
parties,  parties  for  grade  school  girls  who  will  enter  high  school 
in  the  autumn,  for  council  (or  cabinet)  training  through  the 
medium  of  a  week-end  house  party  when  the  new  and  the 
old  councils  meet  together,  for  the  planning  of  a  summer  pro- 
gram, the  Girls'  Work  Committee  and  the  club  committees  all 
considering  what  should  be  done  and  how. 

Content. 

Topics:    To  be  used  at  the  club  meetings.    These  are 
suggested  only.     They  may  be  developed  through  the 

176 


discussional  or  demonstration  method. 
"Discovering  Myself." 

"How  to  Live  on  Twenty-four  Hours  a  Day." 
"Feet—A  Good  Understanding." 
"Have  We  Fulfilled  Our  Purpose  This  Year?" 
"Choose  Ye." 

"Shall  We  Have  a  Summer  Program?" 
"Making  Our  Triangles  Perfect." 
"Through   Freshman    Spectacles,   or  High   School   as 
We  See  It." 

"Habit  Postures,  Good  and  Bad." 
"Camps— Why  Have  One?" 
"Conferences — Why  Go  to  Them?" 
"What  Does  Easter  Mean  to  You?" 

Service: 

Presentation  of  "A  Pageant  of  Sunshine  and  Shadow." 
A  Vocational   Conference,   to   which  all  girls   in  the 
school  may  be  invited. 

Social:  * 

A  party  for  the  Senior  girls. 

A  party  for  girls  who  will  enter  high  school  in  the 
autumn. 

The  Council  Training  House  Party. 

Method. 
Topics: 

"Discovering  Myself."  Chapter  12,  Section  V  of  this 
Manual  contains  a  bibliography  of  material  to  be  used 
in  presenting  vocational  work. 

"How  to  Live  on  Twenty-four  Hours  a  Day/'  the 
title  of  a  book  by  Arnold  Bennett.  It  may  be  read 
aloud  at  a  club  meeting  or  the  adviser  or  girls'  work 
secretary  may  read  it  and  tell  it  to  the  girls,  or  the 
girls  may  read  it  and  then  have  a  discussion  based  upon 
it. 

177 


"Feet — A  Good  Understanding."  Secure  from  .the 
Womans  Press  a  series  of  posters'  on  posture  and  .the 
right  kind  of  shoes  and  see  the  article  in  the  July  (1919) 
"Association  Monthly"  on  "A  Perfect  Shoe  For  a  Perfect 
Foot";  see  Section  V,  Chapter  2. 

"Have  We  Fulfilled  Our  Purpose  This  Year?"  A 
time  of  reckoning"  when  the  girls  face  squarely  whether 
the  club  purpose  is  real,  and  if  not,  why  not. 

"'Choose  Ye."  A  meeting-  when  senior  girls  tell  what 
they  would  do  if  they  were  starting-  to  high  school  again. 

The  following  quotation  from  Kipling  may  be  used: 

"I  wish  myself  could  talk  to  myself, 

As  I  left  'im  a  year  ago, 
I  could  tell  7im  a  lot  that  would  save  'im  a  lot 

Of  the  things  'e  ought  to  know." 

"Shall  we  have  a  summer  program?"  Discussion  in 
this  case  should  center  around  the  following  points: 
The  advisability  of  a  summer  program^  what  should  be 
its  nature;  how  often  should  the  club  meet ;  what  should 
be  the  nature  of  the  meetings? 

"Making  Our  Triangles  Perfect."  John  Oxenham's 
poem,  "Everymaid,"  might  be  used  in  this  meeting.  It 
is  to  be  found  in  his  little  book  of  poems,  ""Bees  in 
Amber,"  which  may  be  secured  from  The  Book  Shop,  600 
Lexington  Avenue,  New  York  City. 

"  Through  Freshmen  Spectacles"  does  not  need  inter- 
pretation, 

"Habit  Postures,  Good  and  Bad."  Data  which  will  be 
helpful  in  such  a  meeting  as  this  may  be  found  in 
Section  V,  Chapter  2,  of  this  .Manual. 

"Camps — Why  Have  One?"  This  may  be  a  discussion 
on  the  part  of  the  girls  as  to  what  a  camp  may  mean; 

178 


the  kind  of  publicity  to  make  a  camp  successful;  why 
camp  songs  are  necessary;  how  many  days  should  be 
spent  at  camp.  The  girls'  work  secretary  will  consider 
location,  equipment,  recreation,  the  creation  of  camp 
spirit  which  results  in  self-government,  how  much  time 
can  be  reserved  completely  for  the  girls'  work  depart- 
ment, if  it  is  a  camp  shared  by  the  whole  Association, 
and  how  to  relate  the  camp  program  to  the  programs  of 
the  other  groups  in  the  Association.  See  Chapter  14, 
Section  V,  of  this  Manual. 

"Conferences — Why  Go  to  Them?"  See  Chapter  15, 
Section  V,  of  this  Manual.  Those  girls  who  have  attend- 
ed a  summer  conference  will  be  able  to  make  all  their 
experiences  very  vivid  to  the  other  girls  through  the 
use  of  kodak  pictures  and  conference  memory  books  and 
stories. 

"What  Does  Easter  Mean  to  You?"  Sometimes  a 
series  of  Lenten  meetings  may  be  arranged  in  the  Girls' 
Work  Department,  or  perhaps  a  vesper  service,  held  in 
a  church  or  in  some  place  made  attractive  with  flowers 
and  vines,  will  help  to  make  the  Easter  season  a  very 
lovely  one  for  the  girls. 

"A  Pageant  of  Sunshine  and  Shadow."  This  will  be 
real  service  for  all  proceeds  from  it  are  to  be  devoted 
to  the  work  of  The  National  Child  Labor  Committee. 

Social: 

Party  for  Senior  Girls:  This  party  should  be  planned 
for  the  senior  girls  by  all  the  other  members  of  the  club. 
It  may  be  a  tea  with  faculty  members  present.  It 
represents,  usually,  the  closing  of  the  school  year  part  ol 
the  club  program. 

Cabinet  or  Council  Training:  The  purpose  is  to  bring  to- 
gether the  old  and  the  new  council  members,  so  that  the^ 
may  learn  all  the  detail  of  club  work  and  committee 
organization  and  management. 

179 


SUMMER  MONTHS 
June,  July,  August 

These  months  offer  excellent  opportunities  for  out-door 
activiUles,  such  as  camps,  auto-truck  parties,  beach  parties, 
tennis,  group  singing;  it  is  also  time  for  attendance  at  a  sum- 
mer conference.  A  summer  program  is  essentially  informal, 
and  may  mean  that  the  advisers  meet  the  girls  only  once  a 
month  instead  of  the  more  regular  meetings  of  the  school  year. 
Such  summer  work  as  that  mentioned  above  requires  leader- 
ship, which  can  only  be  obtained  by  careful  thought  and 
planning,  in  which  the  girls7  work  secretary  and  the  girls'  work 
committee  members  and  advisers  will  all  share.  Sometimes, 
when  regular  advisers  are  unavailable,  there  are  college  girls 
who  will  be  glad  to  help  while  home  for  the  summer. 

PROGRAM  HELPS 

All  good  program  work  must  take  into  consideration  a  sea- 
sonal grouping  of  activities,  whereby  the  year  is  divided  into 
quarters — fall,  winter,  spring  and  summer.  The  program  com- 
mittee, in  preparing  its  outline  for  the  year's  work,  will  find 
in  these  lists  of  material  the  suggestive  elements  which  will 
provide  the  variety,  balance  and  continuity  essential  to  suc- 
cessful club  work,  and  which  may  be  adapted  to  the  needs 
of  individual  girls  in  the  local  community.  All  of  the  ma- 
terial in  Section  V  and  Section  VII  of  this  manual  will  con- 
tribute additional  strength  to  the  program. 

Every  program  committee  should  also  remember  that  the 
program  which  they  plan  should  make  concrete  the  ideals  which 
the  club  has  incorporated  in  its  purpose.  The  purpose  of  any 
club  should  be  "the  pace-setter"  for  the  quality  of  the  work 
done,  both  in  regular  club  meetings  and  in  council  and  com- 
mittee meetings.  All  program  committee  members,  advisers 
and  the  girls'  work  secretaries  must  always  remember  that  the 
ultimate  purpose  of  all  high  school  club  work  is  to  train  girls 
in  the  way  of  Christian  living.  This,  being  interpreted,  means 

180 


to  help  a  girl  to  understand  what  it  means  to  be  a  Christian, 
and  to  help  her  ,to  live  as  a  Christian  in  her  community. 

The  value  of  any  club  work  to  its  members  is  in  direct  pro- 
portion to  the  way  in  which  that  work  enables'  the  members, 
as  individuals  and  as  a  group,  "to  face  life  squarely"— and  to 
do  this  means  to  accept  Christian  standards  of  living  and  to 
so  adjust  personal  desires  and  problems  to  these  standards 
that  all  members  attain  abundant  life.  Such  adjustments  for 
every  one  come  in  home,  school,  church  and  community  living. 
To  obtain  abundant  life,  club  members  must  be  strong  in  body, 
alert  in  mind,  and  must  seek  in  God,  the  Father,  and  Jesus 
Christ,  His  Son,  their  purpose  "to  find  and  give  the  best."  The 
triangle  of  health,  knowledge,  spirit,  expressed  in  service,  should 
become  the  keystone  for  a  girl's  Hiving  in  her  normal  environ- 
ment— home,  school,  church  and  community.  The  suggested 
material  has  been  prepared  with  this  thought  in  mind. 

I.    Book  Poverty — "I  Don't  Have  Any  Time  to  Read." 
II.    My  Book  Shelf: 

"Books  I  Would  Like  to  -Own." 
"Books  I  Would  Leave  in  the  Library." 

III.  "If  I  were  having  a  party  and  could  have  only  twenty 

guests,  whom  would  I   choose?" 

IV.  "My    Five-Foot    Shelf." — Ask    each    club    member   to 

make  a  list  of  .the  books  which  she  would  include  in 
her  five-foot  shelf  if  she  had  one.  These  lists  will 
serve  as  the  content  of  a  discussion  for  the  club 
members  to  determine  what  volumes  would  make  a 
Five-Foot  Shelf  for  the  club,  and  why  certain  books 
should  be  retained  and  others  discarded. 
V.  "Trash  or  Classic — Hysterical  or  Historical — What 

Do  You  Read?" 

VI.  Book  parties,  where  club  members  come  representing 
well-known  book  characters  or  book  titles;  guessing 
games  which  involve  a  knowledge  of  books,  and  bio- 
graphical sketches  done  by  some  one  who  knows  how 

181 


to  tell  stories,  all  help  to  stimulate  a  girl's  interest 
in  reading1. 

VII.     "What  have  I  in  my  sweater  pocket?" 

What  are  my  treasures? — might  be  another  way  of 
staging1  this  topic.  Every  girl  has  them;  many  she 
carries  with  her,  and  they  vary  as  do  the  girls  them- 
selves. Poems  should  be  part  of  the  treasures  of 
girlhood,  for  they  are  results  of  the  gift  of  some  one 
who  can  see  the  land  of  far  distances  and  the  King 
in  His  glory,  and  who  crystalizes  "the  beautiful"  into 
words. 

It  ds  fortunate  that  many  volumes  of  verse  and 
anthologies,  such  as  "The  Little  Book,  of  Modem 
Verse,"  are  sweater  pocket  size,  and  every  adviser  and 
secretary  has  an  untold  opportunity  to  indicate  such 
use  of  sweater  "carrying  space." 

Pocket  size: 
The    Golden   Treasury   of   Magazine   Verse. — William 

Stanley  Braithwaite. 

Second  Book  of  Modern  Verse. — Jessie  Rittenhouse. 
Bees  in  Amber. — John  Oxenham. 
High  Tide—Selected  Poems. — Mrs.  Waldo  Richards. 
Poems  That  Have  Helped  Me.— S.  E.  Kiser. 
A  Little  Book  of  Western  Verse. — -Eugene  Field. 
Poems  of  Childhood. — Eugene  F|ield. 
Trees  and  Other  Poems. — Joyce  Kilmer. 
Old  Fashioned  Roses. — James  Whitcomb  Riley. 
Volumes  from  The   Little   Leather  Library  Corpora- 
tion, 44  East  23d  Street,  New  York  City.     Write 
for  catalogue. 

VIII.     The  Woman  Movement: 

The  Woman's  Land  Army  of  America,  19  West  44th 

Street,  New  York  City. 
The  Woman  Suffrage  Party,  373  Fifth  Avenue,  New 

York  City. 

182 


The  Woman's  Trade  Union  League,  7  East  15th  Street, 

New  York  City. 
The     National     Consumers'    League,     105    East    22d 

Street,    New    York  Oity. 
The  National   Child  Labor  Committee,  105  East  22d 

Street  yNew  York   City. 

The  World's  Student  Christian  Federation;  address  re- 
quests for  information  to  The  'Student  'Committee, 
Department  of  Research  and  Method,  600  Lexing- 
ton Avenue,  New  York  City. 

IX.  The  Blue  Triangle  the  World  Around:  India\  China, 
Japan,  France,  Russia,  England,  South  America. 
(Helpful  material  for  such  a  meeting  may  be  secured 
from  the  Foreign  and  Overseas  Department,  National 
Board,  Young  Womens  Christian  Associations,  600 
Lexington  Avenue,  New  York  City.) 

X.  "The  World  at  Our  Door."  -See  "Peter  of  the  World" 
in  the  first  Inch  of  the  Inch  Library.  Use  the  follow- 
ing verse,  entitled  "The  Window  of  the  World,"  on 
a  poster: 

Through  the  window-, 
Through  the  window 

Of  the  world, 
Over  city,  over  lea, 
Down  the  river,  flowing  free 
Toward  its  making  with  the  sea, 
I  am  looking 
Through  the  windows 

Of  the  world. 
XL     "The  World  Beyond   Our  Borders." 

Such  a  topic  gives  the  opportunity  to  increase  in 
knowledge  and  understanding  of  "World  Oitizenshfip." 
See  "The  Magic  Carpet,"  "The  Air  Route  to  Buenos 
Aires,"  UA  Camel  Trip  to  Cairo"  and  "Precious 
Flower  and  the  Flies,"  all  of  which  may  be  secured 
from  The  Womans  Press,  600  Lexington  Avenue,  New 
York  City. 

183 


XII     "Different  Angles  of  Our  World" 

Our  individual  angles: — Home,   School,  Church. 

Our   industrial    angles: — Native-Born,    Foreign-Born, 

•Colored. 
Our  world  angles: — Europe,  Asia,   South  America. 

This  could  be  made  graphic  by  using  three  tri- 
angles— one  for  each  of  the  divisions  at  the  corners  of 
a  poster. 

This  topic  can  be  developed  by  showing  how  the 
triangle  of  home,  school  and  church  can  never  be  per- 
fect until  there  is  a  realization  that  the  triangle 
of  colored  and  foreign-born  girls  in  the  great  indus- 
trial centers  is  becoming  more  nearly  equilateral  be- 
cause of  improved  working  conditions,  wages  and 
hours;  and  that  the  distress  lin  other  continents  can 
only  be  rectified  as  we  realize  that  it  is  our  responsi- 
bility to  reach  out  from  our  immediate  little  triangle 
of  home,  school  and  church  to  the  triangle  which  lies 
at  our  very  door,  and  from  there  to  the  world  triangle. 
(Use  again  /if  desired,  the  poem  given  under  topic  D, 
Chapter  VII,  Section  V,  of  this  Manual,  "The  Place 
of  Discussion  in  the  Girl  Eeserve  Movement." 

XIII.  "Ups  and  Downs" — ."All  mortals  have  their  ups  and 
downs ;  in  all  the  modern  styles ;  one  day  they  wilt 
'neath  Fortune's  frowns,  the  next  enjoy  her  smiles. 
Some  men  put  up  a  gorgeous  front  when  all  things 
come  their  way;  they  blithely  tackle  every  stunt, 
their  curves  are  glad  and  gay.  They  move  with  an 
elastic  step,  the  bluff  they  make  is  tall;  we  say,  'these 
men  are  full  of  pep,  they're  winners,  one  and  all.' 
Sane  people  calmly  take  their  joys,  and  do  not  tear 
their  gowns  or  make  a  woeful,  sobbing  noise  when 
ups  give  way  to  downs." — Walt  Mason. 

184 


XIV.     "The  Letters  We  Write  in  Our  Faces" 

Where  do  the  lines  come  from?  See  Robert  Love-* 
man's,  poem,  "A  Sunshine  Heart  and  a  Soul  of 
Song,"  and  John  Oxenham's  poem,  "Everymaid/'  in 
"Bees  in  Amber." 

XV.     "Through  the  Looking  Glass" 
Life's  mirror. 

A  look  into  our  own  niirrors. 

XVI.     Three  Requisites  for  Success:    Desire,  Efforts,  Results. 
XVII.     Grace,  Grit,  Gumption,  Girls. 
XVIII.    The  Alibi  Habit:    "I  was  Busy  Here  and  There." 
XIX.     "Are  You  Extravagant?" 

Money    Giving.      Time    Giving.      Joy    Giving.      Self 

Giving1. 

XX.     Care  of  the  Teeth.     Care  of  the  Hands.     Care  of  the 
Hair.      (These    should   be    practical    demonstrations, 
given  by  specialists  if  possible.) 
XXI.     Common  Sense  Hints  on  Dress. 
XXII.    A  Girl's  Relation  to  Men. 
XXIII.     "When  I  Go  Traveling." 

See  in  Section  VII  "Material  for  Program  Building," 
a  "movie"  which  may  be  used  to  dramatize  this  topic. 
XXIV.     On  the  Fence— School  Honor. 
XXV.     The  Green-Eyed  Monster   (Envy). 
XXVI.     A  Girl's  Storage  Batteries. 

XXVIL  "How  Would  I  Explain  to  a  Girl  from  a  Foreign 
Country  My  Christianity?" 

XXVIII.  The  Women  Jesus  Knew  and  What  They  Thought  of 
Him.  (This  might  well  be  a  talk  given  by  an  out- 
side speaker.) 

XXIX.    A  Girl's  Triangle— Others,  God,  Myself. 
XXX.     Courage — the   things   which  help   one  reach  toward 
God. 

185 


XXXI.    A  Gfirl's  Garden.     (The  following  poem  by  Thomas 
Edward  Brown  might  be  used: 

"A  garden  is  a  lovesome  thing — Got  wot! 
Kose  plot, 
Fringed  pool, 

The  veriest  school  of  peace. 
And  yet  the  fool 

Contends  that  God  is  not — 
Not  God!  in  gardens,  when  the  eve  is  cool? 
Nay,  but  I  have  a  sign! 
Tis  very  sure  God  walks  in  mine." 
"Patience  and   Her   Garden,"  by  Ida   Smith  Decker, 
published  by  Paul  Elder  &  Go.,  San  Francfisco,  is  a 
delightful  story,  which  possibly  could  be  used  at  such 
a  meeting. 

XXXII.  "Habits  that  are  of  value  in  Personal  Relationships." 
Thoughtfulness.  Avoidance  of  petty  and 

Courtesy.  unjust  judgments 

Quiet  Voice.  Punctuality. 

Aversion  to  gossip.  Honesty, 

XXXIII.  "A  Glass  of  Blessings." 

"There  are  three  ingredients  in  the  good  life,  learning, 
earring  and  yearning.  A  man  should  be  learning  as 
he  goes;  and  he  should  be  earning  bread  for  himself 
and  others;  and  he  should  be  yearning  to  know  the 
unknowable.  When  God  made  man  (says  George 
Herbert)  he  had  'a  glass  of  blessings  standing  by.' 
So  He  pours  on  man  all  the  blessings  in  His  reservoir; 
strength,  beauty,  wisdom,  honor,  pleasure — and  then 
He  refrains  from  giving  him  the  last  of  them  which 
is  rest,  i.  e.,  contentment.  God  sees  that  if  man  is 
contented  he  will  never  win  his  way  to  Him." 

— Christopher  Morley. 

(From    "Parnassus    on   Wheels/*   reprinted    by   per- 
mission   of   the    author   and    publishers,    Doubleday 
Page  and  Co.) 

186 


"Life  Came  to  Me  Today ." 

This  I  entreat — 

Flow  in  my  hands,  inform  my  lagging  feet, 

Shine  in  mine  eyes,  and  smile  "upon  my  lips. 

Oh,  lift  my  spirit's  flame  from  dull  eclipse 

And),  sing,  within  my  heart,  that  I  may  be 

Life,  in  my  turn,  for  those  who  look  to  me." 

XXXIV.  "Whatsoever  Things  Are  Lovely." 

(a)  Poems  I  love. 

(b)  Pictures  I  love. 

(c)  Books  I  love. 

(d)  Music  I  love. 

(e)  People  I  love. 

XXXV.  "What  can  I,  a  girl,  do  to  help?" 
At  home. 
In  my  school. 
In   my  community. 
The  world. 

XXXVI.  "How  can  we  do  common  things  in  an  uncommon  way  ?  " 
For  additional  interpretation  of  the  world  fellowship, 
4  which  can  become  so  easily  a  part  of  any  program,  see 
the  suggested  interpretation  of  the  honors  which  will 
make  them  international — see  page  290.  Even 
though  high  school  girls  themselves  may  not 
be  (interested  in  honors  the  adviser  of  the  Program 
Committee  will  find  there  much  which  is  suggestive 

CABINET  OR   COUNCIL  TRAINING 

It  sometimes  happens  that  girls  who  are  elected  to  office  in 
the  High  School  Club,  because  of  their  leadership  qualities, 
do  not  understand  what  are  the  responsibilities  which  become 
theirs  with  office-holding.  The  week-end  Cabinet  or  Council 
Training  has  proved  a  very  effective  way  of  preparing  them. 

187 


Who — The  old  cabinet  or  council,  the  newly  elected  one,  the 
advisers,  and  the  secretary.  In  the  case  of  the  independently 
affiliated  high  school  where  the  visit  of  a  secretary  is  not  possi- 
ble, one  of  the  advisers  will  have  charge  of  the  training. 

When — jnor  a  week-end  as  soon  after  the  election  of  officers 
as  practicable,  beginning  Friday  afternoon  or  evening. 

Where — The  place  should  be  away  from  the  usual  scene  of 
action  both  for  more  concentrated  work  and  greater  interest. 
A  cabinet  or  council  house-party  offers  great  possibilities. 

What — Information. 
Inspiration. 
Training. 

Tentative  Program  for  Such  Training. 

Friday  evening —    I.  Our  responsibility — Retiring  president. 

II.  The  girl  who  leads:    The  girl  who  follows 
Secretary  or  adviser. 

III.  Our  purpose:  what  it  means,  and  how  we 
carry  it  out — Discussion. 

IV.  Closing — cabinet   or    council    member    or 

adviser. 
Saturday  Morning — 

I.  Opening     Devotions — Cabinet     (Council) 

member  or  adviser. 

II.  The  Young  Women's  Christian  Associa- 
tion of  whlich  we  are  a  part — secretary  or 
adviser. 

III.  Parlimentary  Drill — this  should  be  short, 
"snappy"  and  stimulating. 

IV.  The  Relation  of  the  Cabinet  or  Council  to 

the  club  as  a  whole — secretary  or  ad- 
viser. 

This  may  be  illustrated  by  a  diagram  or 
a  chalk  talk,  interesting  relationships 
figuratively  described  as  follows: 

188 


a.  "Your  Cabinet  or  Council  the  Hub." 

b.  "Your  Committees  the  .Spokes." 

c.  "Your  Club  the  Wheel." 

V.  How  to  plan  for  a  Cabinet  or  Council 
Meeting — 'Cabinet  or  Council  member  or 
adviser  or  secretary. 

A.  The   following    is    the   usual    plan   of 
procedure  for  a  business  meeting. 

1.  Meeting      opened      by      president. 
(Something    devotional    at  the   be- 
ginning or  the  end  of  the  meeting.) 

2.  Minutes  of  the  last  meeting. 

3.  Old  business. 

4.  New  business. 

a.  Report   of   all    committees. 

b.  Future  plans. 

VI.  How  to  plan  for  a  committee  meeting. 

A.  Regular  time  for  a  meeting. 

B.  Outline  of  business. 

C.  Discussion  of  work  to  be  done  and  the 
best  ways  to  do  it. 

D.  Monthly   report   to   the   cabinet — this 
report   should   include   work   that  has 
been  done  and  also   future  plans. 

VII.  Discussion  of  the  duties  of  cabinet  or 
council  members — adviser,  secretary  or 
member  of  Cabinet  or  'Council. 

A.  President. 

B.  Vice    President     (membership    chair- 
man).    Refer  to    Constitution. 

C.  Secretary. 

D.  Treasurer.      (See!  the   Chapter   on    Or- 

ganization in  this  Manual,  page  61.) 

E.  Program    committee    chairman. 

F.  Service   committee  chairman. 

189 


G.  Social  committee  chairman.  Organi- 
zation of  high  school  and  private 
school  associations. 

Saturday  Afternoon — 

I.  Model  Cabinet  Meeting. 
II.  Our  Program. 
A.  For  the  year. 

1.  For  the  summer. 

a.  'Camps  and  conferences. 

b.  'Community  service. 

2.  For  the  school  year. 

III.  Installation     services     planned     and     re- 
hearsed. 

IV.  Closing. 

The  right  spirit  for  a  cabinet  otf  council  meeting  can  be 
secured  in  a  number  of  ways.  There  are  poems',  which  are  in- 
spirational, stories  and  biographies  that  challege  us  to  our  best, 
and  which  all  of  us  want  to  use  at  times,  but  for  those  of  us 
who  know  the  inspiration  that  comes  from  the  study  of  our 
Bible  and  the  fellowship  of  prayer,  these  latter  are  the  most 
direct  ways. 

A  RECOGNITION  SERVICE  FOR  NEW  MEMBERS 

To  many  members  of  girls'  clubs  in  the  Young  Women's 
Christian  Association,  the  words  "Recognition  Service"  have 
come  to  have  a  very  definite  and  beautiful  meaning  and  be- 
cause of  a  desire  to  make  this  experience  available  to  all  girls 
who  share  in  the  fellowship  of  work,  play,  love  and  worship  in 
the  Girl  Reserve  movement,  the  following  suggestions  for  a 
Recognition  .Service  for  New  Members  have  been  included  'dn 
this  Manual.  It  is  very  desirable  that  for  every  club  the  ser- 
vice should  have  an  especial  meaning*  and  therefore  it  is  hoped 
that  these  suggestions  will  be  adapted  to  fit  the  immediate 
needs.  Always  there  should  be  beauty  and  simplidity  and  a 

190 


spirit  of  reverence ;  what  mode  of  expression  these  will  find  is 
not  so  vital,  but  that  they  should  be  ever  present  is  most 
essential. 

Producing  Notes: 

At  the  end  of  the  room  place  a  table  on  which  is  set  a  large 
candle  that  is  lighted.  Mark  out  on  the  floor,  immediately  in 
front  of  the  table,  the  three  angles  of  a  large  triangle,  which 
shall  serve  as  guides  to  the  old  members  of  the  club  when  they 
march  in  and  form  a  triangle  outline.  The  President  of  the 
club  and  the  Vice  President  head  the  procession  and  take  their 
places  at  either  end  of  the  table. 

The  old  members,  carrying  unlighted  candles,  march  into  the 
room.  They  advance  by  twos  to  the  middle  of  the  base  of  the 
triangle  (D)  and  there  separate,  turning  at  the  angle  of  the 
triangle  and  marching  to  the  apex,  where  .they  light  their 
candles.  They  turn  and  march  down  the  other  side  to  the 
points  E  and  F.  The  new  members,  also  carrying  unlighted 
candles,  enter  the  same  way  and  separate  at  (D)  as  did  the 
old  members.  They  march  in  single  file,  inside  the  lines  formed 
by  the  old  members.  The  order  of  service  is  as  follows: 

Processional  Hymn — "0  Beautiful  for  Spacious  Skies." 

(At  the  close  of  the  hymn,  the  Vice  President  steps  forward 
and  speaks  as  follows.) 

Vice  President:  "Whom  do  we  welcome  to  the  fellowship  of 
this  club? 

Old  members  (in  unison):  All  who  work,  play  and  worship 
with  us  in  a  common  purpose. 

Vice  President:    In  what  words  do  we  express  our  purpose? 
Old  members  (in  unison):     (Repeat  the  club  purpose.) 

Vice  President  (turning  to  the  President):  I  present  to 
you  these  new  members. 

191 


President:  Is  it  your  desire  tq  become  members  of  this 
club? 

New  members  (in  unison) :    It  is. 

President:  In  token  of  your  common  pledge  with  us  to 
share  in  the  fellowship  of  this  club,  will  you  come  forward  and 
seek  your  light  where  we  have  lighted  ours  ? 

(The  new  members  step  forward  to  the  large  lighted  candle; 
when  they  have  lighted  their  candles  they  march  down  the  sides 
of  the  triangle  formed  by  the  old  members  and  complete  the 
triangle  by  forming  the  base. 

Short  talk  or  story  by  a  member  of  the  club  or  one  of  the 
advisers  (interpretation  of  what  the  club  can  mean  to  girls). 

Recessional:    Hymn  of  the  Lights. 

AN    INSTALLATION    SERVICE    FOR    OFFICERS    OF   A   HIGH    SCHOOL 

CLUB 

The  preparation  for  an  installation  service  must  be  started 
several  weeks  in  advance  of  the  date  determined  for  the  formal 
installation.  This  tflme  is  necessary  because  it  is  desirable  that 
many  parts  of  the  suggested  service  included  in  this  Manual 
should  be  prepared  by  the  new  and  the  old  council  or  cabinet 
officers.  Much  discussion  will  be  needed  to  make  it  very  clear 
and  very  attractive  to  the  club  members,  who  really  share  in  it 
'as  much  as  do  the  officers  who  are  being  installed. 

Producing  Notes: 

The  service  proceeds  according  to  the  order  indicated  below. 
While  the  members  of  the  club  are  assembling,  hymns  or  other 
appropriate  selections  should  be  played.  When  the  processional 
is  ready,  play  the  hymn  *'Lead  On,  0  King  Eternal";  the  mem- 
bers of  the  club  stand  while  the  officers  of  -the  club,  old  and  new, 
enter.  They  are  preceded  by  a  girl  who  is  dressed  in  white. 
She  carries  a  large  lighted  candle.  Each  retiring  officer  marches 
with  her  successor  •  they  all  carry  candles,  and  the  candles  of 
the  retiring  officers  are  lighted.  The  candle  bearer  places  her 

192 


candle  on  a  table  at  one  end  of  the  room  and  steps  to  one  side. 
The  retiring  officers  place  their  lighted  candles  on  the  table  as 
they  file  by  and  the  new  officers  place  theirs  in  a  similar  position 
on  the  other  side.  When  the  processional  hymn  is  ended,  all 
are  seated,  chairs  having  been  arranged  for  the  officers  so  that 
they  face  the  club  membership  and  form  a  semi-circle  about 
the  table.  The  retiring  president  arises  and  tells  very  simply 
the  story  of  the  choosing  of  David  or  the  calling  of  some  other 
great  leader  of  the  people.  This  story  may  be  told  in  the 
words  of  the  Bible  story  or  in  the  girl's  own  words;  it  must 
receive  careful  preparation,  so  that  none  of  the  beauty  and 
significance  of  it  escapes  the  auditors.  She  then  repeats  the 
purpose  of  the  club,  stating  very  briefly  how  the  retiring  officers 
have  tried  to  help  the  club  carry  it  into  its  work  and  fellowship. 
She  states  that  the  old  officers  are  about  to  give  their  trust  to 
the  new  officers.  When  she  has  said  this,  all  of  the  officers 
arise  and  the  retiring  president  presents  to  her  successor  the 
constitution,  and  in  a  few  sentences,  gives  her  trust  and  respon- 
sibility to  her.  The  order  of  the  service  is  indicated  below. 
I.  Music 
II.  Processional — "Lead  On,  0  King  Eternal." 

III.  President's  address  and  charge  to  the  new  president. 

IV.  New  President's  response. 

V.  Retiring  Vice  President  presents  the  membership  roll  to 
her  successor   and   charges   her  with  the  responsibility 
for  the  club  membership. 
VI.  New  Vice  President's  response. 

VII.  Retiring  'Secretary  presents  record  book  to  her  successor, 
with  a  brief  address. 

VIII.  New   Secretary  accepts  the   charge  and  the  treasurer's 
books. 

IX.  Retiring  President  explains  the  meaning  of  the  large 
candle  and  bids  the  new  officers  light  their  candles  from 
it. 

193 


X.  Candle  Service. 

New  President  (stepping  forward,  takes  her  candle 
and  lights  it,  while  she  repeats  these  words),  "Jesus  said: 
'I  am  the  Light  of  the  World/  " 

When  she  has  returned  to  her  place, .the  new  Vice 
President  steps  forward  and  lighting  her  candle,  repeats: 
"The  True  light,  even  the  Light  which  lighteth  every 
man  coming1  into  the  world." 

The  new  Secretary  repeats,  as  she  lights  her  candle, 
"Light  shall  shine  out  of  darkness." 

The  new  Treasurer  repeats:  "Jesus  said  'Ye  are  the 
light  of  the  world.  A  city  that  is  set  on  a  hill  cannot 
be  hid.'" 

The  retiring  President  speaks,  saying:  "Let  your 
light  so  shine  before  men  that  they  may  see  your  good 
works  and  glorify  your  Father  which  is  in  Heaven." 

The  retiring  officers  then  step  forward,  take  up  their 
lighted  candles  and  join  with  the  new  officers  in  a  prayer 
such  as  .the  following: 

"Light  of  light,  that  shined  ere  the  world  began, 

Draw  thou  near  and  lighten  every  heart  of  man." 

XL  Recessional  Hymn — 'Hymn  of  the  Lights. 

The  candlebearer,  having  taken  her  candle,  leads  the 
recessional,  followed  by  the  new  officers,  marching  two 
by  two;  the  retiring  officers  follow. 

CONTENT   AND   METHOD   TYPICAL    OF   A   PROGRAM   FOR   YOUNGER 
GIRLS   IN   BUSINESS   AND    INDUSTRY* 

All  programs  for  younger  girls  in  business  and  industry 
must  take  into  consideration  the  fact  that  the  needs  of  the  girl 


*The  majority  of  these  suggestions  have  been  taken  from  the  Commission 
reports  of  the  various  Councils  for  Younger  Girls  in  Business  and  Industry 
held  during  these  past  two  years,  and  from  programs  worked  out  by  the 
girls  through  their  own  committees  in  local  Associations.  It  is  hoped  that 
they  will  prove  suggestive  to  other  groups  of  girls  as  they  plan  their  own 
programs. 

194 


between  fourteen  and  sixteen  are  often  very  different  from 
those  of  the  girl  between  sixteen  and  e'ighteen.  These  differ- 
ences, however,  can  often  be  met  not  so  much  by  a  change  in 
subject  or  content  as  by  a1  different  method  of  presentation. 
The  older  girl  is  more  sophisticated,  feels  more  grown  up,  has 
often  more  freedom  from  home  restraint,  has  sometimes  reached 
a  different  relation  with  her  men  friends,  and  should  have  a 
feeling  of  greater  responsibility  toward  work  and  her  place 
in  the  industrial  or  business  world.  All  of  these  things  make 
possible  a  program  more  "formal"  in  its  presentation. 

With  both  groups  of  girls,  care  should  be  taken  to  correlate 
program  work  with  the  programs  of  the  industrial  department 
and  with  the  department  for  business  and  professional  women. 
If  this  is  done,  the  transition  from  girls'  work  to  either  of  .these 
is  easier. 

A  wise  use  of  leisure  time  is  one  of  the*  most  vital  factors  to 
take  into  consideration  in  programs  for  this  group  of  younger 
girls  in  business  and  industry.  Their  desire  for  singing,  dancing 
and  "shows"  may  be  directed  easily  to  folk  dancing,  gymnastic 
drills,  dramatic  art,  nature  study  and  good  reading. 

The  following-  program  suggestions  have  been  grouped  under 
the  four  elements  which  constitute  the  basis  of  all  the  Girl  Re- 
serve programs — health,  knowledge,  service,  spirit. 

I— Health. 

Just  as  soon  as  possible  every  girl  should  realize  through 
a  talk,  a  discussion,  a  demonstration  or  an  exhibit,  that  health 
is  no  longer  to  be  considered  a  luxury  but  a  social  responsibility, 
and  that  the  health  of  the  individual  bears  directly  upon  that  of 
the  home,  the  continuation  school,  the  place  of  work,  and  the 
community.  The  Girl  Reserve  health  slogan  is  "Stand  Up 
Straight"  and  ":Sit  Up  Straight"— inside  and  outside— ^S.U.S." 
The  slogan  itself  can  be  worked  into  a  clever  poster  and  the 
letters  "S.  U.  S."  may  be  used  in  many  ways. 

195 


Through  cooperation  with  the  health  education  department 
of  the  Association,  if  it  exists,  arrangements  should  be  made 
for  a  physical  examination  of  every  girl.  The  examination 
should  be  followed  by  the  individual  exercises  necessary,  gym- 
nasium, classes,  games  which  develop  group  and  team  spirit, 
indoor  track  meets,  swimming,  talks  and  demonstration  of  first 
aid,  footwear,  posture,  healthful  clothing,  proper  food,  ventila- 
tion and  sanitation. 

The  last  seven  suggestions  should  be  worked  out  in  just  as 
graphic  and  visual  a  way  as  possible.  For  instance,  the  pictorial 
poster  method  might  be  used.  This  has  proven  especially  effec- 
tive at  centers  or  clnb  rooms  where  groups  of  girls  gather  at 
noontime  and  it  would  be  equally  effective  with  work  done  at 
the  Association  building  at  night.  Take  the  subject  "footwear." 
Make  two  posters,  alike  in  size  and  coloring;  label  one  "Two 
Feet  of  Happiness,"  the  other  "Two  Feet  of  Unhappiness."  On 
the  first  place  a  picture  of  a  most  attractive  girl  or  several  girls, 
wearing  the  standard,  common-sense  shoe;  on  the  other  a  girl 
in  a  pointed  toe,^high-heeled  pair  of  shoes,  looking  pained  and 
tired.  Later  on  if  the  posters  cause  discussion,  as  they  are 
sure  to,  definite  information  as  to  price  and  place  for  purchasing 
might  be  added  to  the  first  poster.  Another  clever  poster  bound 
to  cause  laughter  and  comment  is  the  outline  of  the  sole  of  a 
foot,  each  toe  plainly  visible  and  in  the  center  of  the  sole  these 
words,  "A  Five  Room  Apartment — A  Room  for  Every  Toe." 
Clever  figures  in  bright  colors  at  Either  side  make  this  most 
attractive. 

An  exhibit  of  common  sense  shoes  may  possibly  be  obtained 
from  a  local  shoe  man  and  be  displayed  after  such  posters  have 
become  familiar.  Write  Bureau  of  Social  Education,  600  Lex- 
ington Avenue,  for  information  and  material. 

This  poster  idea  can  be  carried  still  further  and  evolve  into 
a  series1,  placed  in  the  club  rooms  one  after  another,  thus  caus- 
ing great  curiosity  and  amusement.  "It's  just  like  a  serial  in 

196 


the  Cosmopolitan,"  one  girl  was  heard  to  say.  Here  is  an 
illustration  of  how  a  series  of  foot  posters  can  really  become 
a  series  of  "foot-talks."  The  entire  set  may  be  placed  on  view 
at  one  time  or  one  by  one  they  can  appear: 

Foot   Talks. 

Another  series  could  be  the  following-: 
"Aids  to  Good  Health." 
Still   another  series   along  this  line: 

Quick  Lunch. 
Nutritious  Food. 

These  posters  have  been  given  here  in  the  hope  that  these 
or  far  cleverer  ones  can  be  made  by  some  "artist"  among  the 
girls  or  on  the  Girls'  Work  Committee. 

Simple  drawings  like  these,  or  with  the  same  general  idea,  and 
a  clever  application  of  paint  can  do  more  .to  attract  the  eye 
of  the  younger  girl  in  business  and  industry  than  all  the 
lithograph  posters  imaginable.  Something  that  is  hand  done 
has  its  attraction.  This  poster  method  is  often  far  more  effec- 
tive than  any  amount  of  lecturing  or  "preaching."  Aj  large 
number  of  people  in  this  world  are  "eye-minded,"  not  "ear- 
minded,"  and  the  pictorial  will  carry  a  meaning  to  them  more 
quickly  than  the  spoken  word.  Poster  work  of  this  kind  has 
often  led  to  a  demand  for  "Talks"  and  gives  much  opportunity 
for  constructive  conversation  with  individuals.  A  chance  for 
a  snappy,  ten-minute  talk  on  a  lunch  that  really  counts  for 
something  versus  one  which  consists  of  a  sundae,  a  jelly  dough- 
nut or  fried  pie  is  striking  at  the  real  root  of  the  girls'  living 
and  thinking. 

The  following  Health  Code  is  one  which  was  originated  by 
younger  girls  in  business  and  industry.  Such  a  code  printed  on 
attractive  cards  and  given  to  each  Girl  Reserve  might  do  mucJi 
to  make  health  mean  something  vital  to  a  girl  as  an  individual 
and  to  the  group  as  a  whole.  An  enthusiasm  for  health  needs 
to  b,e  arouse.d  and  can  be  if  all  are  bent  on  obtaining  it. 

197 


How  About  You? 

Are  you  changing  the  general  trend  of  your  foot-shape? 
causing  discomfort  and  awkwardness? 


Nature  created  the  foot 
to  fit  in  the  simplest  food 
covering,  the  moccasin. 


The  child  of  six  can  play  comfortably 

in  the  sandal, 
198 


How  about  you?  Do  you 
consider  the  French  heel  a 
necessity  to  be  "grown-up?" 


Or  do  you  let  Na- 
ture decide  your 
foot-gear  for  you? 


With   ease   the  girl  of   twelve 

years,   walks  her  eight   blocks 

to  school. 


199 


Aids  to  Good  Health 


MR* 


££O 


I 


£j£l 


O 


"An  apple  a  day  keeps  the  doctor  azvay." 


Don't  permit  your  weight  to  go  to  extremes. 


200 


Sleep  with  your  windows  wide  open. 


Walk  one  hundred  miles  a  month. 


Drink  plenty  of  water  each  day.    It  aids  digestion. 
201 


Quick  Lunch 


Thorough  mastication  creates  easy  digestion. 


Drink  milk  instead 
of  coffee. 


Eat  one  green  vege- 
table a  day 


Eat  plenty 
of  fruit. 


202 


Nutritious  Food 


Eat  wholesome  foods,  lots  of  fruit  and  vegetables. 


p../        \,pr./     \>ft.        \,Pt. 


Drink  eight  glasses  of  wetter  each  day. 


203 


Health  Code* 
I.    Eight  hours  sleep  every  night. 

II.    Eat  .wholesome  food  three  times  a  day  at  regular  inter- 
vals (this  means  a  real  luncheon,  not  two  sundaes). 

III.  Drink  s'lX  glasses  of  water  daily. 

IV.  Wear,    if    possible,    loose1    clothing,    low-heeled,    square- 
toed  shoes. 

V.    Remove  damp  clothing  as  soon  as  possible. 
VI.    Bathe  in  hot  water  at  least  twice  a  week. 

VII.  Exercise  out  of  doors  one-half  hour  daily    (walking  to 
work  will  help  to  do  this). 

VIII.  Adopt  health  habits  to  insure  daily  bowel  regularity. 

Outdoor  activities  such  as  hiking-,  skating,  camping,  volley- 
ball and  tennis  should  be  provided.  For  some  girls  Saturday 
afternoon  is  a  possible  hiking  time.  For  others  Sunday  after- 
noon is  the  only  possible  time.  A  picnic  supper  on  a  Saturday 
or  Sunday  hike  is  good  fun.  Hiking  is  always  a  joy  provided 
the  person  in  charge  has  the  "spirit  of  the  road"  within  her 
and  is  ever  alert  to  the  beauty  by  the  way  and  overhead  in  the 
sky  and  knows  interesting  games  to  play  enroute  and  stories 
to  tell  at  supper  time  or  around  the  camp-fire. 

Recreation. 

One  of  the  greatest  needs,  of  the  younger  girl  in  business  and 
industry  is  the  opportunity  to  meet  boys  and  men  !in  a  natural, 
normal  way.  Any  recreation  plan  should  take  this  into  con- 
sideration and  provide  for  the  "mixed  party"  and  for  that  atmos- 
phere in  the  Association  which  spells  "friendliness"  and  "home" 
to  the  girl  and  her  man  friend. 


*Written  by  younger  girls  in  Business  and  Industry,  East   Central  Field. 

204 


.  It  is  very  often  possible  to  use  the  "men  friends"  as  assist- 
ants when  a  circus  or  stunt  is  going  on.  Standards  of  action 
can  often  be  established  while  setting  up  a  stage  or  while 
decorating.  The  normal  significance  of  any  social  act'ivity  is 
two-fold,  the  quality  of  the  thing  itself  and  the  way  in  which 
it  is  done.  The  impression  which  these  activities  are  leavfing 
upon  the  minds  of  girls  and  men  can  never  be  accurately  fore- 
cast but  it  is  safe  to  say  that  each  one  makes  its  mark  upon 
their  lives  and  unconsciously  standards  of  action  are  built  up 
which  will  form  the  social  fabric  of  whatever  community  they 
will  live  in  later  in  life. 

Material  on  Health  Education  and  Recreation. 

See  Chapter  II,  Section  V,  Health  Education  and  Recreation. 

Write  to  the  Bureau  of  Social  Education  for  additional  in- 
formation, pamphlets  and  suggestions,  600  Lexington  Avenue, 
New  York  City. 

Write  Child  Health  Organization  of  America,  870  Seventh 
Avenue,  New  York  City,  for  the  Child  Health  Alphabet. 

Cho-Cho  and  the  Health  Fairy,  demonstration  pamphlets  and 
other  bulletins.  Enclose  50  cents  and  a  sample  set  of  all  ma- 
terial will  be  sent  to  you. 

Write  to  the  Superintendent  of  Documents,  Government 
Printing  Office,  Washington,  D.  C.,  for  pamphlets  entitled  "Sum- 
mer Health  and  Play  School,  Teaching  Health." 

Write  to  the  Bureau  of  Public  Health  Education,  care  De- 
partment of  Health,  13,9  Center  Street,  New  York  City,  for 
"Keep  Well"  leaflets,  especially  No.  ,17,  "Simple  Wholesome 
Lunches  for  Working  People." 

II — Knowledge. 

The  kind  of  educational  work  suggested  for  younger  girls 
in  business  and  industry  under  this1  section  of  Knowledge  is 
most  important  for  the  reason  that  in  the  present  scheme  of 
education  and  guidance  this  girl  is  less  well  provided  for  than 

205 


H 


How  does  my  amount  of  sleep 
affect  my  work?  Is  it  easy  to  be 
cheerful  when  I  have  a  headache  f 
Are  many  illnesses  caused  by  one's 
own  carelessness  f  What  responsi- 
bilities to  others  does  one  have  for 
keeping  well? 

206 


Why  are  there  so  many  songs  written 
about  smiles?  How  does  being  grouchy 
affect  other sf  Am  I  increasing  my 
circle  of  friends  by  being  friendly? 
Is  my  Spirit  loving,  cheerful  and  helpfulf 


207 


//  /  could  hear  my  conversations  re- 
peated at  the  end  of  the  day,  would 
it  make  any  difference  in  zvhat  I  say? 
Are  my  thoughts  kind  and  true  before 
I  speak  of  another?  Have  I  the  courage 
to  say  what  I  knozu  is  true?  Which 
are  louder:  actions  or  words? 


208 


any  other  group.  In  some  communities  there  are  as  yet  no  con- 
tinuation schools  and  so  no  study  is  required.  Night  schools  pro- 
vide the  opportunity  for  some  girls  but  even  so  there  is  usually 
the  chance  for  the  kind  of  work  here  outlined  and  it  is  needed. 
The  girl  who  leaves  school  at  fourteen  in  a  very  short  time" 
drifts  away  from  her  former  school  mates.  She  has,  perhaps, 
disliked  the  formal  class  work  of  the  school  and  has  vehemently 
declared  that  she  "hated  school  and  books."  Perhaps  she  did, 
but  there  is  in  her  just  the  same  a  longing  for  self-expression 
which  cannot  be  complete  without  more  education  and  guidance. 
Unless  some  definite  help  is  given  her  between  the  age  of  four- 
teen and  eighteen,  she  is  never  going  to  meet  in  a  congenial 
way  her  former  school  mates  who  come  into  business  or  industry 
?t  eighteen  or  twenty  with  more  school  background.  One  of 
the  difficulties  of  programming  for  business  girls  between  eigh- 
teen and  twenty-two  is  their  difference  in  background  and 
educational  advantages. 

By  following  some  of  the  suggestions  here  given  under 
"Knowledge,"  it  would  be  possible  to  have  two  or  more  times 
during  the  year  exhibits  of  style-craft  work,  dramatic  presenta- 
tions, and  poster  exhibits  by  both  younger  girls  in  business  and 
industry  and  high  school  girls.  They  are  all  Girl  Reserves  or 
younger  girls  in  the  Association  and  a  joint  piece  of  work  which 
takes  for  its  preparation  a  joint  committee  would  do  much  to 
keep  the  groups  together  and  make  both  see  that  in  their  work 
in  the  Association  they  have  a  common  ground. 

Talks  and  discussions  of  chances^  for  promotion  given  by 
business  men  and  women,  definite  personal  help  given  each  girl, 
and  when  possible  a  real  "vocational  conference"  in  cooperation 
with  the  schools  and  other  agencies  are  greatly  to  be  desired 
in  a  program  for  younger  girls  in  business  and  industry. 

Intelligent  citizens  are  needed  to-day  as  never  before.  Girls 
everywhere  want  to  "know"  if  only  the  right  approach  is  made. 
Younger  girls  in  business  and  industry  are  not  ordinarily  inter- 
ested in  classes.  Information  like  everything  else,  must  be  pre- 
209 


sented  to  them  in  a  graphic,  visual,  active  way.  The  poster 
method  described  in  the  preceding  section,  plus  the  following1 
suggestions  may  help  include  this  phase  of  work  in  a  program: 

A,  Dramatics. 

Charades. 

Plays. 

Pageants. 

Pantomimes 

Style  Shows. 

Foot  and  shoe  exhibits. 

"Movies." 

Dramatic  work  like  every  other  activity  in  a  program  should 
be  done  with  the  object  of  developing  initiative  and  personality. 
The  dreams  of  what  one  would  like  to  be  can  come  true  for  the 
period  of  time  one  is  living  the  part  of  some  girl  in  a  play!  To 
really  be  a  character  for  two  weeks  at  rehearsals  and  on  the 
final  night  of  the  performance  often  makes  one  a  different  per- 
son for  all  time.  The  influence  of  the  play  is  great  and  should 
never  be  under-estimated.  (See  Chapter  VI,  Section  V,  on  The 
Place  of  Drama  in  the  Girl  Reserve  Movement.) 

The  average  group  of  younger  girls  in  business  and  indus- 
try are  not  interested  in  a  play  or  pageant  which  takes  a  great 
deal  of  time  and  energy  given  to  rehearsals.  The  short,  simple 
play,  full  of  action  and  quickly  prepared  is  always  to  be  chosen. 
The  following  plays  are  suggested: 

1.  Mrs.     Oakley's    Telephone — 

Samuel  French  &  Co.,  28-30  W.  38th  St.  New  York. 

2.  Ope-o-me-Thumb — 

Renn   &  R.   Pyr.ee,  Samuel  French,  N.  Y.,  25  cents. 

3.  Six  Cups  of  Chocolate — 

Edith  V.   B.   Matthews,  Harper   &  Bros.,  N.  Y, 

4.  Land  of  Heart's  Desire — 

W.  B.  Yeats,  Walter  H.  Baker,  Boston,  Mass. 

5.  A  Brown   Paper  Parcel — 

M.   S.  W.,  2  characters,  Samuel  French,  25  cents. 

6.  Mechaneal  Jane — 

M.  E.  Barber,  1  act,  3  characters,  Samuel  French. 

7.  Engaging    Janet — 

Ester  W.  Bates,  Penn  Publishing  Co.,  Phila,  Pa. 

210 


8.  The   Puppet   Princess — 
Houghton-Mifflin,   N.   Y. 

9.  The  Good  Old  Days- 
Alice  C.  Thompson,  Penn  Publishing  Co. 

10.  Portmanteau    Plays — 

Stewart  Walker.     (This  is  a  collection  which  includes  many  possible 
plays.) 

11.  Suppressed  Desires — 

Cook  Publishing  Co.,  3  characters,  30  min. 

12.  Mrs.  Pat  and  The  Law — 
Lady   Augusta    Gregory. 

13.  The  Fan  and  the  Candle  Stick — 

Mary  McMillan.     (In  book  by  that  name;  ask  in  any  Public  Library.) 

14.  Harvard  Plays — Brentano,  New  York — 

Three   Pills   in   a   Bottle — Rachel   Lymann   Field.     Volume  I— $1.25. 
The  Florist  Shop — Volume  II — $1.25. 

15.  The  Piper's   Play- 
Samuel  French,   N.   Y.     25   cents. 

16.  The  Traveling  Man- 
Lady  Augusta   Gregory,   John   W.   Luce   &   Co.,   Boston,   Mass. 

(In   addition   to  these  suggestions,   write  to  The  Womans   Press  for 
"A   Second  List  of   Plays  and  Pageants.") 

A  "Foot  and  Shoe"  show  can  be  made  most  interesting  by 
having  a  regular  "parade"  of  girls  with  various  kinds  of  shoes. 
Stretch  a  curtain  or  sheet  across  a  stage  letting  the  bottom 
fall  about  three  feet  above  the  floor.  Have  girls  with  good  and 
bad  shoes  walk  behind  it,  thus  showing  just  their  feet  and 
ankles.  Actual  "Shoe  exhibits"  may  be  obtained  by  writing  to 
the  Bureau  of  Social  Education,  600  Lexington  Avenue.  A  foot 
film  is  also  obtainable  for  certain  occasions. 

Pantomimes  or  "movies"  worked  out  by  the  girls  on  all 
kinds  of  subjects  such  as  "Travel,"  "Clothes,"  "Table  Etiquette" 
are  simple  and  most  effective  in  result.  Poems,  stories  and 
songs  can  also  be  handled  in  this  same  way.  A  suggestion  for 
a  "Table  Etiquette  Movie"  is  as  follows:  Have  a  table  correctly 
set.  Four  or  any  number  of  girls  sitting  on  one  side — the  same 
number  on  the  other.  The  first  four  do  incorrectly  everything 
connected  with  the  meal  from  the  opening  of  their  napkins  to 
the  final  rising  from  the  table.  The  other  group  does  every- 
thing correctly.  While  no  words  are  needed,  a  song  at  the  very 
end  which  sums  up  the  fun  may  be  a  clever  addition, 

B.  Pictures: 

iGoodi  pictures  are  one  of  the  most  educational  of  all  "tools" 

211 


in  work  with  girls.  Their  very  existence  in  a  club  room  or 
center  as  an  indirect  method  of  education.  They  can  be  made 
the  subject  of  conversation,  of  discussion  and  means  of  illus- 
trations. Tableaux  can  be  worked  out  from  them — color  values 
and  good*  and  bad  lines  can  be  illustrated  by  them.  It  is  some- 
times possible  to  have  an  "art  gallery."  This  may  be  made  by 
securing  prints  of  well-known  pictures  from  George  P.  Brown 
Company,  Beverly,  Massachusetts,  or  from  the  Perry  Picture 
Company,  Maiden,  Massachusetts.  Mount  the  pictures  on  heavy 
brown  paper  and  place  them  on  bulletin  boards  or  suspend  them 
fiom  cords  stretched  from  corner  to  corner  of  the  club  room. 
A  series  of  pictures  on  landscapes,  both  by  old  masters  and 
modern  painters,  or  a  display  of  Madonna  pictures,  or  a  series 
of  pictures  by  one  artist  such  as  Corot,  Isreals,  or  Raphael,  or 
a  modern  painter  like  Maxlield  Parrish,  might  well  be  included 
in  such  a  gallery.  A  committee  composed  of  club  members  and 
an  adviser  should  be  responsible  for  knowing  the  names  and 
the  significance  of  these  pictures  and  should  extend  to  the 
community,  mothers  and  fathers  or  family  groups,  an  invita- 
tion to  come  to  the  exhibit. 

C.  Music: 

Music  if  properly  handled  is  of  infinite  value  to  the  spirit 
and  the  body.  A  group  of  tired  girls  can  be  re-created  by  good 
group  singing.  Every  club  room  and  center  should  have  a  good 
piano  and  plenty  of  good  music.  The  transition  from  a  cheap, 
popular  song  to  a  beautiful  hymn  is  not  a  difficult  one.  The 
love  for  "jazz"  is  a  youthful  expression  of  super-abundant  life 
•an'd  energy  which  can  be  turned  into  an  enjoyment  of  music 
which  lifts  and  helps  one  to  live  abundantly.  Group  singing 
cannot  be  emphasized  too  strongly.  Glee  clubs  are  often  possi- 
ble but  if  they  are  not,  group  singing  is.  Sunday  afternoon  or 
evening  ".sing-songs"  are  always  enjoyable.  The  national  songs 
and  ,the  folk  songs  of  girls  where  parents  have  come  from  other 
lands  are  a  great  contribution  to  a  club  meeting  or  a  noon  or 
'evening  "get-together."  One  group  of  Girl  Reserves  composed 

212 


of  ten  nationalities  learned  many  songs  of  each  country  by  hav- 
ing the  different  girls  teach  the  group. 

Singing  at  camp — on  hikes,  on  all  occasions  will  make  girls 
sing  at  work  and  at  home,  if  not  actually,  at  least  in  spirit. 

Besides  s  nging,  there  are  the  violin,  the  ukulele  and  other 
instruments  which  can  be  used  in  general  program  work.  (See 
Section  V,  Chapter  XIII,  page  526,  on  The  Place  of  Music  in 
the  Girl  Reserve  Movement.) 

D.  Style-Craft: 

1.  Hat  Making — 

Within  twenty  to  thirty  minutes  a  clever  milliner 
can  demonstrate  the  making  and  trimming  of  a  hat. 
Such  a  demonstration  made  at  a  center  or  club  room  at 
noon  in  spring  or  fall  will  often  cause  a  demand  for  a 
short,  informal  series  of  "lessons."  This  becomes  an 
informal  group  rather  than  a  "class." 

2.  Organdy  Collar  and  Cuff  Sets — 

An  improvised  bulletin  board  on  which  are  placed  sev- 
eral sets  of  the  simplest  but  daintiest  of  organdy  collars 
and  cuff  sets  causes  an  immediate  demand  to  be  "shown 
how."  Such  sets  cost  so  much  when  bought  and  so  little 
in  comparison  when  made  and  they  are  so  stylish!  (This 
can  be  done  with  various  articles  of  dress.) 

3.  Tie-Dyeing—- 

Directions  for  this  may  be  found  in  the  November, 
1920,  Ladies'  Home  Journal  or  in  any  book  on  Arts  and 
Crafts. 

4.  Dress-Making  a  la  Carte — 

On  a  medium  sized  piece  of  cardboard,  each  girl 
pastes  the  picture  pattern  of  a  dress  she  would  like  to 
have.  Beside  the  pattern  she  pastes  a.  sample  of  the 
material  and  of  any  trimming  needed  together  with  the 
price  per  yard  of  each  and  the  amount  needed.  An  entire 
wardrobe  or  "trousseau"  may  be  worked  out  in  this  way 
and  a  prize  given  for  the  prettiest  and  most  inexpensive. 

213 


E.  Outside  Speakers: 

1.  Vocational  Work — 

a.  The  road  aliead — where  does  it  lead  ? 

b.  What  does  a  business  man  'expect  of  a  business  girl? 
Ask  a  business  man  to  give  a  talk. 

.    c.  What  lies  behind  and  ahead  of  the  pay  envelope  ? 

2.  Thrift 

3.  Travel  talks. 

4.  Hair  fashions — given  by  a  hair  dresser  who  understands 
girls.     (Include  care  of  hair.) 

5.  Hand  fashions  (manicuring)  and  face  fashions  (care  of 
the  skin). 

6.  Help.      * 

7.  Books — why — when — where  ? 

(A  librarian  can  often  give  a  most  interesting  twenty- 
minute  talk  on  this  subject.) 

8.  Working  and  living. 

(a)  Ways  and  means  for  showing  initiative  and  origi- 
nality in  factory  and  commercial  work. 

(b)  Causes  of  fatigue  and  ways  of  counteracting  it. 

(c)  Dangers  connected  with  the  particular  industry  in 
which  the  girls  are  working. 

(d)  Safety  devices  necessary  for  certain  kinds  of  work. 
(Cooperation  of  employers  and  of  Health  Education 

Bureaus  might  easily  be  obtained  for  this  sort  of  work. 
A  short  talk  followed  by  questions  and  discussions  would 
be  most  worthwhile.) 

F.  Open  Forums: 

These  should  be  as  far  as  possible  in  the  hands  of  the  girls 
and  may  take  the  form  of  debates,  short  dramatic  skits,  in- 
formal conversations  or  carefully  planned  discussions. 

1.  What  lies  behind  and  ahead  of  the  pay  envelope? 

Have  health,  skill,  promptness,  loyalty  to  work,  dress 
and  manners  anything  to  do  with  this? 

2.  Telephone  manners. 

214 


3.  "Fans": 

Baseball,  Japanese,  movie,  window. 

When  is  a  fan  not  a  fan? 

Are  fans  necessary? 

Name  some  ways  of  "fanning  out." 

Do  you  know  any  girls  who  are  window  fans? 

How  does  it  affect  them? 

4.  Modes — Manners — Customs — Costumes. 

In  an  office. 

At  any  social  function   (especially  at  a  dance  hall). 

On  the  street. 

In  the  street  car  and  on  the  train. 

This  may  be  worked  out  easily  in  a  dramatic  way. 
For  instance,  the  one  "in  an  office"  offers  the  opportunity 
for  three  short,  "snappy"  scenes — one  occuring  at  8:30 
or  9  o'clock  in  the  morning,  showing  the  opening  of  an 
office,  the  tardy  stenographer  or  bookkeeper,  the  ex- 
change of  greetings  and  all  the  by-play  which  is  usual; 
the  second  at  the  noon  houtf,  showing  the  busy  hour  of 
the  day,  tempers  frayed,  telephones  ringing,  girls  plan- 
ning for  luncheon  appointments  among  themselves  or 
with  the  men  in  the  office  or  men  who  have  come  in; 
the  third  at  closing  time,  showing  the  girl's  attitude 
toward  her  work.  The  girl's  interests,  both  constructive 
and  destructive,  could  be  shown  by  the  various  bits  of 
conversation  floating  about  as  the  girls  make  ready  to 
leave  the  office. 

"In  the  dance  hall" — any  representation  made  should 
include  a  demonstration  of  the  correct  position  in  dancing. 

"On  the  street"  and  "in  the  street  car  and  on  the 
train"  could  be  well  worked  out  by  having  one  group  of 
girls  do  the  objectionable  thing  and  another  group  do  the 
opposite. 

In  all  these  dramatic  presentations  much  can  be  taught 
by  the  kind  of  costume  worn  and  the  style  of  hair-dress- 

215 


ing.     The  good  and  the  bad  should  be  shown  in  each 
scene. 

5.  Health;  a  luxury,  a  necessity,  or  what? 

Is  there  any  relation  between  health,  efficiency, 
ulooks,"  disposition,  etc?  See  the  pamphlets  prepared 
by  the  Bureau  of  Social  Education  and  for  sale  by  The 
Womans  Press,  600  Lexington  Avenue,  New  York  .City. 
Also  see  Section  V,  Chapter  II,  and  Ten  Talks,  to  Girls 
on  Health,  The  Womans  Press. 

6.  Who  makes  the  better  citizen,  a  business  man  or  a  busi- 
ness woman? 

See  "The  Woman  Citizen,"  published  by  The  Woman 
Citizen  Corporation,  171  Madison  Avenue,  New  York 
City. 

See  "The  Young  Woman  Citizen,"  Mary  Austin,  The 
Womans  Press, 

See  also  outline  questions  for  "The  Young  Woman 
Citizen,"  by  Mary  L.  Cady,  The  Womans  Press. 

See  "Your  Vote  and  How  to  Use  It,"  Mrs.  Kaymond 
Brown. 

All  of  this  resource  material  may  be  secured  from 
The  Womans  Press,  600  Lexington  Avenue,  New  York 
City. 

7.  Who  makes  your  laws,  you  or  the  politicians  ? 

Do  you  take  what  is  "handed  to  you"  or  do  you  help 
"to  hand  out"  what  is  to  be  taken? 

8.  The  Ten  Best  Books  I  Have  Kead, 

9.  The  Magazines  I  like  Best. 

10.    "Blue  Triangle  Aerograms." 

Messages  from  the  Blue  Triangle  Centers  throughout 
the  world.  Write  the  Foreign  and  Overseas  Department, 
600  Lexington  Avenue,  New  York  City,  for  helpful  sug- 
gestions. 

216 


11.  Industrial  girls  in  other  lands. 

12.  History  of  industries  such  as  silk  weaving,  etc.,  beginning 

with  the  cocoon.     (These  can  be  worked  out  dramatically.) 

13.  A.  "T.  and  E."  Program  (Thrift  and  Efficiency). 

a.  The  Twin  B's  (Budgets  and  Business). 

The  keeping  of  personal  accounts,  planning  a  per- 
sonal budget,  keeping  of  a  personal  bank  account  can 
all  be  emphasized  under  this  topic. 

b.  The  Twin  S's  (Saving  and  Spending). 

Graphic  material  of  all  kinds,  including  posters,  should 
be  used  in  developing  this  program.  Sample  budgets 
worked  out  by  the  girls  themselves,  a  simple  accounting 
system  for  personal  use,  the  how  and  why  of  savings  and 
checking  accounts,  should  all  be  featured  at  this  meeting. 
Possible  means  for  increasing  interest  would  be  the  sug- 
gestion that  the  group  work  out  a  thrift  acrostic  and 
adopt  it  for  their  slogan;  for  instance, 

Thoughtful. 

Honest. 

Resourceful.  The  girls  should  put  this 

Intelligent  in    their   own   "language." 

Firm 

Temperate. 

The  following  Thriftograms  taken  from  the  Savings 
Herald,  published  by  the  Eighth  Federal  Reserve  District, 
St.  Louis,  Missouri,  may  be  useful  in  a  supplementary 
way: 

Old  Man  High  Cost  of  Living  shaves  the  dollars;  it 
is  up  to  you  to  save  them. 

Come  easy,  go  easy  is  the  material  used  to  pave  the 
hills  to  the  poorhouse. 

You  don't  need  a  ouija  board  to  find  out  what's  going 
to  happen  if  you  keep  on  spending  all  you  earn. 

c.  When  is  money  really  saved? 

d.  Does  my  vacation  belong  to  me? 

217 


14.  Hopes  and  Hope  Chests. 

This  offers  a  chance  to  show  efficiency  of  planning, 
buying-,  and  system  in  general.  Different  girls  can  be 
asked  to  give  their  ideas  of  how  best  to  prepare  for  a 
hope  chest  and  what  it  should  contain, 

15.  Good  Citizen  at  Work. 

9  Emphasize  spirit  and  standards. 

16.  "Pegs  and  Holes." 

Do  you  know  any  girls  who  are  round  pegs  in  square 
holes?  Why  are  they?  Do  you  know  the  opposite? 
Which  are  you  going  to  be?  What  can  work  mean  in 
a  person's  life? 

17.  "Links" — my    employer,    my    work,    my    associates,    and 

myself. 

Develop  this  idea  along  the  line  of  the  links  in  a 
chain,  where  each  one  is  absolutely  essential  .to  the 
strength  of  the  entire  chain,  and  if  one  breaks  or  is 
weak  the  strength  and  service  of  the  whole  are  lessened. 

18.  Homes  and  Home-making. 

How  can  a  girl  away  from  home  still  surround  her- 
self with  the  home  atmosphere  ?  Can  a  room  in  a  board- 
ijig-house  be  made  "home?"  What  makes  a  real  home? 
iThis  discussion  will  lead  naturally  to  a  discussion  of  -the 
ideal  home  which  every  girl  wants. 

See  "House  and  Home  Series,"  Elizabeth  Jenkins.  A 
series  of  pamphlets  for  sale  by  The  Womans  Press  with 
such  titles  ,as  "Planning  the  House,"  "Furnishing  the 
House,"  "A  Budget  of  Personal  and  Household  Ac- 
counts." 

19.  Dress. 

The  following  material  will  prove  suggestive  for 
forum  discussions,  dramatic  presentations,  posters,  tab- 
leaux, or  pantomimes. 

21S 


It  is  important  that  a  girl  be  helped  to  form  right 
standards  of  dress  during  the  adolescent  period  when  her 
interest  in  clothes  is  greatest. 

[deas  to  instill: 

1.  It  is  not  money  but  mind  which  produces  good  taste. 

2.  Do  not  mistake  the  costly  for  the  beautiful. 

3.  Simplicity  does  not  mean  plainness  nor  poverty,  but  is 
the  very  foundation  of  beauty  and  refinement. 

4.  Imitation  in  shoddy  suits  or  jewelry  is  insincerity.     An 
honest,  frank  use  of  plain,  inexpensive  material  worth 
the  price  paid  for  it,  •  reflects  more  credit  on  the  wearer. 

5.  It  is  not  necessary  to  follow  strictly  the  dictates  of  fash- 
ion.     Be  individual.      Sometimes  your  type  can't  wear 
certain  styles. 

6.  Wear  dress  suited  to  the  occasion. 

7.  Be  careful  about  choice  of  accessories. 

8.  Comfort  and  health  must  not  be  sacrificed. 

9.  Beauty,  wherever  found,  in  pictures,  architecture  or  cos- 
tume is  based  on  definite  art  principles. 


IRT  PRINCIPLES  APPLIED   TO   COSTUME   DESIGN. 

Read  Arthur  W.  Dow — "Composition." 

Art  study  is  the  attempt  to  perceive  and  to  create  fine  rela- 
ions  of  line,  mass  and  color.  Good  spacing  or  proportion  ds  the 
,rery  ground  work  of  design.  Ways  of  arranging  and  spacing 
,o  create  a  harmony  may  be  called  the 

Principles  of  Composition. 
These  are: 

1.   Opposition — Two  lines  meeting  at  an  angle  form  a 

simple  severe  harmony.     This  gives  an  impression  of 

abruptness. 

219 


2.  Transition — If   the    corner   where    two   lines   meet   is 
softened  into  a  curve,  the  opposition  is  softened  and 
an  effect  of  unity  and  completeness  produced. 

3.  Subordination— Unity  secured  through  the  relation  of 
principal  and  subordinate.     Example:     A  tree  trunk 
with  its  branches.     This  principle  governs  the  distri- 
bution of  "Dark-and-Light" 

4.  Repetition — The  opposite  of  subordination.     The  pro- 
duction  of   beauty   by   repeating   the   same   lines    or 
masses  in  rhythmical  order. 

5.  Symmetry — An  arrangement  in  exact  balance.     This 
is  another  way  to  satisfy  the  desire  for  ordetf  and 
good  arrangement. 

Art  Elements. 
A.  Line. 

B   Dark-and-Light, 
C.  Color.    To  describe  a  color  tell  its 

1.  Hue — the  name  of  the  color — as  red,  yellow,  etc. 

2.  Value — whether  it  is  a  dark  color  or  light. 

3.  Intensity — Whether  it  is  bright  or  dull. 

A— LINE  IN  DRESS. 

The  silhouette  of  the  costume  makes  a  certain  -line.  Then 
there  are  others  on  the  dress,  such  as  tucks,  stripes,  rows  of 
buttons,  etc.  Let  these  lines  follow  the  structural  lines  of  the 
body  as  the  lines  of  doors  and  windows  do  on  a  building. 

What  lines  to  avoid  if  you  are  stout: 

1.  Horizontal  lines,  such  as  are  formed  by  belts,  broad 
shoulder  effects,  ruffles,  the  line  of  the  sleeve  ending 
at  the  elbow  which  is  on  a  line  with  the  belt. 

2.  Avoid  tight  blouses  as  well  as  very  baggy,  and  coats 
ending  at  hips  or  Eton  jackets. 

220 


3.  Avoid  anything  which  will  lead  the  eye  across  the  fig- 
ure, such  as  pockets  at  the  hips. 

4.  Do  not  wear  fiat  hats  trimmed  in  horizontal  lines. 
Stout   people   should  wear   dresses,   which  present  a   long 

unbroken  silhouette  and  use  trimming  of  buttons,  etc.,  near  the 
center  of  the  figure.  Wear  pointed  neck,  not  round  or  square. 
Build  the  hair  high  on  head  or  wear  hats  which  add  height.  Do 
not  wear  "headache  bands." 

The  slender  type  needs  to  emphasize  lines  to  increase  her 
width.  She  may  wear  all  that  her  stout  sister  cannot. 

Avoid:  Yokes  whose  lines  meet  in  angles  over  the  chest. 
These  will  make  her  appear  hollow  chested.  Round  yokes  and 
neck  line  are  best. 

Avoid  tight  sleeves  and  severe  lines  in  opposition  in  waist, 
sleeve,  skirt  or  hat. 

Do  not  arrange  the  hair  out  of  all  relation  to  the  size  and 
shape  of  head  and  neck. 

Do  not  adopt  an  angular,  unrhythmical  hair  arrangement. 
Do  not  wear  it  built  too  high  nor  sliding  down  at  the  back  of 
the  neck. 

Do  not  adopt  a  style  just  because  everyone  else  is  wearing 
her  hair  that  way. 

B—DARK  AND   LIGHT. 

The  design  in  the  textiles  worn,  the  use  of  different  mate- 
rials in  trimming  make  the  Dark-and-Light  of  a  costume."  Good 
designs  are  not  those  that  are  an  imitation  of  nature.  The 
charm  of  the  simplest  flower  is  lost  when  used  in  endless  repe- 
tition. Choose  simple  designs  which  are  well  spaced. 

Stout  people  should  avoid  conspicuous  stripes  or  borders, 
plaids,  bold  designs,-  large  dots. 

Light  shoes  should  not  be  worn  with  dark  dresses  unless  you 
wish  to  draw  attention  to  your  feet. 

221 


C— COLOK. 

Color  Harmonies: 

1.  Complementary — The  colors  opposite  each  other  on  the 
color  chart  emphasize  the  intensity  of  the  other.    To  make  them 
into  a  harmony  use  one  in  a  small  space  and  the  other  in  the 
largest  space.     The  small  space  may  be  bright,  if  the  large 
space  has  its  opposite  very  dull. 

2.  Dominant — Use  two  or  more  values  of  one  hue  such  as 
light  grey-green  and  dark  grey-green. 

3.  Analogous — Use  hues  in  which  one  color  plays  through 
all.      Examples:      Yellow-green,     green,     blue-green.     Warm 
colors  are  the  flame  colors:  *  Red,  yellow,  orange.    Cool  colors 
are  blue,  purple,  green. 

Types  and  Colors: 

Stout  people  should  avoid  brilliant  colors. 

Thin  people  should  wear  warm  colors. 

Every  costume  should  have  a  touch  of  warm  color  some- 
where. 

HAIR. 

Yellow  and  red  haired  people  are  warm  haired. 

Black  and  grey  are  cool. 

Therefore  to  bring  out  the  hair  wear  some  contrasting  color 

If  a  black  haired  person  wears  black  only  the  quality  of 
blackness  is  felt. 

Avoid  brown  if  you  have  grey  hair.  But  do  wear*  warm 
colors. 

COMPLEXION. 

Sallow  skin — 

Avoid  white  and  black  and  green.  Sometimes  coral,  helio- 
trope or  turquoise. 

Wear  rich  cream  or  buff. 

222 


Pale  skin — 

Avoid  too  strong  colors. 

Brunette  with  flushed  cheeks  may  wear  strong  colors. 

BYES. 

Repeat  the  color  of  the  eyes  somewhere  on  the  costume. 
Accessories — 

Avoid  noisy  hair  ornaments  or  bracelets,  etc.,  especially 
when  at  work. 

Powder  simplifies  the  planes  of  the  face  and  emphasizes  the 
main  features. 

Therefore  do  not  use  too  much  on  the  nose.  It  may  look  like 
a  beacon  light. 

Paint  is  unnecessary  if  you  are  healthy.  We  do  not  dress 
to  appear  before  footlights. 

Shoes  should  be  chosen  for  comfort  and  health. 
G.  Stories. 

Story-telling  if  well  done  will  always  have  its  appeal  for  an 
adolescent  girl.  It  is  often  possible  for  an  inexperienced  story- 
teller to  half  read  and  half  tell  a  good  story.  A  successful 
method  of  interesting  girls  in  reading  worth-while  books  is  to 
tell  part  of  the  story — stopping  at  a  most  exciting  point  and 
say  quite  casually  that  the  rest  is  to  be  found  in  "this  book" 
and  display  the  book.  See  Section  V,  Chapter  V,  page  392,  on 
Story  Telling. 

Any  good  story  found  in  a  magazine  or  book  form  can  be 
retold  in  an  interesting  way.  Consult  local  librarian  for  lists  of 
stories  and  new  books  in  demand  by  girls. 

-Story-telling  may  often  take  the  form  of  a  "book  review"* 
of  some  popular  book.  The  main  facts  of  the  story  can  be  told 
in  an  interesting  way  and  sometimes  a  few  girls  can  present  a 
few  scenes  in  a  dramatic  "skit."  Two  books  which  have  proved 
successful  for  such  reviewers  are: 

Slippy  MciGee — Marie  Conway  Oemler. 

Shavings — Joseph  Miller. 

223 


Ill — Service. 

According  to  the  Commission  reports  of  the  girls,  service 
should  be  along  two  lines: 

A — Social  service  training. 

B — Concrete  expression. 

A.  Social  Service  Training. 

1.    Informational  meetings  including  discussion  on  such  sub- 
jects as: 

(a)  Eed  Cross. 

(b)  Americanization. 

(c)  Juvenile  court  work. 

(d)  World  fellowship. 

(e)  Industrial  Standards  of  the  Y.  W.  C.  A. 

(f )  Eight-hour  day. 

(g)  Minimum  wage, 
(h)  Health  insurance. 

(i)   Child  labor  laws  (federal  and  state), 
(j)  Mother's  pension  funds. 

B.  Concrete  expression  of  service  to  be  shown. 

1.  Through  the  group  by: 

(a)  Christmas  parties  for  children. 

(b)  Making    scrap-books    for   children's   wards    in   hos- 
pitals. 

(c)  Making  .toys  for  hospitals,  homes,  day  nurseries, 

(d)  Adopting  a  child  and  doing  all  possible  for  it. 

(e)  Adopting  a  family — meaning  by  this  that  the  Girl 
Reserves   will   act   as   friendly   visitors,   helping   as 
much  as  possible  and  putting  the  family  in  touch 
with  the  right  social  agencies. 

2.  Through  each  individual  in  the  group   (i.  e.,  a  personal 
responsibility)  by: 

(a)  -Giving   at  least  one   day's   salary  each  year  to    a 
Y.  W.  C.  A.  secretary  in  some  foreign  country  (pre- 
224 


ferably  the  one  the  local  Association  is  helping  to 
support). 

(b)  Knowing   and  urging-  other  Girl  Reserves  to  know 
the  child  labor  law  of  the  states. 

(c)  Using  influence  to  keep  girls  in  school  and  to  report 
violations  of  child  labor  law  to  the  girls'  work  sec- 
retary. 

(d)  Knowing  something  of  mother's  pension  funds  and 
other  legislation  affecting  women  and  children. 

(These  last  three  are  services  of  the  finest  kind 
because  it  is  only  by  women  and  girls  everywhere 
understanding  conditions  that  laws  can  be  effec- 
tively made  and  kept.  Girl  Reserves  are  not  too 
young  to  help  all  fellow-workers.) 

(e)  "Every  Girl  Reserve  being  a  real  Girl  Reserve  365  days 
days  of  the  year  at  work,  at  "home,  and  at  play." 

IV— Spirit. 

Spirit  and  Service  go  hand  in  hand  and  the  recommendation 
of  a  group  of  Girl  Reserves  in  one  section  of  our  country  that 
"every  Girl  Reserve  be  a  real  Girl  Reserve  for  365  days  of  the 
year  at  work,  at  home  and  at  play"  is  the  basis  of  the  first  two 
suggestions  for  making  the  spirit  of  all  program  work  for 
younger  girls  in  business  and  industry  the  vital  factor  the  girls 
want  it  to  be.  They  recognize  that  the  spirit  side  of  the  pro- 
gram must  permeate  it  as  a  whole — not  merely  by  a  ten- 
minute  moral  talk — nor  by  singing  hymns,  nor  by  reading  from 
the  Bible  does  real  spirit  creep  into  a  program.  It  must  be 
present  in  everything  and  must  be  related  in  a  concrete  way  to 
their  work — their  home  life — and  their  play. 

A  wise  man  in  his  will  once  "bequeathed  to  children  the  yel- 
low shores  of  creeks  and  the  golden  sands  beneath  the  waters 
thereof,  and  the  dragon  flies  that  skim  the  surface  of  said 
waters,  and  the  odors  of  the  willows  that  dip  into  said  waters, 

225 


and  the  wMte  clouds  that  float  high  over  the  giant  trees. "  It 
is  this  spirit  of  the  great  out-doors  of  God  which  is  needed  in  a 
program.  It  is  this  feeling  of  the  joyousness  of  living  in  a 
world  which,  even  if  it  does  not  offer  many  chances  to  look  upon 
the  "yellow  shores  of  creeks"  and  their  golden  sands,  is  the 
world  of  God.  He  has  put  people  in  it  to  help  make  it  as  He 
wants  it  to  be.  They  are  here  because  they  have  work  to  do  for 
God  in  all  of  their  daily  living1.  This  is  the  spirit  which  will 
make  a  Girl  Eeserve  the  kind  of  a  girl  who  can  live  as  a  Chris- 
tian at  her  work  and  in  her  home  and  in  her  community. 

All  of  the  following  suggestions  are  made  with  this  thought 
of  helping  the  girl  to  see  the  connection  between  certain  great 
principles  of  Christian  living  which  have  come  out  of  the  expe- 
rience of  the  past  and  her  own  little  evefy-day  problems. 

(A)  Interpret  by  means  of  stories  (Bible  and  other  stories), 
by  poems,  talks,  discussions,  dramatic  presentation,  the 
underlying  meaning  of  the  Girl  Reserve  Code.  This 
code  is  a  girl's  expression  of  the  spirit  of  the  Y.  W.  0. 
A.,  and  can  mean  much  to  a  girl  as  she  tries,  to  live  her 
life  to  the  fullest. 

As  a  Girl  Reserve  I  will  be: 
Gracious  in  manner, 
Impartial  in  judgment, 
R  eady  for  service, 
L  oyal  to  friends, 
R  eaching  toward  the  best, 
E  arnest  in  purpose, 
S  eeing  the  beautiful, 
E  ager  for  knowledge, 
R  everent  to  God, 
Victorious  over  self, 
Ever  dependable, 
S  incere  at  all  times 

226 


These  codes  are  printed  in  an  attractive  way  on  small  cards 
and  may  be  obtained,  free  of  charge,  one  for  each  Girl  Re- 
serve, by  writing  to  the  Bureau  for  Work  with  Younger  Girls, 
600  Lexington  Avenue,  New  York  City.  They  are  given  only 
when  the  group  of  girls  is  registered  at  National  headquarters. 
(See  page  46  for  an  interpretation  of  the  Code,  and  page  690 
for  a  Symbolic  Interpretation.) 

(B)  Interpret,   in   the    same    concrete    way,   the   following 
Business    and    Industrial    'Code,   written   by   the    girls 
themselves.     This  also  might  be  printed  in  an  attrac- 
tive form  by  a  local  Association  if  it  seems  a  good 
plan  and  given  to  each  girl: 

1.  Be  square  and  always  on  the  job. 

2.  Do  our  work  cheerfully  (when  rush  orders  come, 
don't  grumble  but  smile  and  work). 

3.  Give  our  employer  the  best  that  is  in  us  for  the 
full  time  we  work. 

4.  Try  to  use  better  language  ourselves  and  help 
others  to  do  the  same. 

5.  Be  good  cooperators  or  team-workers.     Do  our 
share  in  keeping  the  place  in  which  we  work 
attractive.    This  means  work-room,  lockers,  and 
rest  rooms. 

6.  Do  all  our  work  in  the  spirit  of  a  Girl  Reserve, 
which  is  "to  find  and  give  the  best.'* 

(C)  Stories,  poems,  music  used  in  connection  with  any  part 
of    the   whole   program   or   as   a  special   feature   can 
always  mean  much. 

(D)  Beautiful    initiation   services    or   opening    ceremonials 
all  help  to  awaken  a  sense  of  the  beautiful  and  a  feel- 
ing of  worship.    If  a  prayer  is  used  at  the  closing  of 
any  meeting  or  as  part  of  a  ceremonial,  the  following 
are  suggested.     It  is  often  a  good  plan  to  have  the 

227 


Girl  Reserve  group  adopt  a  prayer  which  belongs  to 
them  as  a  group  and  one  they  use  whenever  they  want 
to.  Either  of  these  or  one  written  by  the  girls  them- 
selves might  serve  this  purpose: 

A  Girl  Reserve  Prayer. 

"The  day  returns  and  brings  us  the  petty  round  of  irritating 
concerns  and  duties  Help  us  to  perform  them  with  laughter 
and  kind  faces  let  cheerfulness  abound  with  industry.  Give  us 
to  go  blithely  on  our  business  all  this  day,  bring  us  to  our 
resting  beds  weary  and  content  and  undishonored,  and  grant  us 
in  the  end  the  gift  of  sleep."* — Robert  Louis  Stevenson. 

"Grant,  oh  Lord,  that  what  we  say  with  our  lips, 
We  may  believe  in  our  hearts 
And  practice  in  our  lives." 

The  following  Initiation  Service  is  suggested  as  a  possible 
one: 

Initiation  Service. 

PRODUCING  NOTES. 

Have  soft  music  played  while  new  members  enter  the  room 
and  take  their  places  in  triangular  formation  (chairs  previously 
placed)  in  front  of  long  table. 

After  all  the  new  members  are  seated,  the  three  committee 
chairmen,  or  club  officers  enter  and  take  their  places  behind  the 
table  on  which  are  three  lighted  candles.  The  central  candle  is 
the  largest  and  behind  it  is  placed  a  large  blue  triangle  made  of 
pasteboard  or  ribbon.  This  candle  symbolizes  spirit — the  key- 
note of  the  Girl  Reserve  work.  The  other  two  smaller  candles 
are  identical  in  size  and  symbolize  Knowledge  and  Health. 
Choose  a  girl  with  a  musical  voice  that  carries  well.  A  voice 


*  From  "Prayers  Written  at  Vailima" ;  copyright  1898,  1904,  by  Charles 
Scribner's  Sons.     By  permission  of  the  publishers. 

228 


is  heard  from  behind  screen,  placed  at  the  front;  it  recites  the 
following1. 


v 


"King's  Daughter? 

Wouldst  thou  be  all  fair, 

With  out — within — 

Peerless  and  beautiful, 

A  very  queen? 

Thou  must  begin 

And  build  with  care 

A  Holy  place. 

Watching  ever,  praying"  ever, 

Keep  it  fragrant,  sweet  and  clean. 

So,  by  God's  grace,  it  be  fit  place — 

His  'Christ  shall  enter  and  shall  dwell  therein. 

Thy  temple  face  is  chiseled  from  within." 
Solo  (by  a  girl). 
President  or  Scout  chairman  rises  and  reads,  or  repeats: 

"We  would  be  true  for  there  are  those  who  trust  us. 


229 


We  would  be  pure  for  there  are  those  who  care. 

We  would  be  strong  for  there  is  much  to  suffer. 

We  would  be  brave  for  there  is  much  to  bear, 

We  would  be  friend  to  all,  the  foe,  the  friendless, 

We  would  be  giving  and  forget  the  gift, 

We  would  be  humble  for  we  know  our  weakness^ 

We  would  look  up,  and  laugh,  and  love,  and  lift," 
She  continues:     "This  group  of  Girl  Reserves  proposes  to 
carry  out  this  spirit  and  asks  if  you  wish  to  join  and  help  them  ? 
New  members:    We  do. 

•Scout  chairman  or  president:  Will  you  repeat  with  me  the 
slogan  of  the  Girl  Reserves  ? 

Slogan:    "To  face  life  squarely." 
Purpose:     "To  find  and  give  the  best." 
Code:     As  a  Girl  Reserve,  I  will  be — 

Gracious  in  manner, 

Impartial  in  judgment, 

Ready  for  service, 

Loyal  to  friends, 

Reaching  toward  the  best, 

Earnest  in  purpose, 

Seeing  the  beautiful, 

Eager  for  knowledge, 

Reverent  to  God, 

Victorious  over  self, 

Ever  dependable, 

•Sincere  at  all  times, 

I  will  do  my  best  to  honor  God,  my  country,  and  my  com- 
munity, to  help  other  girls,  and  to  be  at  all  times  a  loyal,  true 
member  of  the  Girl  Reserves. 

President:  On  behalf  of  all  Girl  Reserves  I  welcome  you 
into  membership  and  as  a  symbol  of  our  club  life  ask  that  you 
light  your  membership  candle  from  this  our  symbol  of  spirit, 
In  so  lighting-  your  candle  you  are  accepting  the  trust  of  all 

230 


Girl  Reserves,  the  trust  of  a  healthy  body,  an  alert  mind,  a 
willingness  to  serve,  a  desire  to  be  a  Christian  citizen. 

(Soft  music  while  new  members  file  before  table  and  light 
candles — all  resume  places  in  triangle  as  before.) 

President:  We  are  standing  in  the  form  of  a  triangle, ^which 
symbolizes  the  three-fold  purpose  of  our  club  in  its  care  for 
the  body,  mind  and  spirit.  A  three-fold  cord  is  one  which  is 
not  easily  broken^  and  as  we  bind  ourselves  together  let  us 
pledge  to  give  our  best  in  the  spirit  of  usefulness,  friendship 
and  service. 

(All  remain  standing  while  the  voice  from  behind  the 
screen  reads ) :  "Everywhere,  always,  in  sunshine,  in  shadow, 
in  joy,  in  disappointment,  in  success,  in  defeat,  we,  the  Girl 
Reserves  of  America,  follow  the  gleam.  If  once  we  fall  we  rise 
to  face  the  light;  if  once  we  fail,  we  fight  again  to  win;  we 
cannot  be  lonely — we  stand  together.  .From  North  to  farthest 
South,  from  East  to  distant  West,  ours  is  the  surest  quest.  We 
know  the  One  we  follow." 

(Same  voice  alone,  or  the  entire  group  if  song  has  been 
learned  previously,  sing): 

Music — "O  Beautiful  for  Spacious  Skies.** 

Oh  Spirit  Voice  that  leads  us  forth 

Along  the  great  highways; 
Oh  Beacon  Light  that  guides  our  course 

From  darkness  into  day. 
Association  Spirit!    Our  voices  rise  to  say 

We  pledge  our  loyalty 
To  the  Y.  W.  C.  A. 
0,  beautiful  for  Pilgrim  feet 

The  road  thy  light  reveals. 
We  tread  the  path  with  footsteps  fleet; 

What  days  of-  joy  it  yields. 
Our  candles  lighted  at  thy  torch, 

To  others  send  its  ray, 
And  beckon  them  to  follow  us, 

Upon  the  shining  way. 

231  "    i     ". 


Oh  Master  of  the  Spirit  Throng 

That  on  this  road  have  trod, 
We  pray  this  light  may  never  fail 

To  point  the  path  to  God. 
And  may  our  tiny  candles 

Be  lifted  high  alway, 
And  so  all  girlhood  guide  to  Thee, 
The  Life,  the  Truth,  the  Way." 

— Elizabeth  Woodson,  Kansas  City,  Missouri. 
(Either  of  the  prayers  given  above  may  be  inserted  at  any 
part  of  the  service  which  seems  best  to  the  adviser.) 

(E). Bible  Stones  and  Bible  Games. 

Sometimes  a  group  of  girls  is  quite  at  a  loss  to  know  what  is 
meant  by  certain  Bibical  references  to  characters  or  happenings. 
Their  home  life  has  never  given  them  the  necessary  background. 
For  this  reason  it  is  a  good  plan  to  have  simple  Bible  stories 
told  as  often  as  possible.  Dramatization  of  Bible  stories  is  a 
most  effective  way  of  teaching  many  girls  the  real  meaning 
and  significance  of  principles  involved.  This  can  be  done  simply 
and  without  great  effort.  (See  Section  V,  Chapter  I,  page  295, 
on  Religious  Education.)  Bible  games  offer  a  splendid  chance 
at  odd  moments  for  fun  and  education.  It  is  often  possible  when 
on  a  hike  to  play  a  Bible  game  or  tell  a  Bible  story.  Why  not — 
just  as  well  as  some  other?  The  following  games  are  given 
as  suggestive  ones: 

Bible  -Games. 
I.  Bible  Mathematics — 

Multiply  the  number  of  letters  in  the  name  of  Esther's 
uncle  by  the  number  of  letters  in  the  name  of  Ruth's 
mother-in-law  and  add  the  number  of  letters  in  the  name 
of  Isaac's  bride  and  divide  by  the  number  of  letters  in 
the  name  of  Ruth's  sister-in-law.  (9-2/5) 

Divide  the  number  of  books  in  the  New  Testament  by 

232 


the  number  of  letters  in  the  name  of  the  king  who  held 
the  Israelites  as  slaves  in  Egypt  and  add  the  number 
of  letters  in  the  name  of  the  queen  whom  Esther  suc- 
ceeded. (9-8/7) 

II.    Bible  Anagrams — 

Using  the  letters  of  the  books  of  the  Bible.  The  letters 
say  for  two  books,  are  mixed  together  and  put  in  one 
envelope  and  the  letters  of  two  other  books  in  another 
envelope.  The  point  of  the  'games  is  to  see  which  team 
discovers  the  names  first. 

III.  Variation  of  II— 

Have  in  envelopes  slips  of  cardboard  or  paper  on  which 
are  names  of  Bible  books  and  on  separate  slips  names 
of  events  or  characters  belonging  in  these  books.  Give 
so  many  minutes  to  see  which  girl  or  team  of  girls 
can  link  up  the  events  with  books. 
Example: 

Events  or  Characters 
Den  of  Lions 
Flood 

Ten  Commandments 
Beatitudes 
The  Lord  is  my  Shepherd. 

Books 

Matthew 

Psalms 

Genesis 

Exodus 

Daniel 

IV.  Recognition — 

Given  list  as  suggested,  place  correct  name  and  event 

together. 
Ark 
Sling  shot 

233 


Tables  of  stone 

Pillar  of  salt 

Coat  of  many  colors 

Ladder  of  Angels 

An  army  of  300 

First  murder 

A  sold  birthright 

A  covenant  of  friendship 

Noah 

David 

Moses 

Lot's  wife 

Joseph 

Jacob 

Gideon 

Cain  and  Abel 

Jacob  and  Esau 

David  and  Jonathan 

V,    Conclusions — 

Given  the  beginning  of  a  Bible  verse,  have  it  finished 
by  girls.    Can  be  played  as  relay  or  circle  game. 

"Blessed  are  the  pure  in  heart  for  they " 

"Come  unto  me  all  ye  that " 

"For  God  so  loved  the  world  that : " 

VL  Bird,  Beast  and  Fish  translated  into  a  Bible  game  can 
be  made  interesting  for  a  little  while.  Instead  of  saying: 
Fish  when  pointing  to  a  girl,  say  "Bible  Character — D," 
and  the  girl  will  respond  before  ten  is  counted  with  the 
name  of  a  Bible  character  beginning  with  D,  for  example 
Deborah.  It  would  be  wise  for  the  adviser  to  make  a 
list  of  the  most  common  letters  leaving  out,  of  course, 
F  and  perhaps  a  few  others. 
VII.  I  Went  to  the  Holy  Land— 

This  played  to  the  "tune"  of  "I  packed  my  grandmother's 

234 


trunk"  is  always  fun,  for  it  keeps  our  minds  working. 

For  example: 

I  went  to  the  Holy  Land  and  I  visited  Schechem — 
Mr.    Arrarat — Beersheba — -Nazareth  —  Bethlehem  — 
Jerusalem,  etc. 
An  assignment  might  be  made  the  previous  week  to 

acquaint  oneself  with  twenty  Bible  cities.    It  would  not 

be   necessary   to    explain   the   use   to   be   made   of  this 

knowledge. 

VIII.    Relay  games  using  Bible  questions — 

Who  was  the  strongest  man  in  the  Bible? 
How  long  did  it  rain  during  the  flood,  etc.? 

(F)  Short  Bible  Classes — 

"Bible  classes  which  'begin  with  life  and  go  back  through 
to  the  Bible'  are  what  we  want."  These  are  the  words  of  the 
girls  themselves  and  give  the  key  to  a  successful  Bible  class. 
First  the  girls  must  want  a  "class,"  second,  it  must  be  concrete 
— related  to  the  20th  century;  third,  it  must  be  short;  fourth, 
it  must  be  conducted  by  the  discus sional  method — not  the 
lecture  method. 

The  following  material  for  younger  girls  with  necessary 
adaptations  may  prove  suggestive: 

My  Friendship  with  Jesus  Christ. 

Studies  in  Knowing  Jesus  Christ. 

Christian  Citizenship  for  Girls. 

Ten  Commandments  in  the  20th  Century. 
Obtained  from  the  Womans  Press,  600  Lexington  Avenue, 
New  York  City. 

(G)  Definite  discussions  on  such  subjects  as — 

1.  Is  my  work  a  joy  or  a  trial  ?    Do  I  hate  it  or  love  it  ? 

2.  What  is  the  purpose  of  our  Girl  Eeserve  group? 
Take  stock  and  see  if  we  are  living  up  to  our  purpose. 


These  games  have  "been  supplied  by  Irene  Riley,   Girls*  Work  Secretary, 
Cleveland,   Ohio. 

235 


(H)  The  poster  method  previously  described  has  been  used 
effectively  by  taking  "Triangles  for  Girl  Eeserves"  and 
illustrating  them  in  the  following  way:  In  the  center  of 
a  large  blue  triangle  place  the  head  of  a  girl  who  is  as 
attractive  as  possible — the  type  of  girl  every  girl  wants 
to  be.  Underneath  the  triangle  place  the  word  Spirit  or 
Myself  or  Health  or  whatever  the  triangle  may  be  symbol- 
izing. If  the  triangle  symbolizing  Spirit  mark  the  three 
Sides  Life,  Love,  Laugh;  if  Myself,  mark  them,  Words, 
Thoughts,  Actions;  if  Health,  Play,  Work,  Sleep  (see 
illustrations).  A  poster  on  which  is  the  triangle  of  Spirit 
may  have  something  like  the  following  below  the  triangle 
and  printed  in  as  attractive  way  as  possible: 

"Why  are  there  so  many  songs  written  about  Smiles  ? 
How  does  being  grouchy  affect  others?  Am  I  increasing 
my  circle  of  friends  by  being  friendly?  Is  my  spirit 
loving,  cheerful,  and  helpful?" 

Under  the  triangle,  Myself  might  be  printed  some- 
thing like  the  following: 

"If  I  could  hear  my  conversations  repeated  at  the 
end  of  the  day,  would  it  make  any  difference  in  what  I 
say?  Are  my  thoughts  kind  and  true  before  I  speak  of 
another?  Have  I  the  courage  to  say  what  I  know  is 
true?  Which  are  louder,  actions  or  words?" 

On  the  third  poster  which  might  have  on  it  the 
triangle  of  Health  could  be  painted: 

"How  does  the  amount  of  sleep  I  have  affect  my 
work?  Is  it  easy  to  be  cheerful  when  I  have  a  head- 
ache. Are  many  illnessnes  caused  by  one's  own  careless- 
ness? What  responsibilities  to  others  does  one  have  for 
keeping  well?" 

A  series  of  posters  of  this  kind,  each  bearing  in  the 
triangle  a  different  girPs  head — all  as  attractive  as  possi- 

236 


ble — can  be  placed  one  at  a  time  In  a  center  or  a  club 
room  or  sometimes  in  the  girl's  place  of  work.  They  will 
cause  discussion  and  often  have  far-reaching  results. 

WEE  WISPS  OF  WISDOM  FOR  GIRL  RESERVES. 

(Some  of  which  it  might  be  well  to  commit  to  memory — some 
might  be  placed  on  the  bulletin  boards — others  might  be  used 
as  the  basis  for  discussions — some  of  which  might  help  to 
make  concrete  the  Girl  Reserve  Code  and  the  Business  and 
Industrial  -Code.) 

"Be  a  booster!  Use  a  horn  instead  of  a  hammer.  Things 
can't  always  be  as  you  wish.  Everyone  should  be  pleased.  The 
largest  freedom  to  all  comes  when  each  member  does  her  part 
fully  in  respecting  the  rights  and  privileges  of  others." 

"Be  a  good  cooperator.  Don't  make  your  club  suffer  through 
failure  to  do  your  part.  If  you  have  a  complaint  or  a  sugges- 
tion for  the  good  of  the  club,  submit  it  in  writing,  properly 
signed,  to  the  S.  0.  S." 

"Don't  be  too  neighborly  with  your  friend's  clothing  and 
toilet  articles — she  may  need  them." 

"A  pound  of  ideals  is  worth  a  ton  of  ideas." 

"A  pound  of  inspiration  is  worth  a  ton  of  information." 

"Woman  is  the  custodian  of  the  ideals  of  life." 

Who  Coes  There? 

The  Boston  Chamber  of  Commerce  Warns  the  Public. 
I  am  more  powerful  than  the  combined  armies  of  the  world. 
I  have  destroyed  more  men  than  all  the  wars  of  the  world. 
I  am  more  deadly  than  bullets  and  I  have  wrecked  more 

homes  than  the  deadliest  of  siege  guns. 
I  steal  in  the  United  States  alone  over  $300,000,000  each 

year. 
I  spare  no  one,  and  I  find  my  victims  among  the  rich  and 

poor;  the  young  and  old,  the  strong  and  the  weak. 

Widows  and  orphans  know  me. 

237 


I  loom  up  to  sucli  proportions  that  I  cast  my  shadow  over 

every  field  of  labor  from  the  turning  of  the  grindstone 

to  the  moving  of  every  railroad  train. 
I  massacre  thousands  upon  thousands  of  wage-earners  in  a 

year. 
I  lurk  in  unseen  places  and  do  most  of  my  work  silently. 

You  are  warned  against  me,  but  you  heed  not. 
I  am  relentless!     I  am  everywhere — in  the  home,  on  the 
streets,  in  the  factory,  at  railroad  crossings  and  on 
the  sea. 
I  bring  sickness,  degradation,  death.     And  yet  few  seek  to 

avoid  me. 

I  destroy,  crush,  maim,  take  all,  and  give  nothing. 
I  am  your  worst  enemy. 
I  am  CARELESSNESS! 

(Reprinted  through  the  courtesy  of  the  Boston  Chamber  of 
Commerce.) 

The  Builder. 

By  Gerrit  A.  Beneker. 
I  am  the  Builder;  on  my  throne 
Of  iron  and  wood  and  steel  and  stone, 
I  stand  the  Builder,  but  not  alone  • 
In  God's  own  image,  from  God's  own  plan 
From  common  clay,  He  built  Me,  Man. 
From  conimon  clay  He  raised  the  ban 
That  I  might  live — but  not  alone. 

From  God's  own  earth  I  scoop  the  ore, 
The  coal  I  mine,  the  rock  I  bore, 
The  lightning's  flash  from  the  air  I  store; 
This  clay  fuse  I — with  fire  to  mock 
The  Ancient  Gods;  their  temples  rock, 
Crash  back  to  earth;  tongues  interlock 
To  build  no  Babel  as  of  yore. 

238 


Where  once  a  hillock  was  but  small, 
I  build  the  city  towering  tall, 
The  peasant's  hut,  the  marble  hall; 
With  men  from  many  a  foreign  strand, 
I  build  with  heart  and  soul  and  hand 
America — the  Promised  Land! 
Build  all  for  each — build  each  for  all. 

(Reprinted  by  consent  of  the  author  and  the  courtesy  of 
the  Red  Cross  Magazine.) 

"To-day  is  your  day  and  mine,  the  day  in  which  we  play  our 
part.  What  our  part  may  signify  in  the  great  whole, 'we  may 
not  understand.  But  we  are  here  to  play  it,  and  now  is  our  time. 
This  we  know — it  is  a  part  of  action,  it  is  a  part  of  love.  Let 
us  express  love  in  terms  of  human  helpfulness." 


Your  Place. 

"Is  your  place  a  small  place? 
Tend  it  with  care! 
He  set  you  there. 

Is  your  place  a  large  place? 
Guard  it  with  care! 
He  set  you  there. 

What'er  your  place,  it  is 
Not  yours  alone,  but  His 
Who  set  you  there." 


"If  you  your-  lips  would  keep  from  slips 
Five  things  observe  with  care — 
Of  whom  you  speak,  to  whom  you  speak, 
And  how,  and  when,  and  where." 

239 


Special  Suggestions  for  Recreation  to  meet  the  needs  of 
unorganized  groups  of  girls  or  where  informal  organization 
brings  girls  into  groups  the  personnel  of  which  is  apt  to 

change. 

(1)  Noon  Hour. 

Recreation  at  a  center — at  the  Association  building — at 
place  of  work  itself,  or  at  a  continuation  school. 

The  following:  suggestions  for  noon  activities,  aside  from 
games,  have  proven  successful: 

1.  Whistling  solos. 

2.  Pantomime  stunts. 

Inviting  boys,   friends   of  the  girls   at   the  store,  to 
sing,  whistle  or  do  some  "stunt." 

3.  Beauty  demonstration,  hair  dressing. 

4.  Story  telling. 

5.  Handicraft  day. 

6.  Interpretive  dancing. 

7.  Roller  skating. 

8.  Fortune  telling. 

9.  Songs 

10.    Short  musical  "skits."     • 

(2)  During  school  hours  at  the  Y.  W.  C.  A.  or  the  continuation 

school. 

(3)  At  night. 
Center. 
Association  building 

(a)  Group  supper  and  informal  club  activities.  In  many 
places  a  supper  meeting  is  the  only  opportunity 
offered  for  meeting  the  girls  as  a  group.  If  this  is 
the  case,  it  is  extremely  important  to  make  the  most 
of  this  time.  Two  essentials  of  a  successful  club 
supper  meeting  are  wholesome,  appetizing  hot  food 

240 


and   a   well   planned   activity  which   may   happen  at 
the  supper  table. 

The  following1  suggestions  for  menus  are  offered 
because  they  have  proven  to  be  what  girls  like  and 
because  they  are  simple  and  inexpensive  to  prepare. 
Four  things  to  remember  in  preparing  club  suppers 
are: 
^1.  The  younger  girl  in  business  and  industry  is  just 

like   any   other   girl   and   likes   food   prepared   in 

clever,  appetizing  ways. 

2.  Buy  good  bread  and  butter.    The  girls  eat  a  great 
deal  of  it  and  it  should  never  be  poor  in  quality. 

3.  Always   serve  rolls   hot.     If  it  is   impossible  to 
serve  them  hot  serve  plain  bread.     Girls  do  not 
like   cold  rolls. 

4.  Girls  do  not  like  plain  lettuce  salad. 

In  any  good  cook  books  may  be  found  detailed  direc- 
tions for  any  of  the  following: 
Cheese  Fondu. 

Use   stale   bread  with   dressing   of   cheese,   eggs   and 
milk  similar  to  custard  but  unsweetened.     Bake  in  oven; 
serve  hot. 
Peanut  Butter  Soup. 

Heat    milk    but    do    not    boil.      Use    1    tablespoon    of 
peanut  butter  to  one  pint  of  milk.     Dissolve  peanut  but- 
ter in  small  amount  of  milk.     Add  when  milk  is  heated. 
Salt  to  taste. 
Stuffed  Rolls. 

Split  finger  or  French  rolls  and  fill  with  chopped  meat 
prepared  in  brown  gravy.     Toast  in   oven.     'Serve  with 
plenty  of  gravy. 
Baked  Potatoes  with  Cheese. 

Cut  potato  when  baked  in  half.  Spread  with  grated 
cheese,  pepper  and  salt  and  paprika.  Place  in  oven  until 
cheese  is  melted. 

241 


Double  Decker  Hash. 

Put  hash  (well  cooked)  into  large  baking  pans;  cover 
with  two-inch  layer  of  mashed  potato.     Brown  in  oven. 
Cut  carefully  and  serve. 
Creamed  Chipped  Beef. 

Serve   with   cheese  crackers.      Cover   large    size   soda 
crackers  with  grated  cheese.     Place  in  oven  to  brown. 
Potato  Soup. 
Buttered  Beets. 
Spaghetti  and   Cheese. 
Liberty  Noodles. 

Fry  hamburger  steaks  until  crisp  and  brown.  Oook 
egg  noodles  in  usual  way.  Add  hamburger,  bits  of  green 
pepper  and  parsely.  Finish  in  oven.  (This  is  an  Inex- 
pensive hot  dish,  popular  with  girls.  Other  meats  could 
be  used  in  same  way.) 
Chocolate  Blanc  Mange. 

Ambrosia. 

Cut  up  fruit.     Sprinkle  with  cocoanut. 

Apple  Sauce. 

Serve  with  hot  rolls  or  ginger  bread. 

Apple  Porcupine. 

See   any  recipe   book  for  clarified   or   candied   apples. 
Use   red  cinnamon   candy  to   color  syrup.      Stick   a,  few 
almonds  and  cloves  on  top  of  each  apple  when  cooked. 
Serve  if  possible  with  tiny  bit  of  whipped  cream. 
Hot  Sandwiches. 

Three  layers   of  toast,   one   layer  of  blackberry   jam 
or  tart  jelly,  other  layer  of  peanut  butter. 
Punch — 1QQ  persons. 

Small  can  of  tea.  Pour  on  boiling  water  and  set  10 
minutes.  Sweeten  tea  to  taste.  Juice  of  2  dozen  lemons. 
Juice  of  1  dozen  oranges;  1  can  sliced  pineapple 
(chopped) ;  1  bottle  maraschino  cherries.  Put  on  ice, 

242 


The  following  suggestions   for  activities  with  a  real 
point  to  them  have  proved  successful  at  the  table: 

1.  Have  the   table   set  incorrectly.     Before  eating*  each 
girl  must  help  set  it  correctly.     Decide  on  the  num- 
ber of  points  for  each  article  placed  correctly.     Frizes 
may  be  awarded  as  jokes. 

2.  Place  at   each  plate   a   funny  rhyme;  illustrating  the 
right  use  of  a  cup,  a  knife,  etc. 

3.  Typewrite  the  following  story  on  slips  of  paper  in  the 
sections   indicated  by  the   spaces.      Place   one   section 
at   each  plate   and  have   each   girl   read   her   section. 
Finally,    the    entire    story    will    be    assembled    as    it 
should  be.    This  might  be  followed  by  a  discussion  on 
service. 

Said  Old  Gentleman  Gay,  "On  a  Thanksgiving  Day, 
If  you  want  a  good  time,  then  give  something  away." 
So  he  sent  a  fat  turkey  to  Shoemaker  Price. 
And  the  shoemaker  said,  "What  a  big  bird,  how  nice! 
And  since  such  good  dinner's  before  me,  I  ought 
To  give  Widow  Lee  the  small  chicken  I  bought." 

"This  fine  chicken,  oh  see!"  said  the  pleased  Widow  Lee, 
"And  the  kindness  that  sent  it,  how  precious  to  me. 
I  would  like  to  make  somebody  as  happy  as  I, 
I'll  give  Washwoman  Biddy  niy  big  pumpkin  pie." 
"And  oh,  sure,"  Biddy  said,  "it's  the  queen  of  all  pies, 
Just  to  look  at  its  yellow  face  gladdens  my  eyes. 
Now  it's  my  turn,  I  think,  and  a  sweet  ginger-cake 
For  the  motherless  Finnigan  children  I'll  make." 
Said  the  Finnigan  children,  Rosy,  Denny  and  Hugh, 
"It  smells  sweet  of  spice,  and  well  carry  a  slice 

To  little  lame  Jake,  who  has  nothing  that's  nice." 

<fOh,  I  thank  you,  and  thank  you/'  said  little  lame  Jake, 

243 


"Oh  what  a  beautiful,  beautiful,  beautiful  cake. 
And  oh,  such  a  big  slice,  I  will  save  all  the  crumbs 
And  give  some  to  each  little  sparrow  that  comes. 
And  the  sparrows  they  twittered,  as  if  they  would  say, 
Like  old  Gentleman  Gay,  "On  a  Thanksgiving:  Day 
If  you  want  a  good  time,  just  give  something  away." 

4.  Tell  stories. 

5.  In  center  of  table   place   a   paper  pie  with   ribbons 
running  to  each  place.    Pull  ribbons,  and  at  end  of  the 
ribbon  is  a  recipe  for  the  hot  dish  used  that  night. 

6.  Business  meeting. 

Have  a  printed  or  typewritten  outline  at  each  girl's 
place  with  little  slogan  on  it  as  "a  friend  in  need/' 
"a  good  citizen."  Business  can  be  transacted  promptly 
and  short  discussion  on  the  slogan  follow. 

7.  Let  every  girl  try  to  be  a  "cheerful  cherub"  for  ten 
minutes  and  write  a  "cheerful  cherub  carol." 

8.  Discuss  the  movies  running  in  the  community  for  that 
week.    Let  one  girl  give  a  resume  of  one  or  more  of 
the  plots. 

9.  All  kinds  of  seasonal  parties,  such  as  Valentine,  Hal- 
lowe'en parties. 

10.  Rainbow  suppers. 

Have  decorations  in  colors  of  rainbow  with  little 
paper  rainbows  pasted  on  each  tumbler.  Talk  on 
color  and  color  combinations,  becoming  and  unbe- 
coming colors  to  blondes  and  brunettes. 

11,  Birthday  suppers. 

(b)  Formal  or  informal  club  meetings. 

(4)  On  Sundays. 

Indoor  activities  at  the  Association  building  or  the  Center 
and  outdoor  activities,  such  as  hikes,  sunset  vesper  service,  out- 
door sings. 

244 


In  some  communities  it  does  not  seem  wise  to  try  to  hold 
meetings  of  these  younger  girls  at  night.  Before  deciding 
that  an  evening  is  impossible  it  is  well  to  determine  whether 
or  not  the  girls  are  in  the  habit  of  going-  to  night  "movies"  or 
of  being  on  the  streets.  The  objections,  distance  and  travel, 
are  sometimes  relieved  through  the  use  of  club  rooms  in  a 
neighborhood  where  the  girls  live.  Adequate  places  for  recrea- 
tion and  club  work  can  often  be  found  if  one  can  make  use  of 
o,hurch  basements,  unoccupied  stores,  school  community  centers. 
A  little  thought  and  ingenuity  and  often  very  little  expense 
can  make  these  places  attractice. 

In  some  places  girls  under  eighteen  go  to  evening  schools 
and  are  released  about  nine  or  nine-thirty  all  ready  for  a  good 
time.  Often  they  linger  on  the  streets  and  make  chance 
acquaintances.  Any  center  or  Association  building  should  make 
provision  to  meet  this  situation  through  a  wholesome  recreation 
program  or  by  whatever  means  seems  possible. 

PROGRAM     SUGGESTIONS    FOR    WORK    WITH    YOUNGER    BUSINESS 
COLLEGE  GIRLS 

Any  program  for  younger  business  college  girls  will  neces- 
sarily center  around  such  general  interests  as  the  following: 

1.  Social  activities,  including  men  and  girl  parties. 

2.  Open  forums,  giving  an  opportunity  for  discussion  on 
such  subjects  as  social  standards  and  business  ethics. 

3.  Health  education,  worked  out  through  actual  gymna- 

sium classes,  lectures  and  discussions,  physical  exami- 
nations and  purposeful  receation. 

4.  Service. 

Social  Activities. 

Because  of  the  similarity  in  age-grouping  and  the  school 
environment,  the  activities  (social)  desired  by  these  younger 
business  college  girls  are  very  similar  to  those  craved  and 
enjoyed  by  the  high  school  girls  in  their  junior  and  senior  years. 

245 


The  committee  in  charge  of  work  with  this  group  must  remem- 
ber that  the  monotony  and  routine  of  the  average  business 
college  work  is  much  greater  than  that  of  the  class  work  of 
r.  high  school,  that  many  of  the  girls  are  away  from  home,  and 
that  they  are  usually  working  intensely  so  that  they  may  cover 
a  certain  amount  of  ground  in  a  given  period  of  time;  moreover 
most  high  schools  are  more  completely  organized,  so  far  as 
dubs  are  concerned,  than  are  most  business  colleges.  The 
average  business  college  in  fact  provides  for  little  except  the 
actual  business  training.  Little  responsibility  is  felt  for  ^the 
way  the  girl  may  spend  her  time  or  the  way  she  may  be  living. 
Therefore  there  is  often  a  very  real  need  among  a  large  number 
of  the  girls  for  some/  kind  of  normal  social  activity.  There 
is  often,  also,  real  need  for  advice  and  help  as  to  where  to  live 
and  as  to  what  opportunities  are  possible  for  more  advanced 
study.  The  recognized  business  and  professional  women  of 
the  community  are  the  logical  persons  to  whom  the  girls'  work 
secretary  can  turn  for  such  cooperation. 

Many  program  suggestions,  which  may  be  adapted  to  the 
needs  of  any  community,  are  to  be  found  in  the  suggested  pro- 
grams for  junior  high  school  girls  and  for  high  school  clubs, 
pages  159,  ,169;  also  in  the  following  sources: 

"Community  Service  Programs  and  Activities  for  Younger 
Girls." 

"Ice-Breakers"— by  Edna  Geister.  Secure  pamphlets  and 
book  from  the  Womans  Press,  600  Lexington  Avenue,  New 
York  City. 

Social  activities  for  this  group  will  be  more  successful  if 
clever  devices  in  the  way  of  posters,  tickets  of  admission,  and 
favors,  are  used.  For  instance,  a  circus  is  always  a  popular 
"stunt."  Tickets  in  the  shape  of  elephants  can  be  easily  made 
from  cardboard.  On  them  can  be  typed  or  printed  some  short 
clever  rhyme  describing  the  circus. 

Very  often  social  activities  involve  other  people  than  are 
in  the  club  itself ;  for  instance,  the  club  might  vote  to  entertain 

246 


a  group  of  children  from  some  neighborhood  settlement;  for 
such  an  occasion,  a  shoe  could  be  cut  from  colored  board  or 
heavy  paper,  and  on  it  written  something  like  the  following: 
"There  was  an  old  woman  who  lived  in  a  shoe, 
She  had  so  many  children  she  didn't  know  what  to  do, 
If  you  will  come  on  Saturday  and  amuse  them  awhile. 
She  will  promise  not  to  treat  you  in  the  usual  style. 

On  the  other  side  of  the  shoe,  could  be  written: 
Come  representing  the  following  Mother  Goose  rhyme — 
(Give  here  the  name  of  desired  representation.) 

Open  Forums. 

These  should  be  just  as  far  as  possible  in  the  hands  of  the 
girls  themselves,  and  might  take  place  once  a  month  or  a<3 
often  as  the  girls  desire, 

v 
Suggested  Topics. 

1.  Business  life  as  a  training  for  marriage. 

Is  there  any  relation  between  business  training  and 
married  life? 

Is  one  in  any  sense  a  preparation  for  the  other? 
What  specific  things  about  business  might  help  a  girl 
after  she  is  married? 

2.  The  real  place  of  the  business  girl  to-day  in  American 

life. 

What  opportunities  are  open  to   girls  to-day  in  the 
business  world? 

How  do  the  numbers  of  women  in  business  to-day 
compare  with  the  figures  for  fifty  years  ago. 
What  has  brought  about  the  change? 
What  are  women  doing  to  meet  this  increased  oppor- 
tunity? 

3.  Business  girls  the  world  around. 

China 

247 


India 

Japan 

South  America 

4.   What  lies  behind  the  pay  envelope? 

Have  health,  skill,  promptness,  loyalty  to  work,  dress 
and  manners  anything  to  do  with  this  ? 

For  additional  material  to  be  used  in  discussion,  see  Section 
IV,  Chapter  2,  pages  215-224. 

Health  Education. 

Indoor:  A  physical  examination  for  every  girl  to  be  followed 
by  the  individual  exercise  necessary — gymnasium  classes,  games 
which  develop  group  and  team  spirit,  indoor  track  meets,  swim- 
ming, talks  and  demonstration  of  first  aid,  footwear,  posture, 
and  healthful  clothing,  proper  food,  ventilation  and  sanitation. 

Outdoor:  Hiking,  skating,  swimming,  boating,  field  meets, 
trailing,  camping  (including  outdoor  cookery),  volley-ball  and 
tennis. 

At  the  beginning  of  the  club  year,  all  club  members  should 
learn  through  a  talk,  a  discussion,  a  demonstration  or  an  exhibit, 
that  "health"  is  no  longer  to  be  considered  a  luxury  but  a  "social 
responsibility,"  and  that  the  health  of  the  individual  bears 
directly  upon  that  of  the  home,  school  and  community. 

Every  club  should  make  a  part  of  its  work  an  interpretation 
to  the  business  college  and  the  community  the  necessity  for 
health  education  standards,  with  particular  emphasis  on  a 
physical  examination  for  every  girl,  to  be  followed  by  individual 
exercises  for  the  formation  of  health  habits  if  necessary. 

The  actual  working  out  of  all  these  elements  must  be  in 
the  hands  of  the  physical  or  health  education  departments  of 
the  local  Association,  where  there  are  such.  Associations  that 
have  no  department  may  obtain  help  from  the  Bureau  of  Social 
Education,  600  Lexington  Avenue,  New  York  City. 

See  Chapter  2,  Section  V,  page  316,  Health  Education  and 
Recreation. 

248 


Service. 

Some  sort  of  service  activity  is  essential  to  the  life  of  any 
club.  Just  what  this  activity  should  be  must  be  determined  by 
local  conditions.  It  is  quite  possible  that  the  best  service 
activity  for  such  "a  group  might  be  in  the  business  college  itself, 
helping  to  create  a  spirit  of  friendliness  and  better  standards 
of  scholarship;  or  it  is  quite  conceivable  that  the  Younger  Busi- 
ness iCollege  girls  could  cooperate  with  the  Business  and  Pro- 
fessional Women's  Club  in  service  work.  There  are  always 
definite  and  seasonal  kinds  of  service,  such  as  Thanksgiving  and 
Christmas  parties,  the  preparation  of  baskets  for  needy  families, 
and  the  entertainment  of  groups  of  children  from  orphans7 
homes,  at  settlement  houses,  or  from  family  groups,  names  of 
which  have  been  secured  through  the  Associated  Charities  Or- 
ganization of  the  city  or  town. 

Noon  Recreation  for  Business  College  Girls. 

In  some  communities  it  is  possible  to  have  an  informal 
recreation  program,  at  the  Association  or  at  some  center  j  this 
program  is  greatly  enjoyed  by  the  girls,  and  should  include 
games,  music,  and  a  chance  for  fun  and  relaxation  of  all  kinds. 
Sometimes  a  canteen  service  where  there  is  need  for  this,  has 
proved  most  successful. 

Program  Resources. 

See  the  other  sections  of  this  Manual  for  helpful  suggestions. 

Some  of  the  best  supplementary  program  material  is  to  be 
found  in  current  periodicals,  newspapers,  literature  of  all  organ- 
izations dealing  with  young  people.  The  following  are  sug- 
gestive: 

Magazines:  iirfhe  American." 

"The  Red  Cross  Magazine." 
"The  Ladies'  Home  Journal." 
"The  Woman's  Home  Companion." 

249 


SUGGESTIONS   BEGAEDING   PROGRAM   PLANNING   FOE   GIRLS    WITH 
A  FOREIGN  BACKGROUND. 

Whatever  use  is  made  of  the  suggestions  regarding  the  use 
of  the  honor  list  and  whatever  honors  are  substituted  by  the 
local  International  Institute  secretary  (with  the  approval  of  the 
local  and  field  secretary  for  younger  girls)  it  is  essential  that 
the  following  somewhat  intangible  values  be  conserved  in  the 
life  of  the  foreign  born  girl;  if  they  are  not,  a  gap  will  be  in- 
creased which  in  many  instances  already  exists  between  her 
foreign  parents  and  home  and  the  girl  (who  is  accepting  rapidly 
American  methods  of  living  and  standards  of  value). 

1.  A  respect  for  her  parents'  language  attainments,  and 
an  ambition  to  speak  her  own  tongue,  as  well  as  to 
command  the  English  language. 

2.  An  understanding  of  the  contribution  of  her  country 
to  the  world's  history,  so  -that  it  has  become  more  of 
a  place  for  youth's  delight. 

3.  An  appreciation  of  what  her  country  and  people  have 

given  to  make  American  greatness. 

4.  An  appreciation  of  the  music  of  the  people  as  a  com- 
mon   language   in   which    to    express   universal    ex- 
perience. 

5.  A  correct  evaluation  of  handicraft  as  a  creative  gift. 

6.  An  understanding  and  enjoyment  of  folklore  as  the 
expression  of  a  peoples'  day  dream. 

7.  An  appreciation  of  the  arts  of  her  country  as  gifts  to 
America. 

8.  Respect  for  old  country  customs,   clothes,  and  food 
as  being  suitable  -to  the  times  and  circumstances  in 
which  they  are  used. 

9.  Continuation   of  the  play   spirit  which   is  found   in 
every  European  of  whatever  age;   particularly  is  it 
important  to .  inculcate  respect  for   this   play   spirit 
whenever  it  manifests  itself  in  age. 

250 


10.  An  understanding-  that  folk  dancing  is  the  familiar 
Old  World  expression  of  group  activity. 

11.  Eespect  for  the  "Holy  Days,"  festivals  and  Saints' 
Days  of  the  homelands  as  the  spiritual  expression  of 
the  gifts  of  the  old  world. 

Suggestions  Regarding  the  Adaptation  of  the  Honor  List  to 
Fit  the  General  Needs  of  Foreign  Born  or  Foreign  Speak- 
ing Girls. 

Service : 

(a)  In  the  home: 

1.  Plan  and  cook  a  nationality  meal. 

2.  Plan  and  cook  a  simple  American  meal. 

3.  Teach  one  or  both  parents  to  speak  English. 

(b)  In  the  community: 

1.  Know  and  sing  some  of  your  national  songs. 

2.  Know  and  sing  some  standard  American  songs. 

3.  'Serve  as  an  interpreter  in  a  hospital  where  chil- 
dren are  being  cared  for. 

4.  Get  one  foreign  speaking  person  to  attend  night 
school. 

5.  Know  the  names   and  addresses   of  your  neigh- 
borhood clinics  to  which  people  may  be  referred 
for  help. 

6.  Name  the  different  street  car  routes  and  learn 
the  places  of  interest  in  the  city  which  are  on 
these  routes. 

7.  Name   the   different  parks   in  the  city  and   tell 
something  distinctive  about  each  one. 

(c)  To  the  country: 

1.    Save  one-half  your  spending  money  every  month. 
Knowledge: 

1.  Give  some  interesting  facts  at  a  club  meeting  about 
some  woman  leader  in  your  native  country  or  in  the 
country  from  which  your  parents  came. 

251 


2.  Be  able  to  give  the  history  of  your  native  flag  and  of 
the  American  flag  (three  points). 

3.  Make  a   piece  of  handiwork  popular  in  your  native 
country. 

4.  Learn  one  national  folk  dance. 

5.  Learn  a  folk  story  of  your  nation. 

6.  Know  and  be  able  to  tell  in  a  simple  narrative  form 
the  outstanding  points  in  the  history  of  the  nation 
from  which  you  have  come. 

7.  Dress  a  doll  in  your  national  costume. 

8.  Make  for  yourself  a  national  costume,  either  from  tis- 
sue paper  or  from  some  inexpensive  material. 

9.  Make  one  part  of  a  costume  as  it  is  made  in  the  old 
country:    i.  e.,  a  cross  stitch  apron  or  a  blouse  for  a 
Russian  costume. 

10.  Be  able  to  converse  in  a  language  other  than  English. 

11.  Be  able  to  write  in  a  language  other  than  English. 

12.  Be  able  to  read  a  newspaper  or  a  book  in  another  lan- 
guage than  English. 

13.  Stay  in  school  through  the  grammar  grades. 

14.  Learn  a  trade  before  going  to  work. 

15.  Start  a  bank  account  or  belong  to  a  saving  club. 

16.  Name  the  agencies  with  which  one  would  get  in  touch 
to  rent  a  house. 

17.  Tell  the  kind  of  a  house  you  would  expect  to  rent 
for*  $ per  month. 

Spirit: 

1.  Learn  a  favorite  poem  in  your  native  language. 

2.  Make  a  friend  of  some  girl  of  another  nationality  and 
learn  some  interesting  things  about  this  girPs  nation 
and  tell  it  at  a  club  meeting. 

Por  sustaining  interest  in  honors: 

Make  use  of  equilateral  triangles  cut  out  from  paste- 
board, each  side  measuring  eleven  inches.  These  tri- 
angles are  to  be  filled  with  stars  for  the  honors  won. 

252 


Use  three  f headings:  Knowledge  (Health  becomes  a  part 
of  this),  Service,  Spirit.  Red  indicates  Knowledge,  gold 
Service  and  silver  Spirit.  When  the  triangles  are  filled, 
they  will  hold  forty  stars,  representing  one  chevron. 

Program  Planning: 

One  International  Institute  has  found  helpful  the  fol- 
lowing plan  of  linking  the  honors  chosen  by  the  method 
indicated  above  and  the  actual  corps  meetings: 

One  month  was  chosen  as  a  month  when  ideals  would 
be  emphasized  in  pictures,  games  and  talks.  Pictures  il- 
lustrating the  different  ideals  expressed  in  the  Girl  Re- 
serve Code  were  selected  and  hung  or  exhibited  in  differ- 
ent parts  of  the  clubroom.  The  girls  in  the  corps  guessed 
which  points  the  pictures  illustrated.  The  girls  also 
selected  from  magazines  pictures  which  seemed  to  them 
to  illustrate  the  Code.  If  accepted,  these  pictures  were 
included  in  scrap  books  which  were  sent  by  the  Girl  He- 
serves  to  hospitals  or  to  Ellis  Island.  At  the  following 
meeting  of  the  corps,  each  girl  spoke  for  a  very  brief 
time  on  one  point  of  the  Code  which  she  had  chosen  to 
interpret.  Questions  which  were  of  world  fellowship  sig- 
nificance (such  as  questions  about  China)  were  drawn  by 
the  corps  members;  these  questions  were  to  be  answered 
at  the  next  meeting.  Such  a  meeting  gave  an  opportunity 
for  the  corps  members  to  come  attired  in  Chinese  cos- 
tumes and  to  see  at  the  club  room  an  exhibit  of  Chinese 
pictures  and  curios.  The  name  of  some  great  national 
character  was  given  to  each  girl  at  the  close  of  this 
meeting  and  their  project  work  was  to  look  up  this  char- 
acter and  determine  what  made  him  great.  "A  Great 
Character  Day"  was  the  result  of  this  research  at  the 
next  corps  meeting  and  special  emphasis  was  laid  upon 
the  spiritual  qualities  in  each  life  which  had  helped  to 
make  it  great.  Such  a  meeting  prepared  the  way  for  a 
discussion  on  school  ideals  and  reasons  for  continuing 

253 


one's  education.  The  following  month  of  work  with  this 
group  was  Vocational  in  its  emphasis  and  included  trips 
to  high  schools  to  observe  equipment,  and  the  advantages 
of  high  school  education  as  presented  by  a  high  school 
girl. 

Honors  for  Blue  Side  of  Triangle. 

(a)  On  time  for  a  month 1 

(b)  Leaving  on  time  for  a  month 1 

(c)  Present    every    meeting    for    a    month    or 
written   excuse    2 

(d)  Know  Girl  Reserve  Song 1 

(e)  Neatness  of  appearance 4 

(f)  Faithfulness  in  committee  work 1 

(g)  Honors   from  other  list 5 

(h)   Taking  part  at  each  meeting 4 

(i)   Reading  book  from  Girl  Reserve  list 1 

Honors  for  Gold  Side  of  Triangle. 

(a)  Help    straighten    club    room    once    during 
month 1 

(b)  Five  special  acts  of  service  at  home  during 
month 1 

(c)  Five  acts  of  service  as  a  citizen 1 

(d)  Honors  earned  from  other  list 5 

(e)  Making  ^crap  book 10 

(f)  Bulbs  for  Easter 2 

Honors  for  Silver  Side  of  Triangle. 

(a)  Give   talk   on   some   point   in    Girl   Reserve 
Code 3 

(b)  Write  and  discuss  five  ideals  for  a  girl 3 

(c)  Going  to  church  each  Sunday  for  a  month.  .  4 

(d)  Learn  a  poem  from  the  list 2 

(e)  Name  a  great  character  and  tell  two  rea- 
sons why  he  is  great 2 

(f )  Share  in  question  box  on  China 1 

(g)  Honors  from  other  list 5 

254 


These  honors  are  listed  here  as  suggestive  of  the  way  in 
which  choices  are  made  and  as  showing  what  type  of  substitu- 
tions have  been  made  to  fit  the  local  need. 


HONOR  SYSTEM 

The  fact  that  the  Girl  Reserve  plan  is  being  used  by  so 
many  different  groups  of  girls  in  so  many  different  parts  of  the 
country  makes  it  impossible  to  have  a  list  of  honors  which  is 
exhaustive.  A  local  worker  is  free  to  substitute  honors  which 
fit  community  needs,  provided: 

(a)  She  makes  every  effort  to  make  use  of  the  honors 
on  the  prescribed  lists. 

(b)  She  chooses  new  honors  which  will  conform  to  the 
standards  of  the  printed  list. 

(c)  She  submits  the  new  honors  to  the  -Field  Secretary 
for  Younger  Girls  for  her  approval. 

A  local  worker  is  also  free  to  give  an  award  for  each  indi- 
vidual honor  earned  in  case  her  group  desires  such  tangible 
evidence  of  work  completed.  Suggested  awards  are  small  blue 
celluloid  triangles  or  such  triangles  made  from  heavy  paper. 
These  triangles  cannot  be  secured  from  headquarters  but  are 
left  for  a  local  leader  to  secure. 

In  making  use  of  the  Girl  Reserve  honor  system,  an  adviser 
will  realize  that  certain  honors  have  been  included  because  of 
work  with  the  girl  from  the  open  country  and  the  girl  from 
the  foreign-speaking  home.  These  honors,  if  not  applicable  to 
a  certain  group,  may  be  omitted  and  others  used. 

When  honors  are  awarded  it  is  well  to  make  use  of  a  simple 
ceremony,  so  that  the  occasion  may  be  a  more  impressive  one. 
The  individual  adviser  may  use  her  own  judgment  about  this 
and  may  evolve  the  ceremonial  best  suited  to  her  group. 

The  Use  of  an  Honor  System. 

An  honor  system  is  a  definite,  tangible  system  for  helping  a 
girl  to  acquire  information  and  knowledge  of  various  kinds.  It 

255 


is  a  plan  of  work  that  has  been  much  used  in  connection  with 
work  for  younger  girls  during  these  past  few  years.  Under 
such  a  system  one  or  more  points  or  honors  stand  for  a  definite, 
worth-while  accomplishment  along  a  certain  line  such  as  Health, 
or  Knowledge  or  Service  or  Spirit. 

Skill  thus  acquired  usually  means  for  the  girl  an  advance 
in  all-round  womanhood. 

Girls  between  twelve  and  fourteen  are  usually  interested 
in  working  for  honors.  If  an  adviser  plans  to  make  use  of  any 
system  of  honors,  she  should  realize  that  they  are  a  part  of 
the  program. 

The  danger  of  an  honor  system  might  be  that  it  could  lay 
too  much  stress  upon  individual  attainment.  To  effect  such  a 
result,  it  is  well  to  encourage  honors  which  have  as  their  ob- 
ject the  achievement  of  group  standards  as  well  as  the  individ- 
ual. Friendly  rivalry  between  two  or  more  groups  of  girls  is 
valuable. 

An  example  of  the  way  honors  can  be  made  a  part  of  the 
program  is  found  in  the  Girl  Reserve  program  where  honors 
have  been  grouped  under  the  four  headings — Health — Knowl- 
edge— Service — Spirit — which  are  the  fundamental  principles  of 
Girl  Reserve  work. 

Care  should  be  taken  that  every  girl  does  well  the  work  of 
each  honor.  In  many  cases  the  decision  as  to  whether  or  not 
this  has  been  done  must  necessarily  rest  with  the  adviser.  If 
her  emphasis  is  placed  upon  the  conscientious  fulfillment  of 
the  requirements,  the  awarding  of  the  honors  will  become  a 
highly  desirable  attainment  in  the  eyes  of  the  girls. 

The  satisfactory  attainment  of  honors  may  be  judged  in  some 
eases  by  an  examining  committee  or  Court  of  Awards.  When 
the  honors  have  been  won  in  school,  home  or  church,  the 
teacher,  mother,  Sunday  School  teacher  or  pastor  may  certify 
this  upon  blanks  such  as  the  one  printed  here,  which  may  be 
ordered  from  The  Womans  Press,  COO  Lexington  Avenue,  New 
York  City. 

256 


Girl  Reserve  Honors 


Corps   Company Division 

I  have  honestly  completed  honor  number 


(Signed)  Girl  Reserve 

Approved  by  , 

Teacher,  mother  or  pastor 

Adviser 


.Date 


The  Honor  System  plan  of  the  Girl  Reserves  gives  to  each 
adviser  a  means  by  which  the  influence  of  her  corp  organiza- 
tion extends  out  into  the  daily  life  of  her  girls.  The  winning  of 
each  honor  means  a  definite  worth-while  accomplishment.  The 
attainment  of  many  honors  means  that  the  girl  who  has  won 
them  has  advanced  in  her  development  of  all-round  womanhood. 

It  is  the  adviser's  privilege  to  arouse  interest  among  her 
girls  in  the  plan  of  the  Honor  System  and  to  see  that,  after 
the  first  enthusiasm  has  passed,  the  corps  members  do  not 
falter.  The  aim  of  every  girl  should  be  to  do  well  the  work 
necessary  to  win  each  honor.  In  many  cases  the  decision  as 
to  whether  this  has  been  well  done  must  necessarily  rest  with 
the  adviser.  If  her  emphasis  is  placed  upon  the  conscientious 
fulfillment  of  the  requirements,  to  be  awarded  an  honor  will 
become  a  highly  desirable  attainment  in  the  eyes  of  the  girls. 

257 


At  all  times,  a  careful  record  of  honors  won  should  be  kept 
by  the  adviser.  The  following  has  been  tested  and  found  satis- 
factory. Secure  a  loose-leaf  notebook  nine  by  seven  inches; 
divide  each  page  so  that  it  will  serve  as  a  record  for  two 
girls.  Use  left  margin  for  a  record  of  member's  name,  address, 
telephone  number  and  grade  in  school  or  place  of  business. 

How  to  Award  and  Keep  a  Record  of  Honors. 

The  four  heading's — Health,  Knowledge,  Service,  and  Spirit — 
enable  the  adviser  to  record  by  numbers  corresponding  to  the 
numbers  in  the  Honor  List  the  definite  honors  which  each  girl 
has  won.  The  accompanying  diagram  shows  how  this  record 
form  may  be  used.  (See  page  294.) 

If  an  adviser  is  desirous  of  keeping  a  record  which  shows  at 
a  glance  how  many  honors  a  Girl  Reserve  has  won  in  a  month, 
she  may  carry  out  her  desire  by  dividing  the  five  blocks  of  space 
near  the  left  margin  into  two,  four  or  six  spaces.  Extend  these 
lines  across  the  page  at  right  angles  to  the  lines  forming  the 
columns  where  the  honors  are  recorded.  Enter  the  names  of 
the  months.  Instead  of  having  one  column  for  the  total,  widen 
this  space  near  the  right  margin  to  carry  as  many  sub-columns 
as  there  are  months  recorded. 

Corps  Honors. 

Since  one  of  the  objects  of  Girl  Reserve  work  is  to  create 
and  foster  group  spirit  and  loyalty  to  one's  corps  or  company, 
it  is  suggested  that  corps  honors  as  well  as  individual  tionors 
should  be  emphasized.  Team  spirit  is  not  as  strong  among 
girls  as  it  is  among  boys  and  yet  it  is  one  of  the  essentials  of 
good  citizenship  on  the  part  of  girls.  The  following  honors, 
which  encourage  team  spirit,  are  only  suggestive  and  local  ad- 
visers may  add  to  the  list,  awarding  such  insignia  as  are  de- 
sired. These  honors  are  competitive,  and  it  is  suggested  that 
a  chart  be  kept,  on  which  are  the  names  and  ranks  of  the  con- 
testing corps  and  companies: 

(a)  Singing. 

258 


(b)  Seventy-five  per  cent  of  all  members  present  at  all  busi- 
ness meetings. 

(c)  Competitive  sports,  such  as  tennis,  basket  ball,  volley 
ball  and  field  meets. 

One  hundred  and  sixty  points  in  the  system  of  General 
Honors  are  necessary  to  become  a  First  Reserve.  One  Honor 
Point  is  awarded  for  each  activity,  unless  otherwise  stated. 

Wherever  an  honor  is  marked  by  a  tiny  triangle  it  may  be 
repeated,  the  points  given  for  doing  it  counting  toward  the  one 
hundred  and  sixty  points  required  to  be  a  First  Reserve.  Each 
time,  however,  the  honor  must  be  won  by  learning  new  games, 
or  new  recipes,  etc.  Points  for  honors  3,  27,  29,  30,  under 
Health,  for  honor  73  under  Service,  for  honor  7  under  Spirit, 
may  be  counted  for  rank  only  twice. 

HONOR  LIST 
1.    Health — physical  fitness 
(a)  Personal: 

(1)  Open  windows  an  sleeping  room  for  six  weeks  during 
the  winter  months. 

(2)  Get  eight  hours  of  sleep  each  night  for  six  weeks,  y 

(3)  Take  daily  open-air  exercises  for  at  least  one-half 
hour  for  six  weeks,  y 

(4)  Avoid  chewing  gum  for  one  month,  y 

(5)  Remove  damp  clothing  promptly  for  two  months. 
(6)-  Brush  teeth  morning  and  evening  for  six  weeks. 

(7)  Drink  at  least  three  glasses  of  water  every  day  be- 
tween meals  for  two  months  (two  points). 

(8)  Know  the  cause  and  prevention  of  fallen  arches  of 
the  foot. 

(9)  Do  not  miss  school  because  of  ill  health  for  two 
months. 

(10)   Go  to  bed  not  later  than  9:30  for  six  weeks,  except 
one  night  a  week. 

259 


(11)  Have  your  teeth  cleaned  at  least  twice  eacli  school 
year. 

(12)  Learn  the  number  of  teeth  in  the  first  set,  also  the 
names  of  the  permanent  teeth. 

(13)  Learn   the    special    work    of   the   molars,    bicuspids, 
incisors. 

(14)  Make  a  poster  for  the  club,  illustrating  the  care  of 
the  teeth.     Show  the  kind  of  paste  and  toothbrush 
to  be  used. 

(15)  Care  of  the  hands: 

Wash    your   hands    before    every    meal,    for    one 

month. 

Clean  your  nails  once  every  day  for  one  month. 

(16)  Wear  low-heeled,   square-   or  round-toed   shoes   for 
school  and  business. 

(17)  Take    at    least    two    warm    baths    weekly    for    two 
months. 

(18)  Put  on  clean  underclothes   once  each  week  for  one 
month. 

(19)  Wash  hair  at  least  once  a  month  for  three  months. 
.(20)  Do  not  bite  nails  for  a  month. 

(21)  Place  clothing  in  order  on  .a  chair  or  foot  of  bed 
every  night  for  one  month. 

(22)  Increase  lung  and  chest  capacity  noticeably  within 
three  months. 

(b)  First  aid: 

(23)  Name  the  different  kinds  of  bandages. 

(24)  State  uses  of  and  rules  for  applying. 

(25)  Give   symptoms    of   and    treatment   for   six   of   the 
following: 

(a)  Fainting  (e)   Strains 

(b)  .Shock  (f)    Sprains 

(c)  Sunstroke  (g)  Dislocation 

(d)  Bruises  (h)   Fracture 

(i)    Hemorrhages. 

260 


(26)  Give  the  symptoms  and  treatment  for  five  of  the 
following : 

(a)  Burns  and  scalds  (d)   Colic 

(b)  Frost  bite  (e)   Croup 

(c)  Drowning  (f)    Earache. 

(c)  Outdoor  activities: 

(27)  Walk  thirty  miles  within  ten  days.  A 

(28)  Build  a  fire  outdoors. 

(29)  Skate  on  ice  or  roller   skates  twenty-five  miles  in 
ten  days.  A 

(30)  Ride  forty  miles  on  a  bicycle  within  ten  days.  A 

(31)  Coast  not  less  than  fifteen  hours  in  any  one  month. 

(32)  Pass  the  athletic  badge  test  of  the  National  Play- 
ground  Association.      (Secure  tests   from   the   Na- 
tional Playground  Association,   1   Madison  Avenue, 
New  York  City.) 

(33)  Swimming  (one  point  for  each  of  the  following): 
Beginners : 

Swim  ten  strokes 
Learn  to  tread  water 
First  attempt  to  dive. 
Advanced  swimmers: 

Swim  twenty-five  yards,  any  stroke 
Swim  under  water  fifteen  yards 
Do  three  standard  dives  in  good  form 
Swim  fifty  feet  on  your  back. 

(34)  Learn  to  paddle  a  canoe,  understand  how  to  back 
water  and  how  to  make  a  good  landing. 

(35)  Know  and  use   the   noiseless   stroke  of  the  Indian 
paddler. 

(36)  Learn  to  row  one  hundred  feet  in  good  form,  and 
make  a  good  landing,  either  on  a  beach  or  at  a  pier. 

(37)  Know  how  to  sail  a  boat  or  steer  a  motor  boat  (five 
points). 

(38)  Know  how  to  reef  a  sail  and  cut  a  bow. 

261 


(39)  Bait  a  fishhook  on  a  fishing  trip,  and  name  three 
good  kinds  of  bait. 

(40)  Walk  to  and  from  school  for  four  weeks,  providing 
the  distance  is  at  least  one-half  mile.     (Count  twelve 
long  blocks  and  sixteen  short  ones  to  a  mile.) 

(41)  Tennis  (one  point  for  each  of  the  following): 
Beginners : 

Learn  to  serve  good  balls 

Learn  the  meaning  of  the  following  terms  as  used 

in  tennis:  "Service  court,"  "base  line,"  "alley," 

"lob,"  "cut,"  "love" 
Win  a  love-set. 

Experienced  players    (three  points  for  each  of  the 
following) : 

Take  part  in  a  tournament 

Lay  out  a  court 

Describe    the   relative    values    of    grass,    clay    or 

cement  courts 
Understand  and  use  a  backhand  stroke,  a  cut,  a 

volley. 

(42)  Golf  (three  points  for  each  of  the  following): 

Knowing  the  names  and  use  of  the  various  clubs 
Play  a  nine-hole  course. 

Play    an    eighteen-hole     course     (two     additional 
points). 

(43)  Play  twelve  games  of  croquet  (two  points). 

(44)  Play  twelve  games  of  tether  ball  (two  points). 

(45)  Know  the  different  positions  on  a  baseball  diamond 
and  how  to  keep  score. 

(46)  Play  on  an  organized  baseball  team  for  four  weeks. 

(d)  Indoor  activities: 

(47)  Know  any  simple  setting-up  drill  and  do  it  regularly 
every  morning  for  one  month.  \7 

(48)  Know  and  play  five  team  games,  y 

(49)  Know  the  commands  of  a  simple  military  drill.  \/ 

262 


(50)  Know  the  alphabet  and  simple  word  combinations 
used  in  signaling,  y 

(51)  Learn  to  dance  five  standard  folk  dances. 

(52)  Teach  during  two  months  the  rules  governing  a  team 
game   and    coach   the   members    in   team-play    and 
spirit  (two  points). 

(e)  Community  health: 

(53)  Swat  twenty-five  flies  a  day  for  -two  weeks. 

(54)  Help  in  some  campaign  to  make  the  city  clean. 

(55)  Observe  the  following  rules  for  one  month  (a,  b  and  c 
each  count  one  point) :  v/ 

(a)  Do  not  use  public  drinking  cups 

(b)  Do   not  throw  fruit   skins   or  paper   on   the 

streets 

(c)  Observe  safety-first  rules  in 

(1)  Crossing  the  streets 

(2)  Getting  on  and  off  cars 

(d)  Do  not  use  a  public  hand  towel. 

(56)  Do  not  cough  or  sneeze  for  two  months  without  cov- 
ering your  mouth. 

(57)  Know  what  the  work  of  the  Children's  Bureau  is. 

(58)  Know  what  the  Board  of  Health  is,  and  what  its  use 
is  to  the  city. 

(59)  Plan  a  model  house  for  five  or  for  ten  people,  show- 
ing the  number  of  windows  in  each  room.    What  is 
the  amount  of  air  necessary  for  each  person  in  a 
room?     (Five  points  for  this.) 

II.   Service 

(a)  In  the  home: 

(1)  Plan  and  cook  a  meal  averaging  15  cents  a  person. 

(2)  Know  how  to   prepare   the  following   (each  counts 
one  point): 

(a)  Bake  one  kind  of  cake  and  cookies 

(b)  Bake  bread  and  muffins 

263 


(c)  Cook  six  common  vegetables 

(d)  Three  ways  of  using  left-over  meats 

(e)  Can  four  quarts  of  fruit 

(f )  Make  three  glasses  of  jelly 

(g)  Make  three  kinds  of  candy 

(h)  Bake  two  kinds   of  cake    (not  learned  under 
2-a). 

(3)  Make  your  bed  and  care  for  your  room  every  day 
for  one  month. 

(4)  Iron  for  one  hour  each  week  for  four  consecutive 
weeks. 

(5)  Learn  the  care  of  china,  glassware,  silver  and  kitchen 
utensils. 

(6)  Give  one  hour  of  service  in  the  home  every  day  for 
one  month,  y 

(7)  Keep  your  stockings  darned  for  two  months. 

(8)  Do  not  borrow  or  lend  personal  belongings  for  two 
months. 

(9)  Take    care    of  younger   children   in   the   family   for 
three  hours  a  week  for  two  months. 

(10)  Learn  five  simple  rules  of  etiquette  which  will  en- 
able you  to  be  a  good  hostess. 

(11)  Set  a  table  correctly  and  serve  one  meal. 

(12)  Be  able  to  introduce  guests  properly. 

(13)  Keep  your  bureau  drawers  in  perfect  order  for  six 
weeks. 

(14)  Do   not  leave  clothing   or   school  books  around  for 
one  month. 

(15)  Be  on  time  for  meals  for  a  month. 

(16)  Do   errands  cheerfully  and  without  reward  for  one 
month. 

(17)  Keep  buttons   sewed  on  for  two  months. 

(18)  Have  hair  and  ribbons  neat  for  a  month. 

(19)  Keep  shoes  blackened  or  polished  for  six  weeks. 

(20)  Give  two  hours  of  service  in  the  home  on  Saturday 
for  three  months  (two  points). 

264 


(21)  Water  and  care  for  plants  for  one  month. 

(22)  Sweep   the   sidewalk   every  morning-  for  one  month 
(two  points). 

(23)  Make  a  set  of  cards  illustrating  all  the  articles  of 
dress  worn  by  a  girl   (ten  points). 

(24)  Know  how  to  arrange  flowers  attractively  from  point 
of  view  of  what  flowers  look  well  together,  use  of 
leaves,  and  the  kind  of  vase  you  put  them  in  and 
where  in  a  room  you  place  them  (three  honors). 

(25)  Know  how  to  really  pick  garden  and  wild  flowers; 
e.  g.,  length  of  stem,  not  pulling  them  up  by  the 
roots,   and    do   not   destroy   any   of   them,   for  two 
months. 

(26)  Plant  in  your  own  yard  four  vines  and  keep  them 
growing  for  two  months. 

(27)  Keep  your  lawn  in- order  for  one  month;  i.e.,  mowing 
and  clipping  and  caring  for  shrubbery. 

(28)  Rake  leaves  from  the  lawn  for  one  month. 

(29)  Make  and  fill  a  window-box  and  care  for  it  for  two 
months  (five  points). 

(30)  Wash  and  polish  the  family  automobile  (two  honors). 

(31)  Know  and  tell  at  a  club  meeting  what  cuts  of  meat 
are  the  most  economical  for  use  by  a  family  of  five. 

(32)  Know  and  tell  what  vegetables  are  necessary  to  a 
well-balanced  diet. 

(33)  Visit  a  city  market  and  write  a  description  at  least 
three  hundred  words  long  of  what  you  saw  and  why 
you  think  the  market  is  valuable  (three  points). 

(b)  To  the  community: 

(34)  Name  and  locate  the  institutions  to  which  you  would 
refer  a  tubercular  person;  one  needing  food,  fuel  and 
clothing;  a  lost  child;  a  truant  scholar  case;  a  girl 
seeking    employment;    a   person   suddenly  taken   ill 
on  the   street;    an  unsanitary  housing  condition  in 
your  locality. 

265 


(35)  Know  the  safety-first  rules  for  the  home    (see  Boy 
Scout  Manual,  page  237). 

(36)  Specially  prepare  for  and  take  part  In  a  community 


(37)  Specially    prepare    for    and    help    In    a    community 
program. 

(38)  Know  how  to  send  in  emergency  calls   for  the  fire 
department,    police    department,    pulmotor    station, 
(Be  able  to  tell  your  story  calmly  and  distinctly  and 
answer  promptly  any  questions  asked  by  the  depart- 
ment called.) 

(39)  Know  the  laws  regarding  fire  protection  in  your  city. 

(40)  Take   part   in   the    clean-up    of    your   block    once    a 
week  for  a  month   (two  points). 

(41)  Take  part  in  an  exhibit  of  handwork  made  in  the 
Old  Country  (three  points). 

(42)  Tell  at  club  one  or  more  folk  stories  which  you  have 
learned  at;  home  (one  point  far  each  story). 

(48)  Make  a  set  of  cards  illustrating  all  the  furniture 
necessary  for  a  dining-room,  a  kitchen,  and  a  living- 
room,  Cut  the  pictures  from  magazines  and  cata- 
logs and  paste  each  on  a  separate  card.  Write 
clearly  underneath  each  one  the  name.  These  may 
be  sent  to  the  International  Institute  of  the  Young 
Women's  Christian  Associations  and  will  help  to 
teach  English  to  foreign-speaking  people. 

(44)  Earn    and    save    money    to    purchase    $2    worth    of 
Thrift  Stamps  (one  point  for  $2  worth,  three  points 
for  $5  worth). 

(45)  Oet  another  girl  in  your  community  to  make  a  win 
dow  box  and  fill  it. 

(46)  Help  to  start  a  window-box  campaign  in  your  com- 
munity. 

(47)  Make  a  set  of  paper  dolls  to  be  sent  to  a  children's 
hospital  or  an  Indian  or  Mission  school. 

266 


(48)  Collect    twenty-five    used    or    unused    postal    cards. 
Paste  a  piece  of  white  paper  over  any  writing  on 
the  cards   and   send   them  to   the   Young  Women's 
phristian  Association,    Shanghai   or  Canton,   China. 

(49)  Teach  English  to  a  foreign-speaking  girl  who  may 
be  serving  in  some  home  (three  points  for  each  six 
lessons  of  one  hour  each). 

(50)  Make  and   send  Valentines,   Easter  greetings,   May 
baskets  or  any  token  which  symbolizes  a  national 
festival  to  two  or  more  shut-ins  (two  points). 

(51)  Make  your  church  more  attractive  by  cleaning  and 
mending  hymnals  and  Bibles  and  by  bringing  flow- 
ers for  decorations. 

(52)  Gather   flowers    and    send   to   hospitals   or   shut-ins 
(one  honor  for  each  time  this  is  done,  for  four  times). 

(53)  Plant  one  or  more  bulbs  and  take  the  plant  when 
it  blossoms  to  a  hospital  or  a  shut-in. 

(c)  To  the  country: 

(54)  Do  one  hour  of  Red  Cross  work  each  week  for  two 
months. 

(55)  Make  one  finished  article  for  the  Red  Cross. 

(56)  Save  one-half  your  spending  money  for  three  months. 

(57)  Earn   your   own   money   for   a   membership   in   the 
Junior  Red  Cross. 

(58)  Help     your     corps     or     company     to     support     an 
orphan  in  some  country  where  the  American   Red 
Cross  or  American  Food  Administration  is  at  work. 

(59)  Plant  a  garden  and  raise   at  least  three  kinds  of 
vegetables  so  successfully  that  they  may  be  served 
on  your  home  table. 

(60)  Belong  to  a  vegetable   (potato,  tomato,  corn,  etc.) 
or  canning  club  and  can  or  dry  ten  pounds  of  fruit 
or  vegetables  to  prevent  waste. 

(61)  Commit  to  memory  at  least  five  patriotic  songs. 

(62)  Do  not  put  more  food  on  your  plate  than  you  can  eat. 

(63)  Know  five  recipes  for  conservation  of  food. 

267 


(64)  Get  seven  new  members  for  the  Girl  Reserves. 

(65)  Collect  and  send  to   soldiers  or  sailors  twenty-five 
magazines  of  recent  date. 

(66)  Raise  chickens  or  rabbits  for  market. 

(67)  Put  up  three  quarts  of  fruit  or  have  a  successful 
•winter  garden. 

(68)  Use   in    cooking    two    good    substitutes    for   meats, 
sugar  and  fat,  and  bring  the  recipes  to  club  meeting. 

(d)  In  the  school: 

(69)  Have  an  average  of  90  per  cent  or  its  equivalent  in 
your  school  in  all  school  work,  including  deportment, 
attendance,  punctuality  and  studies  for  two  months,  y 

(70)  Do  not  be  late  or  absent  from  school  or  work  for 
six  weeks,  y 

(71)  Help  a  new  girl  in  school  or  at  work  to  know  other 
girls,  v 

(72)  Answer  truthfully  for  two  months  these  questions  :JJ 

(a)  Have  I  been  honest  to  myself  and  my  teacher 
by  not  cheating,   or  have  I  been   honest  to 
myself  and  my  employer  in  the  use  of  his 
time  and  money? 

(b)  Have  I  been  unfair  or  unkind  in  what  I  have 
said  about  other  girls? 

(73)  Raise  monthly  average  10  per  cent  and  keep  it  for 
two  consecutive  months. 

(74)  Help  to  keep  your  school  yard  in  order;  e.  g.,  pick 
up  papers,  do  not  scatter  fruit  skins  or  food  on  the 
ground   (six  weeks,  three  points). 

(75)  Help  your  school  to   secure  trash  boxes  if  it  does 
not  already  have  them  (two  points). 

(76)  Plant  shrubs  in  the  school  yard  or  help  in  some  way 
to  beautify  the  school  grounds  (three  points). 

(77)  Make  the  school  rooms  attractive  through  helping 
to  earn  money  for  pictures  and  decorations,  or  by 
securing  attractive  pictures  and  plants  (three  points). 

(78)  Earn  money  to  help  buy  books  or  a  map  for  your 
school. 

268 


III.    Knowledge 

(1)  Make  a  list  of  the  furnishings  and  the  price  of  each 
article  necessary  .to  furnish    (two   points  for  each,  or 
two  points  additional  credit  if  a  house  furnishing  book 
is  worked  out.     Total,  10  points.) 

(a)  A  bedroom. 

(b)  A  living-room. 

(c)  A  dining-room. 

(d)  A  kitchen. 

(2)  Choose   the   color  scheme   you   would  have  on  a   dark 
bedroom;  in  a  light  dining-room. 

(3)  Select  four  pictures  you  would  put  in  a  living-room 
and  tell  how  you  would  frame  them. 

(4)  Describe  the   proper  way  to   sweep  and  dust  a  room. 

(5)  Name  and  locate  six  constellations. 

(6)  Know  and  be  able  to  tell  the  story  of  two  constellations. 

(7)  Identify   and    describe   five   harmful   garden   bugs   and 
tell  how  to  destroy  them. 

(8)  Know   and   describe   twenty  wild  flowers. 

(9)  Know  and  describe  twenty  birds. 

(10)  Know  six  bird  calls. 

(11)  Name  six  semi-precious  stones  and  tell  .where  found. 

(12)  List  the  necessary   articles   of   clothing  for  a  school 
girl   or  a  young  business   girl. 

(13)  Design  a  school  or  business  dress  and  give  approximate 
cost. 

.(14)  Design  a  party  dress  and  give  approximate  cost. 

(15)  Read  any  three  books  you  have  never  read  before  (listed 
in   Girl  Eeserve  Book   List,  prepared  by  The  Bureau 
for  Work  with  Younger  Girls,  600  Lexington  Avenue, 
New  York  City.     One  point  for  each  book.) 

(16)  Read  three  additional  books  from  the  above  list.     (One 
point  for  each  book.) 

(17)  Read  three  books  in  the  First  Inch  of  the  Inch  Library 
and  three  in  the  second  or  six  from  either  one. 

(18)  Tell  in  a  club  meeting  some  story  of  standard  fiction. 

269 


(19)  Name  five  writers  of  fiction  whose  stories  you  like,  and 
name  two  books  by  each. 

(20)  Write  a  letter  of  application  for 

(a)  A  position  in  a  department  store  or  office. 
.     (b)  A  position  as  a  teacher. 

(21)  Know  how  to  fill  out  and  endorse  a  check. 

(22)  Be  able  to  give  the  history  "of  the  United  States  flag. 

(23)  Know  the  salute  to  the  flag. 

(24)  Learn  the  rules  for  use  and  display  of  the  flag.     (Two 
points.) 

(25)  Know  the  officers  of  the  army  and  navy  in  order  of  rank. 

(26)  Know  the  insignia  of  the  army  and  navy  officers. 

(27)  Name  the  members  of  the  President's  Cabinet  and  tell 
what  are  their  duties. 

(28)  Name  twenty  occupations  open  to  girls  and  women. 

(29)  Fill   out  vocational   questionnaire  to   be  obtained  from 
your  adviser. 

(30)  Tell   how   garbage    from   your   kitchen    is    disposed    of. 
How  does  the  community  finally  dispose  of  it? 

(31)  Describe  the  proper  way  to  wash  dishes,  make  a  bed, 
and  set  a   table  for  a  simple   meal. 

(32)  Know  and  be  able  to  describe  by  their  bark  four  trees; 
ten  trees  by  their  leaves. 

(33)  Name  ten  important  minerals  and  tell  where  found. 

(34)  Name  five  great  composers  and  a  work  by  each. 

(35)  Name  five  great  artists  and  a  picture  by  each. 

(36)  Know  the  Child  Labor  Laws  of  your  state,  and  tell  about 
them  at  a  corps  meeting.     (Two  points.) 

(37)  Know  the  name  of  the   mayor  of  your  city,  and  how 
he  is   elected. 

(38)  Know  the  name  of  the  city  superintendent  of  schools 
and  tell  how  the  Board  of  Education  is  organized. 

(39)  Know   the   name   of   your  representative   in   the    State 
Legislature    and   in   the    House    of    Representatives    at 
Washington    and    in    the    Senate    at    Washington,    and 
how  they  are  elected. 

270 


(40)  Keep  an  account  of  how  much  you  spend  or  is  spent 
for  you  on  these  items  for  two  months: 

(a)  Fun  and  recreation  (that  is  "movies,"  parties,  etc.). 

(b)  "Eats." 

(c)  Clothes. 

(d)  Service  for  others   (that  is  church,  Sunday  school, 
Red  Cross,  etc.) 

(41)  Tell   how   much   money  you  think   a    school   girl   or  a 
young  business  girl  should  spend  on  these  items   (list 
each  article  separately). 

(42)  Name  five  American  and  five  English  poets. 

(43)  In  consultation  with  your  adviser  choose  a  poem  of  at 
least  four  stanzas   and  memorize  it. 

(44)  Give  at  a  club  meeting  the  most  interesting  facts  in 
regard  to  (one  point  for  each  description) : 

(a)  Some  woman  leader  in  Russia. 

(b)  Some  woman  leader  in  France. 

(c)  Some  woman  leader  in  England. 

(d)  Some  woman  leader  in  the  United  States. 

(45)  Know   all   the   words   of  the   hymn,   "0    Beautiful  for 
Spacious   Skies." 

(46)  Know  two  verses  of  the  "Battle  Hymn  of  the  Republic" 
and  "The   Star  Spangled  Banner,"  and  tell  how  these 
songs  were  written.      (Three  points.) 

(47)  Know  two  verses  of  the  "Marseillaise"  and  "God  Save 
the  King." 

(48)  Know  the  alphabet  of  the  Semaphore  Code. 

(49)  Send  and  receive  a  message  in  the  Morse  or  Semaphore 
Code. 

(50)  Be  able  to  play  six  bugle  calls  on  the  piano  or  bugle. 

(51)  Name  the  commanders -in-chief  of  the  army  and  navy 
(not  the  President  of  the  U.  S.  and  the  Secretary  of  the 
Navy  Department). 

(52)  How  many  republics  are  there  in  the  world  and  what 
are  they?      Submit  a  written  list.      (Five  points.) 

271 


(53)  Read  a  story  in  the  Third  Inch  of  the  Inch  Library  and 
take  part  in  the  dramatization  of  it.     Secure  from  The 
Womans  Bookshop,  600  Lexington  Avenue,  New  York 
City.     (Three  points.) 

(54)  Learn  the  story  of  Catherine  Breshkovsky,  "the  Little 
Grandmother  of  the   Russian  Revolution/'   and  help  to 
dramatize  three  scenes  from  it.     (Five  points.) 

(55)  Learn  the  story  of  Edith  Cavell. 

(56)  Know   the   symbolism   of  the   National   Travelers'   Aid 
pin. 

(57)  Use  a  thimble  when  sewing.     (Do  It  ten  times  and  get 
one  point.) 

(58)  Practice  your  music  lesson  regularly  each  day  for  four 
weeks. 

(59)  Make  three  watercolor  sketches,  showing  the  color  com- 
binations which  a  girl  may  make  in  her  school  clothes. 
(Six  of  these  sketches  count  for  two  honors.) 

(60)  Know  the  difference  between  a  checking  and  a  saving 
account,  and  know  how  to  open  each  of  these  accounts 
at  a  bank. 

(61)  Learn  how  to  open  a  book  properly  and  how  to   care 
for  its  pages. 

(62)  Save  a  definite  sum  every  week  for  two  months*  y 

(63)  Plan  a  model  wardrobe  for  a  school  girl.     (Five  points 
if  prepared  in  writing;  ten  points  if  produced  in  water- 
colors  or  by  dressing  paper  dolls  in  tissue  costumes.) 

(64)  Know  why  the  sky  is  blue. 

(65)  Know  why  the  teakettle  sings. 

(66)  Know  why  an  apple  falls   straight  down. 

(67)  Collect   ten    different   sea    shells    and   know   something 
about  the  tiny  animals  that  built  these  shells,  or  gather 
some  frogs'  eggs,  place  them  in  a  glass  jar  and  watch 
them  grow.  •    (Two  additional  points   if  you  draw  pic- 
tures showing  the  different  stages  of  growth.) 

(68)  Learn  "A  Country  Girl's   Creed." 

272 


(69)  Write   a  paragraph   at   least   one   hundred  words   long 
on  the  importance  of  selecting  and  testing1  seed  before 
planting  it. 

(70)  What  kinds    of  soil   are  there  in  your  home  farm   or 
garden    and    for    what    uses    are    the    different    kinds 
adapted?     (Two  additional  points  for  a  chart  or  a  map 
showing   the   location    on   the   farm   or   in   the   garden 
and  showing  the  strata  of  soil  of  each  kind.) 

(71)  Take  part  in  a  corps  or  company  debate  on  the  most 
urgently  needed  improvements  in  and  about  your  school: 

(a)  Improvements    in    the    building,    heating,    lighting, 
ventilating,  etc. 

(b)  Improvements  in  the  equipment. 

(c)  Improvements  in  the  course  of  study,  with  particu- 
lar reference  to  the  things  which  you  think  would 

be  of  advantage  in  your  neighborhood.  (Three  points). 

(72)  Write  one  or  more  paragraphs  of  at  least  200  words 
or  talk  for  five  minutes  at  a  program  meeting  of  the 
corps  on  "How  does  a  strike  or  a  blizzard  which  ties 
up  a  city's  food  supply  show  the   extent  of  the  city's 
dependence  on  the  country?"     (Two  points.) 

(73)  Draw  another  plan  showing  your  ideal  of  a  schoolhouse 
for  the  use  of  the  people  as  a  community  center.     In- 
dicate on  the  plan.     (Three  points) : 

(a)  The  different  rooms. 

(b)  The  heating  and  ventilating  system. 

(c)  The  cloakroom. 

(d)  The  windows. 

(e)  The  kind  of  furniture. 

(f )  The  number  and  position  of  the  seats. 

(74)  Write  one  or  more  paragraphs  of  at  least  two  hundred 
words  on  how  many  people  besides  the  pupils  have  been 
in  your  schoolhouse  in  the  past  year.      (Two  points.) 
(a)  How  many  of  these  people  were  adults? 

273 


(b)  How   many   were   parents    of   the   children   in   the 

school  ?  ; 

*         (c)  Why  did  they  come? 

(75)  Know    the    differences    in    the    blossoms    of   the    pear, 
plum,  peach,  cherry,  apricot,  prune,  apples,  orange  and 
crab  trees;  sketch  and  color  each  kind.      (Two  points.) 

(76)  Know  and  observe  the  traffic  signals  of  your  community 
for  six  weeks. 

(77)  Tell  ten  combinations  of  two  colors  each  that  go  well 
together.     Illustrate  by  pieces  of  colored  paper. 

(78)  Know  and  locate  five  industries  or  occupations  in  your 
town  in  which  women  and  girls  are  employed. 

(79)  Know  six  different  stitches  in  plain  sewing. 

(80)  Make  a  dolPs  dress,  showing  the  above  stitches  and  a 
harmonious   combination   of  two   colors. 

(81)  Memorize  a  piece  of  classical  music,  and  play  it  at  a 
club  program. 

(82)  Read   the   "Pied    Piper   of   Hamelin"   and   share   in   its 
dramatization  by  your  corps  or  company  at  a  regular 
meeting.     (Two  points;  if  it  is  well  rehearsed  and  pre- 
sented publicly,  five  points.) 

(83)  Know  the  difference  between  a  check,  a  draft,  a  money 
order  and  an  express  check. 

(84)  Describe  the  dress  of  a  Chinese  girl, 

(85)  Read  five  poems  of  the  two  Hindu  poets — Sarojini  Naidu 
and  Rabindranath  Tagore. 

(86)  Know  the  story  of  a  great  woman  leader  of  India. 

(87)  Take  an  imaginary  journey  from   New   York   City  to 
Peking,  stopping  en  route  in  London. 

(88)  Know  something  of  the  great  South  American  liberators. 

(89)  Read  a  book  of  travel. 

(90)  Know  the  process  of  silk  manufacture. 

274 


(91)  Describe  the  furnishing  of  a  Japanese  home. 

(92)  Know  what  reform  movements  are  taking  place  in  China. 

(93)  Make  and  color  the  flags  of  China,  Argentina,  Japan,  and 
Liberia,  using  the  encyclopedia  to  tell  the  correct  colors. 

IV.     Spirit. 

(1)  Write  at  least  two  hundred  and  fifty  words  about  ten 
ideals  for  a  girl,  and   share  in  a  corps   discussion  of 
these  ideals. 

(2)  Write  at  least  two  hundred  and  fifty  words  about  ten 
ideals  for  a  boy,  and  share  in  a   corps  discussion  of 
these  ideals. 

(3)  Read   and   discuss,    "Are  You   Triangular  or   Bound?" 
obtained  from  The  Woman's  Press,  600  Lexington  Ave- 
nue, New  York  City. 

(4)  Read   in   "The   Girl's   Year  Book"   or  the  Bible   every 
day  for  six  weeks. 

(5)  Choose  and  tell  about  at  corps  meeting  five  pictures 
each  of  which  means  an  ideal  toward  which  you  will 
work.     (Three  points.) 

(6)  Give  a  five-minute  talk  at  some  club  opening  on  some 
point  in  the   Girl  Reserve   Code. 

(7)  Attend  Sunday  School  regularly  for  six  weeks. 

(8)  Learn  "The  Hymn   of  the  Lights." 

(9)  Learn  one  of  the  Psalms. 

(10)  Learn  one  poem  from  "Christ  in  the  Poetry  of  Today," 

(11)  Attend  church  regularly  for  two  months. 

(12)  Learn  ten  Bible  verses. 

(13)  Name  the  Books  of  the  Bible. 

(14)  Learn  to  tell  six  Bible  stories. 

(15)  Learn   at  least  three  important  facts   in  the  lives   of 
eight  Bible  heroes. 

(16)  Name  six  women  of  the  Bible  and  mention  some  in- 
teresting incidents  in  their  lives. 

275 


(17)  Tell    three    things    of    interest    about    five    children    of 
the  Bible. 

(18)  Write  a  description   (at  least  two  hundred  words)    or 
take  part  in  a  discussion  of  the  ways  the  boy  Jesus 
grew.     Luke  2:52. 

(19)  Take  part  in  club  discussions  on  "A  Girl  at  Her  Best."* 

(a)  "A  Girl  at  Her  Best  Physically." 

(b)  "A  Girl  at  Her  Best  Mentally." 

(c)  "A  Girl  at  Her  Best  at  Home." 

(d)  "A  Girl  at  Her  Best  Among  Her  Friends." 

(e)  "A  Girl  at  Her  Best  in  Her  Church." 

(20)  Eead  one  good  story  of  the  life  of  some  famous  woman, 
as   "The  Story  of  a   Pioneer,"  by  Anna  H.   Shaw,  or 
"One  Girl's  Influence/7  by  Robert  E.  Speer. 

(21)  Name  countries  in  which  the  American  Y.  W.   C.  A. 
secretaries  are  working  with  girls. 

(22)  Make  a  friend  of  some  girl' of  another  nationality. 

(23)  Learn   something   interesting   about  this    girl's    nation 
and  tell  it  at  a  club  meeting. 

(24)  Give  five  reasons  why  you  think  there  should  be  a  Y. 
W.  C.  A.  in  your  city. 

(25)  Read   four   stories    connected   with   the   life    of    Christ 
either  in  the  Bible  or  in  some  book  of  Bible  stories, 

(26)  Give  brief  accounts  of  the  life  and  work  of  five  Y.  W. 
C.  A.  secretaries  in  foreign  countries. 

(27)  Give  brief  accounts  of  the  life  and  work  of  five  mis- 
sionaries who  have  represented  or  are  representing  your 
church  in  foreign  countries. 

(28)  Know  the  authors'  names  and  give  a  brief  account  of 
the  writing  of  four  standard  hymns  of  your  church. 


*  Each  discussion  will  count  one  point.  See  "A  Girl  at  Her  Best,"  by  Alice 
<5.  Moore.  There  is  material  enough  in  this  pamphlet  for  five  corps  meetings ; 
perhaps  it  should  not  be  used  successively. 

276 


(29)  Learn  the  motto  of  the  National  Y.  W.  C.  A.  and  write 
a  three-minute  interpretation  of  it  to  be  read  at  a  club 
meeting1. 

(30)  Serve  on  committee  in  the  young  people's  organization 
of  your  church, 

(31)  Be  a  member  of  a  Bible  class  in  the  girls'  department 
of  a  Y.  W.  C.  A. 

(32)  Read  and  tell  at  club  meetings  three  stories  about  girls 
of  foreign  lands.* 

(33)  Learn  four  games  played  by  children  in  other  lands.** 

(34)  Be  a  member  of  a  Mission  study  class  either  in  your 
church   or  at   the   Young   Women's    Christian   Associa- 
tion, and  attend  regularly  for  two  months. 

(35)  Read   the    story   of    "The    Girl    Who    Walked   Without 
Fear,"  by  Mrs.  Louise  Rice. 

(36)  Learn  five  facts  about  the  people  and  their  customs  in 
the   following   countries:      China,   Japan,   India,    South 
America. 

(37)  Memorize  two  hymns  other  than  those  listed  elsewhere, 
and   learn   something    about   their   composers.        (Two 
points.) 

(38)  Study  your  Sunday  school  lesson  regularly  for  six  con- 
secutive weeks. 

(39)  Be  on  time  at  Sunday  school  for  six  consecutive  weeks. 

(40)  Give  regularly  each  week  to   church  and  missions   or 
to   some   benevolent   object   from   your   own   allowance 
or  money  that  you  have  earned  and  saved. 

(41)  Read  and  own  "Mook — True  Tales  About  a  Chinese  Boy 
and   His   Friends,"   by   Evelyn   Worthley   Sites.      (Two 
points,  one  point  for  reading  only.) 

(42)  Read  "A  Girl's  Book  of  Prayers,"  written  by  Margaret 
Slattery. 

*  See  Third  Inch  of  the  Inch  Library. 

**  See  "Children  at  Play  in  Many  Lands,"  by  Katherine  Stanley   Hall. 

277 


(43)  Read    "Red    Cross    Stories    for    Children,"    written    by 
Georgene  Faulkner. 

(44)  Know  the  story  of  how  we  got  our  Bible. 

(45)  Tell  the  story  of  one  of  the  following  people:     Martin 
Luther,  Joan  of  Arc,  Jacob  Riis.     (Two  points  for  one 
story;  eight  points  for  three  stories.) 

(46)  Tell  the  story  of  the  King  James  version  of  the  Bible. 

(47)  Know  the  story  of  "The  Christ  of  the  Andes." 

(48)  Learn  the  motto  of  the  world  Young  Women's  Chris- 
tian Association  and  share  in  a  discussion  of  its  mean- 
ing  at  a  corps   or   company  meeting. 

(49)  Make  a  map  of  the  world  showing  all  the  places  where 
the  "Blue  Triangle"  is  at  work.     (Two  points.) 

(50)  On  an  outline  map  of  the  United  States,  show  in  differ- 
ent  colors   the   eleven   groups   of   states   in  which  the 
Young  Women's   Christian  Association  has  divided  the 
country.     (Each  one  of  these  descriptions  is  called   a 
Field.) 

(51)  On  a  outline  map  of  the  United  States,  place  the  letters 
Y.  W.  C.  A.  so  that  they  stretch  from  coast  ta  coast. 
Then  draw  connecting  lines  from  these  letters  to  the 
cities  where  the  Field  Girls'  Work  secretaries  have  their 
offices. 

(52)  Read  four  poems  written  by  Robert  Louis   Stevenson 
and  memorize  two  of  them,  and  know  something  of  his 
life.      (These  poems   may   be   chosen  from  "A   Child's 
Garden  of  Verse.") 

(53)  Read  "The  Perfect  Tribute,"  by  Mary  Raymond  Ship- 
man  Andrews,  and  "The  Three  Weavers,"  by  Annie  Fel- 
lows Johnston. 

(54)  Find   six   stories   in   the   New   Testament    that     show 
how  Jesus  went  about  helping  other  people. 

(55)  Find  six  stories  in  the  New  Testament  that  show  how 
Jesus  loved  the  out  of  doors. 

278 


(56)  Have    a    "white    record"    against    any    personal    fault 
such  as  lying,  stealing,  cheating:,  bluffing,  "cribbing" — 
unclean  stories — for  two  months. 

(57)  Have   a   "white   record"    against   any   unkind   criticism 
for  one  month. 

(58)  Earn  your  own  Bible  by  Sunday  school  attendance  or 
by  earning  money  to  buy  it.     (Three  points.) 

(59)  From  hymns  sung  in  your  church  during  a  period  of 
three  months,  choose  three  that  mean  something  espe- 
cial to  you  and  memorize  one  of  them.     (Three  points. 
This  may  be  repeated,  using  the  same  number  of  hymns 
but  choosing  different  ones.) 

(60)  Be  a  helper  in  a  primary  or  beginners'  class  for  two 
months  and  do  not  miss  a  meeting.     (Three  points.) 

(61)  Help  your  corps  or  company  to  write  a  corps  prayer. 
Use  a  blackboard  where  possible  and  share  in  a  ten- 
minute  discussion  of  the  prayer. 

(62)  Learn  John  Oxenham's   poem,  "Every  Maid." 

(63)  Learn  the  rules  of  behavior  for  a  Chinese  girl. 

(64)  Learn  the  names  of  the  ten  great  world  religions,  their 
dieties,  and  the  countries  where  they  are  worshipped.* 

(65)  Read  the  story  of  Pandita  Ramabai. 

(66)  Learn  ten  Bible  verses  to  show  that  Jesus  made  no  dis- 
tinction between  races. 

(67)  Learn  two  of  Rabindranath  Tagore's  poems  from  The 
Crescent  Moon  and  know  something  of  the  poet's  re- 
ligion. 

(68)  List  five  characteristics  of  Oriental  girls  which  you  think 
American  girls  might  emulate,  and  know  why. 

(69)  Learn  the  story  of  Gautama  Buddha. 

(70)  Know  what  contributions  are  being  made  to  American 
life  by  the  following  races:    Japanese,  Italian,  Russian, 
Dutch,  German,  Chinese,  and  Czechoslovak. 


*  For  material   see  Menzie's    "History   of    Religion/'    or   Moore's   "History 
of   Religions." 

279 


(71)  Select  and  learn  a  Bible  story  which  yon  think  best  il- 
lustrates Jesus7  love  for  people. 

(72)  Write   a  300-word   essay  on  what   Christianity  has   to 
offer  to  the  girls  of  the  Orient. 

SPECIAL  HONOR  LIST  FOR  YOUNGER  GIRLS  IN  BUSINESS  AND 
INDUSTRY. 

I.  Health 

(a)  Personal: 

(1)  Open  windows  in  sleeping  rooms  for  six  weeks 
during  winter  months. 

(2)  Get  an  average  of  at  least  eight  hours'  sleep  a 
night  for  one  month. 

(3)  Go  to  bed  not  later  than  9:30  P.  M.  for  at  least 
two  nights  a  week  for  one  month. 

(4)  Take  daily  outdoor  exercise  for  at  least  one-half 
hour  for  one  month. 

(5)  Avoid  chewing  gum  for  two  months. 

(6)  Brush  teeth  evening  and  morning  for  one  month. 

(7)  Do  not  miss  work  on  account  of  ill  health  for  two 
months. 

(8)  Drink  three  glasses  of  water  between  meals  every 
day  for  one  month. 

(9)  Refrain  from  drinking  tea  or  coffee  more   than 
once  a  day  for  two  months. 

(10)  Eat    well-balanced    lunches    every    day    for    one 
month. 

(11)  Wear  low-heeled  shoes  to  work  every  day  for  two 
months. 

(12)  Know  the  proper  care  of   (two  points): 

(a)  Skin.  (c)  Teeth. 

(b)  Hair.  (d)  Nails. 

(13)  Refrain  from  eating  between  meals,  except  choco- 
late bars,  graham  crackers,  or  fruit,  for  one  month. 

280 


(b)  First  Aid: 

(14)  Know  where  to  use  and  be  able  to  apply  the  fol- 
lowing- kinds  of  bandages   (three  points): 

(a)  Circular.      (c)   Sling.          (e)  Finger. 

(b)  Reverse.       (d)  Head.          (f)  Joint. 

(15)  Give  symptoms  of,   and  know  treatment  for,  the 
following-  (one  point  for  each) : 

(a)  Fainting1,    (c)  Bruises.         (e)   Burns. 

(b)  Sunstroke    (d)  Frost  bite,    (f)   Sprains. 

(g)   Splinters.    '     (h)  Something  in  the  eye. 

(16)  Know  a   simple  remedy  for  the  following    (one 
point  for  each) : 

(a)  Cuts.  (c)  Headache.      (e)   Nosebleed. 

(b)  Earache,     (d)  Toothache,      (f)  Indigestion. 

(17)  Know  how  to  make  a  hospital  bed. 

(18)  Be  able  to  use  a  clinical  thermometer. 

(19)  Learn   how   to   bathe   a   sick   person   in  bed   and 
change  the  bed  linen.      (Three  points.) 

(c)  Outdoor  Activities: 

(20)  Walk  twenty  miles  within  ten  days. 

(21)  Make   a    signal    fire   and    illustrate   two   ways    of 
building   a    cook   fire.      (See   Boy   Scout    Manual, 
pages  87  to  117.) 

(22)  Know  what  to  do  if  you  are  lost  in  the  woods. 
(See  Woodcraft  Manual  for  Girls,  page  208.) 

(23)  Know  road  signs  made  with  stones  and  with  grass. 
(See  Woodcraft  Manual  for  Girls,  page  238.) 

(24)  Know  how  to   cook  around  a  camp  fire  without 
utensils    (two  points): 

(a)  Eggs.  (c)  Wienies  or  bacon. 

(b)  Potatoes.  (d)   Marshmallows, 

281 


(25)  Learn  how  to  swim  the  following  strokes    (three 
points  for  each): 

(a)  Breast.  (d)  Crawl. 

(b)  Side.  (e)  Tread  water. 

(c)  Back.  (f)  Under  water. 

(26)  Learn  the  following  dives  (three  points  for  each) : 

(a)  Front.  (c)  Swan. 

(b)  Back.  (d)  Jackknife. 

(d)  Indoor  Activities: 

(27)  Do    a    simple    five-minute    setting-up    drill    every 
morning  for  one  month.      (Two  points.) 

(28)  Play  three  team  games  such  as  volley  ball,  basket 
ball,  corner  ball  for  six  weeks.     (Ten  points.) 

(29)  Know  four  standard  folk  dances.     (Five  points.) 

(30)  Teach  a  group  to  dance  a  standard  folk  dance. 
(Two  paints.) 

(31)  Attend  a  gymnasium  class  at  least  three  times  a 
month  for  three  months.      (Five  points.) 

(32)  Know  the  alphabet  and  simple  word  combinations 
used  in  signaling.     (Two  points.) 

(e)  Community  Health: 

(33)  Swat  twenty-five  flies   a   day  for  two   weeks. 

(34)  Help  in  some  campaign  to  make  the  city  clean. 

(35)  Observe  the  following  rules  for  six  weeks    (one 
point  for  each): 

(a)  Use  no  public  drinking  cup. 

(b)  Throw  no  fruit  skins  or  paper  on  the  streets. 

(c)  Use  only  sanitary  towels. 

(36)  Practice  safety-first  rules  for  six  weeks  in   (one 
point  each): 

(a)  Crossing"  the  streets. 

(b)  Getting  on  and  off  the  cars. 

282 


II.     Service 

(a)  In  the  home: 

(1)  Know  how  to  prepare1  the  following-  (two  points 
for  each) : 

(a)  One  kind  of  cake  or  cookies. 

(b)  Bread  and  muffins. 

(c)  Six  common  vegetables. 

(d)  Lett-over  meat  in  three  ways. 

(2)  Make  your  bed  and  care  for  your  room  every  day 
for  one  month. 

(3)  Iron  for  one  hour  each  week  for  six  consecutive 
weeks.     (Three  points.) 

(4)  Keep  your  stockings  darned  for  one  month. 

(5)  Do  not  borrow  personal  belongings  for  six  weeks. 

(6)  Make  something  attractive  for  your  home,  such  as 
curtains,  sofa  pillows,  etc.     (Three  points.) 

(7)  Keep  your  dresser  drawers  in  perfect  order  for 
six  weeks. 

(8)  Do  not  leave  clothing  around  for  one  month. 

(9)  "Wash  or  dry  dishes  from  one  meal  for  one  month. 

(10)  Sweep  the  sidewalk  and  front  door  step  or  porch 
every  day  for  one  month. 

(11)  Help   to   buy   a   geranium   or   some   hardy   plant 
for  the  house  and  know  what  makes  its  leaves 
grow.      (Three  points.) 

(12)  Care  for  this  plant  regularly  for  one  month. 

(13)  Help  to  buy  a  piece  of  furniture  or  linen  supplies 
for  your  home.     (Three  points.) 

(14)  Be  able   to   tell   your  family  what  fire   and  life 
insurance  is  and  why  it  is  valuable;  tell  what  is 
meant  by  "policy"  and  "premium."     (Two  points.) 

(b)  Outside  the  home: 

(15)  Take  part  in  a  community  program. 

(16)  Name  and  locate  the  institutions  in  your  locality 
to  which  you  would  refer  a  tubercular  person;  one 

283 


needing  food;  fuel  and  clothing;  a  lost  child;  a 
truant  scholar  case;  a  girl  seeking  employment;  a 
person  taken  ill  on  the  street;  an  unsanitary 
housing  condition.  (Five  points.) 

(17)  Know  how  to  send  in  emergency  calls  for  the  fire 
department,   police   department,  pulmotor  station. 

(18)  Know   the   laws   for  .fire   protection   in   your   city. 

(19)  Make    a    finished    article    for    the    Red    Cross    or 
similar  organization. 

(20)  Help  support  a  Belgian  or  French   orphan. 

(21)  Contribute  to   some  local   charity. 

(22)  Write   a   letter   to    a    relative   or    shut-in   once    a 
week  for  two   months. 

(23)  Teach  two  games  to  children. 

(24)  Sing  regularly  in  the  church  choir  or  community 
chorus  for  two  months. 

(25)  Become  a  member  of  the  Junior  Red  Cross. 

(26)  Contribute  to  a  Thanksgiving  or  Christmas  fund 
or  basket. 

(27)  Sing  or  participate  otherwise  in  some   entertain- 
ment at  a  hospital  or  old  people's  home. 

(28)  Sing  in  a  caroling  group  at  Christmas. 

(29)  Make    a    scrapbook    for    a    hospital    or    children's 
home. 

(30)  Collect  and  send  ten  magazines  to  some  institution. 

(31)  Get  three  new  members  for  the  Girl  Reserves. 

(32)  Help  earn  money  for  a  camp  or  conference  fund. 

(33)  Make  a  poster  used  by  your  company. 

(34)  Make  a  poster  for  another  group  or  general  Asso- 
ciation use. 

(35)  Write  a  song  which  is  adopted  for  use  by  your 
corps  or  company. 

(36)  Plan   and   carry   out   a    party  for   your    corps    or 
company. 

(37)  Help  a  new  girl  to  feel  at  home  in  her  work  and 
with  the  other  girls. 

284 


(38)  Buy  and  hold  for  three  months  five  dollars'  worth 
of  government  thrift  stamps.     (Three  points.) 

(39)  Have  a  personal  saving  account,  and  make  a  de- 
posit regularly  each  pay  day  for  two  months. 

(40)  Buy  five  dollars  worth  of  postal  savings  for  three 
months.      (Three  points.) 

III.   Knowledge 

(1)  Be  able  to  describe  all  the  steps  in  the  manufacture  of 
a  piece  of  ribbon,  beginning  with  the  cocoon.     Do  the 
same  for  whatever  product  you  help  to  make.     (Five 
points.) 

(2)  Hold  a  regular  position  for  six  months.    (Three  points.) 

(3)  Do  not  be  late  for  work  for  two  months. 

(4)  Live  on  the  budget  worked  out  by  your  club  and  re- 
garded as   adequate  for   a   girl   with  your  salary  for 
two  months.     (Two  points.) 

(5)  Read  "Out  of  Shadow,"  by  Rose  Cohen.     Discuss  it  at 
a  club  meeting. 

(6)  Know  what  The  Consumers'  League  is  and  what  it  is 
trying  to  do. 

(7)  Receive   a    certificate   for    completing*    a    night   school 
course.      (Five   points.) 

(8)  Receive  a  certificate  for  any  course  that  increases  your 
efficiency  in  your  work. 

(9)  Name  ten  occupations  open  to  girls  and  women  and  tell 
the  training  required  for  each  and  opportunities  offered 
in  each.     (Two  points.) 

(10)  Fill  out  a  vocational  questionnaire  to  be  obtained  from 
your  adviser. 

(11)  Discuss  the  Child  Labor  Laws  of  your  state.     (Three 
points. 

(12)  Know  the  proposed   labor   legislation   for  women   and 
girls  in  your  state  this  year.     (Three  points.) 

(13)  Know  what  is  meant  by  health  insurance.    (Two  points.) 

(14)  Write  a  letter  of  application  for  a  position. 

285 


(15)  Make  out  and  endorse  properly  a  check  and  a  money 
order. 

(16)  Know  the  name  of  the  governor  of  your  state  and  the 
mayor  o'f  your  city  and  tell  how  they  are  elected. 

(17)  Tell   the   names   of  your   representatives   in   the    State 
Legislature  and  at  Washington,  D.  O.,  and  how  they  are 
elected.  > 

(18)  Tell  the  names  of  your  senators  in  the  State  Legislature 
and  at  Washington,  D.  C.,  and  how  they  are  elected. 

(19)  Give    some   interesting   facts    at    a    corps    or   company 
meeting  in  regard  to   (two  points  for  each  one): 

(a)  A  woman  leader  in  Russia. 

(b)  A  woman  leader  in  France. 

(c)  A  woman  leader  in  England. 

(d)  A  woman  leader  in  the  United  States. 

(20)  Be  able  to  direct  a  stranger  in  your  city  to  the  railroad 
station,  city  hall,  a  church,  hotel,  theater,  library,  etc. 

(21)  Recognize  from  post  cards  or  photographs  fifteen  out 
of  twenty  views  of  your  city. 

(22)  Know  the  significance  of  the  weather  signals  and  be  able 
to  describe  the  flags   used  for  each.      (Two   points.) 

(23)  Be  able  to  read  a  railroad  time-table. 

(24)  Learn  the  rules  for  the  use  and  display  of  our1  flag. 

(25)  Know  the  Semaphore  code. 

(26)  Write: 

(a)  A  formal  invitation  to  a  party. 

(b)  An  informal  invitation  to  a  party. 

(c)  A  note  of  acceptance. 

(d)  A  note  of  regret. 

(One  point  for  each  of  these.) 

(27)  Learn  five  simple  rules   of  etiquette   that  will   enable 
you  to  be  a  good  hostess. 

(28)  Set  a  table  correctly  for  breakfast,  luncheon,  and  dinner. 

(29)  Learn  five  simple   rules   of   etiquette  that  will   enable 
you  to  be  a  good  guest. 

286 


(30)  Be  able  to  introduce  guests  properly. 

(31)  What  color  scheme  would  you  have  in  a  dark  bedroom? 
In  a  light  dining-room? 

(32)  What  four  pictures  would  you  put  in  a  living-room  and 
how  would  you  frame  them? 

(33)  Describe  the  proper  way  to  sweep  and  dust  a  room. 

(34)  Make  a  list  of  the  furnishings   and  the  price  of  each 
article  necessary  to  furnish  (two  points  for  each): 

(a)  A  bedroom 

(b)  A  living-room 

(c)  A  kitchen 

(d)  A  dining-room. 

(35)  Know  and  describe  ten  wild  flowers. 

(36)  Know  and  describe  ten  trees. 

(37)  Know  and  describe  ten  birds. 

(38)  Make  a  flower  book,  or  a  tree  book,  noting  kind,  dat 
and  place  where  found.      (One  point  for  each  kind  ol 
book.) 

(39)  Name  and  locate  six  constellations. 

(40)  Tell  three  nature  myths. 

(41)  Be  able  to  tell  the  story  of  two  constellations. 

(42)  List  the  necessary  article  of  clothing  for  a  young  busi- 
ness girl. 

(43)  Design  and  make  a  dress  appropriate  for  work.     (Five 
points  for  a  summer  dress,  ten  for  a  winter  dress.) 

(44)  Make  a  hat.      (Five  points.) 

(45)  Tell  the  story  of  some  book  you  have  recently  read. 

(46)  Read  any  three  books  which  you  have  never  read  before 
from  the  Girl   Reserve  Book  List. 

(47)  Read   three   stories  from   the   First   Inch   of  the   Inch 
Library,  and  three  from  the  Second  Inch  of  the  Inch 
Library.      (One  point  for  three  of  them.) 

(48)  Know  all  the  words  of  the  hymn,  "0  Beautiful  for  Spa- 
cious Skies/' 

287 


(49)  Know  all   the  words   of  "The   Star-Spangled   Banner" 
and  ^America."     (Two  points.) 

(50)  Discuss  in  a  club  program  what  a  reputable  employ- 
ment agency  in  your  city  or  town  would  offer  to  the 
girl  who  works. 

(51)  Dramatize  the  way  a  girl  secures  her  working  papers. 

(52)  Share  in  a  corps  or  company  discussion  on  the  topic, 
"When  I  go  traveling/' 

(53)  Name  the  articles  you  would  put  in  your  suitcase  when 
starting  on  a  trip,  and  tell  what  you  would  do  if  you 
missed  a  train  in  a  strange  city. 

(54)  Know  how  to  recover  an  article  left  on  a  train  or  a 
street  car. 

(55)  Earn  a  bonus   given  by  your  firm  for  good  work  or 
salesmanship. 

(56)  Know   the   names    of   three   women   prominent   in   the 
labor   movement    of   today    and    tell    something    which 
each  one  of  them  has  done. 

(57)  Give  at  least  three  reasons  for  having  an  eight-hour 
day   and   state   three   reasons   usually   given   by   those 
who  oppose  it. 

(58)  Take  part  in  a  debate  upon  the  above  question. 

(59)  Give  at  least  three  reasons  against  child  labor  and  state 
three  reasons  generally  given  by  those  who  favor  child 
labor. 

IV.   Spirit 

(1)  Write  (not  less  than  two  hundred  and  fifty  words)  and 
discuss  ten  ideals  for  a  girl.     (Two  points.) 

(2)  Write  (not  less  than  two  hundred  and  fifty  words)  and 
discuss  ten  ideals  for  a  boy.     (Two  points.) 

(3)  Read  and  discuss  the  Book  of  Esther.     (Two  points.) 

(4)  Read  and  discuss  the  Book  of  Ruth.     (Two  points.) 

(5)  Name  six  women  of  the  Bible  and  mention  some  inter- 
esting incidents  in  the  life  of  each. 

288 


(6)  Tell  three  things  of  interest  about  five  children  of  the 
Bible. 

(7)  Name  six  important  events   in  Christ's  life. 

(8)  Give  the  outlines  of  the  leading  religions1  of  the  world 
other  than  Christianity  and  tell  the  status  of  women 
under  them.     (One  point  for  each.) 

(9)  Make  a  friend  of  some  girl  of  another  nationality. 

(10)  Compare  labor  conditions  of  women  and  children  in  our 
own  country  with  those   in   China,   Japan,   India,   and 
other  Asiatic  countries;  with  those  in  England,  France, 
Germany,  and  other  European  countries;    in  Africa  and 
in  South  America.     (One  point  for  each  country  com- 
pared.) 

(11)  Tell  the  social  customs  and  standing  of  women  in  the 
above-mentioned  countries.     (One  point  for  each  coun- 
try.) 

(12)  Participate    in   the   dramatization   of  a   Bible   story. 

(13)  Memorize  Psalms  19  and  28;  Romans  12;  First  Corin- 
thians 13,  using  the  word  "love"  instead  of  "charity." 
(One  point  for  each.) 

(14)  Memorize  the  Association  motto — John  10:10 — and  give 
a  five-minute  talk  on  it.     (Two  points.) 

(15)  Commit  to   memory  ten   Bible  verses   selected  by  the 
adviser. 

(16)  Learn   John    Oxenham's   poem,   "Everymaid,"   and   dis- 
cuss it.     (Three  points.) 

(17)  Learn  and  discuss  the  laws  of  your  state  regarding  the 
holding  of  property. 

(18).  Learn  one  poem  from  "Christ  in  the  Poetry  of  Today." 

(Three  points.) 
(19).  Attend  Sunday  school  regularly  for  six  weeks.     (Two 

points.) 

(20)  Attend  church  regularly  for  six  weeks. 

(21)  Be  a  member  of  a  Bible  class  in  the  Girls'  Work  De- 
partment  of   the   Young   Women's    Christian   Associa- 

289 


tion   and   attend   at   least   four   times   for   six   weeks. 
(Two  points.) 

(22)  Serve  on  a  committee  of  the  young  people's  organization 
in  your  church  for  two  months. 

(23)  Write  a  sketch  of  at  least  200  words  about  the  work  of 
the  Young*  Womens  Christian  Association  in  other  coun- 
tries than  ours. 

Note. — From  time  to  time  the  adviser  of  every  corps  will  receive  sugges- 
tions for  new  honors.  Every  Girl  Reserve  should  add  these  to  the  lists  in 
her  Guide. 


Suggestions  for  an  Interpretation  of  Honors  Which  Will  Make 
Them  International  in  Their  Scope. 

This  material  will  be  of  a  particular  service  to  the  secre- 
tary and  adviser  who  are  working  with  the  foreign-born  girl, 
but  it  is  also  very  valuable  for  the  content  which  it  brings  to 
the  honor  which  might  seem  to  be  of  ordinary  importance  only. 
If  the  suggestions  are  adequately  developed  they  will  furnish 
much  of  the  content  to  be  used  at  the  regular  corps  meeting, 
thereby  linking  the  honor  directly  to  the  club  activity — making 
it  the  activity,  in  fact. 

Health: 

Honor  No.  27.  Walking  is  an  old-world  sport,  and  it  will 
make  a  girl  tremendously  interested  if  she  should  gather 
some  information  regarding  the  famous  trails  in  Europe, 
and  also  some  of  the  best-known  ones  in  America.  In- 
teresting biographical  studies  will  result  if  she  should 
search  for  stories  about  some  of  the  great  people  who 
have  tramped  these  trails. 

Honor  No.  51.  Obviously,  it  is  not  only  the  folk  dances 
which  should  be  learned,  but  their  origin  and  significance. 
See  Marie  Hofer's  book,  "Popular  Folk  Games  and 
Dances." 

290 


Honor  No.  43.  This  and  other  honors  similar  to  it  offer  an 
opportunity  for  the  girls  to  learn  not  only  the  technique 
but  also  the  history  of  games.  Croquet  is  not  American 
in  its  origin.  What  are  some  other  famous  European 
sports  ?  What  are  the  Olympic  games  ?  When  are  they 
held?  Who  competes? 

To  advisers  and  secretaries  working  with  foreign  speaking 
girls,  the  following  suggestion  is  made:  Compare  pictures  of 
European  children  with  their  rosy  cheeks  and  sunny  eyes  and 
the  faces  of  average  American  children;  pale  childhood  is  not 
an  American  ideal  and  foreign  mothers  must  know  that  vigor- 
ous children  are  desired  in  America  as  much  as  they  are  in 
Europe.  The  foreign  children  whom  American  girls  see  in 
great  crowded  cities  in  foreign  quarters  are  the  product  of  a 
low  standard  of  American  living  and  are  not  representative  of 
Old  World  children. 

Service : 

Honor  No.  2.  (c)  It  would  be  interesting  to  learn  how  vege- 
tables are  cooked  by  other  nations.  America  is  not  fam- 
ous for  its  cooking  of  vegetables,  (g)  Find  the  origin 
of  some  of  our  candies  which  we  accept  as  American: 
e.g.,  Turkish  Delight. 

Honor  No.  10.  From  where  did  rules  of  etiquette  first  come  ? 
The  old-world  courts.  Pantomime  and  dramatization  will 
make  this  very  tangible  to  girls. 

Honor  No.  38.  Trace  in  the  programs  of  "community  sings" 
which  have  occurred  in  your  locality  the  songs  which  are 
international. 

Honor  No.  50.  Christmas,  Easter  Day  and  May  Day  are 
festivals  which  are  observed  by  people  in  America  and 
Europe,  too — they  are  international.  It  would  be  very 
interesting  to  interpret  our  observation  of  these  days  in 
the  light  of  the  customs  of  some  other  country. 

291 


Honor  No.  58.  This  honor  may  be  broadened  to  include  any 
needy  group  of  people  the  world  over.  Advisers  and  sec- 
retaries will  guide  carefully  into  constructive  channels 
all  of  the  interest  which  is  aroused  by  a  definite  appeal 
in  a  community. 

Honor  No.  61.  This  honor  may  be  broadened  to  include  the 
teaching  of  these  patriotic  songs  to  some  other  girl,  pos- 
sibly not  a  Girl  Reserve,  for  love  of  country  is  a  thing 
which  grows  by  being  shared.  Particularly  is  it  neces- 
sary to  keep  clearly  in  the  minds  of  girls  that  much  of 
America's  greatness  is  due  to  the  many  streams  of  im- 
migrant life  which  have  flowed  into  it  ever  since  the 
establishment  of  the  colonies.  True  patriotism  in  America 
will  recognize  the  enthusiasm  with  which  a  descendent 
of  a  foreign  nation  observes  his  great  hero  days;  it  is 
second  only  to  the  zeal  with  which  he  celebrates  Ameri- 
can holidays. 

Knowledge: 

Honor  No.  52.  It  would  be  possible  in  interpreting  this 
honor  to  interest  a  girl  in  the  new  countries  which  have 
grown  out  -of  the  war,  and  in  some  acquaintance  with 
the  people  in  those  countries,  their  needs  and  ambitions, 
and  the  obstacles  which  they  are  trying  to  overcome. 

Honor  No.  56.  When  the  girl  is  learning  about  the  National 
Travelers'  Aid  pin,  it  would  be  possible  to  stretch  her 
interest  to  far-away  places  by  asking  such  questions  as 
the  following:  What  nationalities  are  coming  into  your 
community?  What  groups  are  there  already? 

Honor  No.  60*  If  a  secretary  or  an  adviser  is  eager  that  her 
girls  have  an  increasing  knowledege  of  and  interest  in 
the  peoples  of  the  world,  the  club  meeting  which  deals 
with  this  honor  might  include  in  its  program  some  dis- 
cussion of  foreign  money  and  foreign  exchange,  a  dis- 
cussion of  the  best  way  to  send  money,  and  how  people 

292 


prepare  to  come  to  this  country — i.  e.,  their  passports,  the 
amount  of  American  money  they  receive  for  their  money, 
and  many  other  interesting1  details  of  the  journey. 

Spirits 

For  the  secretary  and  adviser  working  with  foreign-speaking 
girls,  suggestions  about  the  spirit  honors  have  been  in- 
cluded in  the  chapter  on  a  Program  for  Girls  with  a  For- 
eign Background.  It  may  be  possible  in  many  communi- 
ties which  are  American  to  interpret  in  an  understanding 
way  the  observance  of  Holy  Days  by  other  churches  than 
the  one  to  which  the  girl  belongs.  It  would  be  particu- 
larly interesting,  for  example,  to  see  how  Easter  is  ob- 
served in  different  churches. 


293 


Name—  Snyder,  Elizabeth  Address,  710  Main 
Grade,  7  B  Telephone,  326 

HONOR  SYSTEM.         GIRL  RESERVES. 

Health 

1 

1 

4 

9 

12 

Total 
4 

Service 

3 

7 

11 

3 

Knowledge 

1* 

2 

Spirit 

12 

1 

Total 

5 

2 

2 

1 

Grand  Total 

..10 

Name—  Hughes,  Alice  Address,  1817  Broadway 
Grade,  7  A  *  Telephone,  693 

Health 

Service 

Knowledge 

Spirit 

Total 

Grand  Total 

294 


Section  V. 

ACTIVITIES  FOR  DEVELOPING  A  CHRISTIAN 
PERSONALITY. 

CHAPTER  I. 

RELIGIOUS     EDUCATION    OR    TRAINING    IN    CHRISTIAN    THINKING 
AND  LIVING. 

IN  its  Girl  Reserve  Movement  and  throughout  its  work  for 
younger  girls,  the  Young*  Women's  Christian  Association  con- 
siders that  it  has  a  fundamental  purpose  underlying1  all  activi- 
ties, discussion  groups,  services  of  worship:  namely  to  develop 
the  normal  interests  of  the  girl  so  that  she  grows  healthfully 
as  a  girl  Christian  of  her  age  may  be  expected  to  grow.  Its 
program  of  religious  education  is  not  a  part  of  its  whole  plan 
of  activities,  "for  religion  touches  all  of|  life"  and  therefore 
religious  education  becomes  an  underlying  principle  which  can- 
not be  separated  from  the  whole  fabric  of  a  girl's  living. 

Moreover,  the  Young  "Women's  Christian  Association  recog- 
nizes frankly  that  it  is  only  one  force  working  in  a  community, 
touching  the  lives  of  girls  with  the  purpose  of  Christian  educa- 
tion; and  that  the  church  has  a  peculiar  responsibility  for  the 
development  of  girls;  that,  indeed,  the  more  formal  class  work 
iii  Bible  and  world  fellowship  and  much  of  the  girl's  training  in 
worship  should  come  directly  through  her  relationship  with  the 
Church. 

In  order  to  develop  the  religious  life  of  the  girl,  one  must 
understand  the  whole  girl,  for  character  depends  not  upon  the 
development  of  the  spiritual  life  alone,  but  upon  the  working 
together  of  all  the  factors  which  go  to  make  up  the  life  of  the 

295 


girl.  The  normal  development  of  girlhood  has  to  do  with  physi- 
cal, mental,  social  and  spiritual  characteristics  as  interdepend- 
ent factors.  The  girl  is  a  whole  girl,  in  any  situation,  with  all 
of  her  personality  involved;  this  means  that  she  must  be 
trained  as  a  whole  person.  What  she  thinks,  says,  and  does 
at  any  moment  is  either  stimulating  or  inhibiting  normal  growth 
and  expression;  whatever  may  be  the  immediate  situation — a 
basket  ball  game,  a  Sunday  service,  a  question  of  class  room 
honor,  or  the  decision  to  forego  a  new  party  dress  so  that  she 
may  help  famine  sufferers,  her  power  to  throw  herself  into 
such  a  situation  and  to  act  in  that  situation  as  a  girl  Christian 
should,  determines  to  no  small  degree  how  adequately  she  will 
deal  with  other  situations  as  they  arise. 

This  process  of  growth  is  furthered  greatly  by  the  entrance 
of  three  elements,  each  of  which  has  its  direct  bearing  upon 
the  life  of  the  girl.  They  are  the  opportunity  to  worship,  ways 
to  develop  a  growing  understanding  of  God,  and  of  men,  and 
an  opportunity  to  express  through  sharing  her  life  and  her 
standards  of  action,  her  consciousness  of  God. 

Worship. 

The  place  of  worship  in  the  training  of  the  younger  girl 
is  presented  in  considerable  detail  in  the  pamphlet  "Training 
the  Girl  Through  Worship,"  so  that  it  is  necessary  here  only 
to  suggest  the  main  points  involved.  First  of  all  there  is  the 
more  formal  service  of  worship  in  which  she  joins  with  others, 
either  in  her  church  or  in  the  Association.  Beauty,  order,  and 
symbolism  appeal  most  to  the  girl  between  twelve  and  eighteen. 
Music  which  is  rich,  full  of  dignity,  and  rhythm,  and  reverence 
is  a  factor  which  cannot  be  discounted  in  any  effort  to  interpret 
worship  to  girls.  Girls  at  this  period  of  development  rarely 
enjoy  and  seldom  are  helped  by  any  play  upon  the  emotions 
through  the  use  of  hymns  and  stories  which,  while  popular, 
lack  the  fine  fibre  of  the  hymns  which  for  many  years  have 
ministered  to  the  needs  of  all  groups  of  Christian  people.  Many 
advisers  will  find  opportunities  to  supply  the  girl's  need  for 

296 


beauty,  order  and  symbolism  not  only  through  the  Association 
but  also  in  the  church. 

The  opening  club  ceremonial,  and  the  installation  and  recog- 
nition services  also  offer  great  opportunity  for  the  expression  of 
the  element  of  worship.  In  this  it  is  the  spirit  of  simple  dignity 
and  reverence  for  one's  own  personality,  for  others'  personality 
and  for  the  personality  of  God  which  lifts  a  service  into  a  realm 
of  worship.  The  use  of  poems  and  songs  is  valuable.  A  poem, 
which  has  been  talked  over  together  and  memorized,  may  be 
repeated  in  the  opening  ceremonial  of  the  Girl  Reserve  meeting; 
in  many  case  such  a  hymn  as  "0  Beautiful  for  Spacious  Skies" 
may  be  expressed  through  a  series  of  tableaux  as  simple 
dramatic  action  for  a  service  of  worship.  However  it  is  man- 
aged, the  girl  needs  worship,  both  to  develop  and  strengthen  in 
her  attitudes  of  thanksgiving,  unselfish  service,  and  reverence, 
and  to  awaken  a  greater  sense  of  group  consciousness  and  a 
willingness  to  make  herself  one  of  the  group.  Worship  is 
essential  both  for  strengthening  the  individual  life  and  for 
releasing  that  life  from  individualism. 

A  Growing  Understanding  of  God. 

Even  though  the  Young  Women's  Christian  Association 
recognizes  that  the  bulk  of  a  girl's  thinking  and  discussion 
through  study  groups  will  be  done  in  a  church  school  or  as  a 
part  of  her  day  school  curriculum,  there  is  both  opportunity 
and  necessity  for  it  to  make  sure  that  the  girl  is  really  growing 
in  her  understanding  of  God  and  his  relations  to  herself,  and 
others  and  in  a  deepening  interpretation  of  her  relations  to  a 
world. 

This  necessity  and  opportunity  for  such  service  on  the  part 
of  the  Association  do  not  mean,  however,  that  in  formal  Bible 
study  classes  or  in  organized  world  fellowship  groups  only  can 
be  found  the  ways  to  achieve  this  growth  of  understanding. 
Particularly  is  this  true  of  the  younger  girls  in  the  Girl  Reserve 
Movement.  It  is  a  growing  conviction  that  the  younger  girl 
goes  further  in  her  grasp  of  both  Bible  and  world  fellowship 

297 


content  (world  fellowship  implying-  social)  through  story  tell- 
ing1, dramatics,  and  discussion  than  in  a  formal  class  hour. 
When  program  content  is  regarded  in  this  way,  there  is  always 
freedom  to  incorporate  it  into  a  club  program  at  any  point 
where  it  will  bear  directly  upon  the  girl's  life  at  that  time.  A 
Bible  story  may  be  told  and  dramatized  at  once,  or  there  may 
be  a  discussion  of  party  dresses,  from  which  there  will  develop 
a  real  project;  the  girls  will  set  themselves  to  the  task  of  find- 
ing- out  the  conditions  of  industry  in  Japan  and  something  about 
the  lives  of  Japanese  girls  who  make  the  lovely  fabrics  from 
which  the  party  dresses  are  fashioned.  The  result  may  be  a 
short  litany  of  intercession  for  industrial  girls  as  the  result  of 
their  own  study  of  the  conditions  and  needs.  An  astronomy 
party  once  led  a  group  of  high  school  girls  to  ask  about  the 
star  worshippers  and  there  resulted  a  discussion  of  certain  non- 
Christian  religions  and  men's  age-long  search  for  God.  This 
came  about  so  naturally  that  the  girls  were  not  conscious  in 
the  least  that  they  were  being  "religiously  educated."  At  an- 
other time,  a  milk  strike  was  the  occasion  of  one  skillful  leader's 
stimulating  her  girls  to  a  discussion  of  the  ideals  which  Jesus 
had  for  human  lives  brought  together  in  great  groups.  The 
ultimate  result  was  the  study  by  a  small  group  of  "The  Social 
Teachings  of  Jesus."  This  study  was  carried  on  in  the  Sunday 
School  class  to  which  many  of  the  girls  belonged  and  it  was 
right  that  it  should  be.  Any  situation  in  which  the  girl  lives 
may  be  the  door  for  that  girl  into  a  growing  understanding  of 
God,  The  uses  to  which  an  adviser  puts  situations  in  a  girl's 
life  depend  upon  that  adviser's  knowledge  of  the  girl,  and  of 
the  principles  of  teaching.  There  must  be  a  constantly  increas- 
ing grasp  of  material,  also,  which  can  be  played  into  the  girl's 
life  when  she  needs  it,  without  recourse  to  texts  and  formal 
study  groups.  It  is  very  obvious,  of  course,  that  the  fineness  of 
contact  at  this  point  is  in  direct  proportion  to  the  strength 
of  the  background  which  the  girl  is  accumulating  through  the 
church  school. 

298 


Christian  Habits  in  Every  Day  Living. 

It  is  not  difficult  to  remember  and  to  regret  the  experiences 
of  certain  girls  whose  ability  to  pray  in  a  young  people's  meet- 
ing and  whose  knowledge  of  Bible  and  missionary  facts  was 
amazing,  yet  whose  ability  to  make  experimental  use  of  these 
experiences  was  nil.  The  Girl  Reserve  movement  recognizes 
the  imperative  necessity  of  a  girl's  having  such  intelligent 
activity  in  the  expression  of  her  Christian  purpose  that  she  is 
saved  from  becoming  a  prig.  In  the  main,  these  outlets  are 
three  in  number:  (a)  sharing  her  life  with  other  people  (com- 
monly spoken  of  as  "service"),  (b)  the  declaration  of  her  ideals 
through  character  standards  by  which  she  measures  her  rela- 
tions to  her  world,  and  (c)  recreation  by  which  she  keeps  the 
emotional  balance,  and  in  many  cases,  frees  her  instinct  for 
mastery  in  a  way  that  is  not  injurious  to  others.  All  are  a 
necessary  part  of  religious  education. 

Planning  with  her  for  service  activities,  it  is  necessary,  first 
of  all,  to  avoid  the  point  of  view  that  they  are  merely  "busy 
work,"  such  as  is  usually  given  to  small  children  in  the  primary 
class  to  keep  them  out  of  mischief.  If  the  service  activities  are 
not  training  and  developing  the  girl,  they  are  useless.  Train- 
ing is  not  possible  unless  the  activities  which  she  carries  out 
are  really  needed  in  her  immediate  community  or  in  the  larger 
community,  the  world.  A  group  of  younger  girls  who  make, 
for  a  children's  hospital,  baby  clothes  that  no  baby  could  get 
into,  are  not  being  rightly  trained  in  service.  It  is  very  prob- 
able that  they  may  become  women  who  pack  impossible  mis- 
sionary boxes  with  left-over  evening  gowns.  The  girls  who 
seek  to  share  their  lives  with  other  people  must  learn  what  they 
have  which  those  people  need,  and  what  those  people  have  which 
they  need,  so  that  it  can  be  honest  sharing  and  not  a  patroniz- 
ing giving.  It  is  more  religious  for  a  younger  girl  to  help  in 
a  "cleanup  my  town"  campaign  than  it  is  for  her  to  give  a 
tenth  to  missions  solely  because  her  family  compel  her. 

Of  course,  all  advisers  of  girls  realize  that  if  the  girl's  inter- 

299 


est  stops  with  her  immediate  community,  she  is  only  partly 
Christian,  and,  therefore,  the  understanding  sharing:  of  her  life 
with  those  who  are  geographically  far  apart  from  her  ;s 
essential. 

The  expression  of  herself  in  the  character  standards  upon 
which  she  bases  her  behavior,  will  depend  upon  the  closeness 
and  the  correlation  between  her  ideals  and  the  conditions  of  her 
life.  It  is  so  easy  for  even  grown-up  people  to  be  tremendously 
interested  in  the  hours  and  conditions  of  work  of  industrial  girls 
and  unconscious  of  the  impersonality  and  discourtesy  with  which 
they  treat  an  industrial  girl  who  rubs  elbows  with  them  in  the 
street  car  or  in  a  crowd ;  therefore  it  is  no  wonder  that  a  younger 
girl  may  come  home  starry-eyed  from  a  meeting  which  has 
stirred  her  aims  and  stimulated  her  dreams  of  service,  only  to 
meet  with  an  irritable  impatience  the  demand  of  a  small  brother 
to  "tell  us  a  story." 

Never  would  the  secretaries  and  advisers  in  the  Girl  Re- 
serve Movement  fail  in  stimulating  a  girl  to  formulate  the  high- 
est of  ideals  for  herself,  but  always  there  is  the  recognition  of 
the  necessity  to  help  her  to  express  those  ideals  in  terms  of  her 
own  everyday  living.  This  must  be  done  so  that  the  number  of 
women  who  give  themselves  to  great  causes  without  stint  but 
more  or  less  completely  fail  in  the  close  relationships  of  every- 
day, may  be  decreased. 

For  this  reason,  the  adviser  of  girls  must  study  carefully 
the  situations  in  which  her  girls  are  forced  to  make  decisions 
and  act  upon  them.  The  girl,  who  steadily  increases  her  power 
to  decide  in  favor  of  other  people  rather  than  in  her  own  favor, 
is  on  the  road  toward  being  able  consistently  to  express  herself 
as  a  Christian  woman.  This  may  be  illustrated  by  the  action  of 
a  group  of  girls  who  gave  up  their  own  sodas  and  candies, 
formerly  purchased  from  a  druggist,  who  was  compelling  his 
two  girl  clerks  to  work  fourteen  hours  a  day  without  a  chance 
to  sit  down;  or  by  the  high  school  girl,  who  definitely  gave  up 
the  possession  of  a  new  party  dress  so  that  she  might  give  her 

300 


mother  for  Christmas  a  sweater  which  she  needed.  Such  groups 
of  girls  or  individuals  are  beginning  to  comprehend  the  "friendly 
kingdom"  way  of  living,  both  in  business  relations  and  in  the 
home. 

Moreover,  it  would  be  unfair,  manifestly  so,  for  the  secre- 
taries and  advisers  in  the  Girl  Reserve  Movement  to  criticize 
the  older  girl  for  maintaining  unwholesome  social  relationships 
when  she  has  been  permitted  or  encouraged  in  an  attitude  of 
careless  flippancy  in  her  friendships  with  either  boys  or  girls. 
They  must  help  the  younger  girl  to  gain  the  power  to  deter- 
mine character  standards  for  herself,  yet  to  look  with  under- 
standing and  tolerance  upon  different  standards  determined  for 
themselves  by  others,  and  this  training  must  be  acquired  through 
her  right  meeting  of  these  situations  in  her  girlhood.  She  can 
and  should  be  helped  to  grow  into  a  normal  balance  between 
respect  for  the  decisions  of  others  as  to  what  are  character 
standards  and  her  own  independent  actions. 

The  validity  of  religious  education  of  girls  is  nowhere  more 
tested  than  in  the  matter  of  recreation.  Sometimes  so  many 
mature  Christians  consider  their  recreation  as  "time  off"  from 
being  a  Christian — a  sort  of  spiritual  dishabille — that  it  is  not 
difficult  to  understand  how  younger  girls  come  to  consider  their 
recreation  as  outside  the  realm  of  the  religious.  A  wholesome 
attitude  toward  health  of  mind -and  body  (in  which  good  times, 
that  are  re-creative,  play  so  large  a  part)  is  impossible  with- 
out a  spiritual  dynamic.  It  therefore  becomes  an  important 
question  whether  or  not  sodas,  outdoor  exercise,  and  proper 
shoes  are  accepted  naturally  by  the  girl  as  factors  in  the  deci- 
sions which  a  girl  Christian  makes. 

There  remains  one  fundamental  thing,  when  all  that  could 
be  said  about  the  religious  education  of  the  growing  girl  in  far 
more  space  than  this  chapter  is  said.  Religion  involves  life — 
all  of  life — and  religious  education  is  the  training  of  the  whole 
life  all  of  the  time  in  the  way  of  comradeship  with  God,  who  is 
the  Father  of  a  world. 

301 


If  advisers  and  secretaries  are  rightly  to  interpret  the  pur- 
pose of  the  Young  Women's  Christian  Association  In  its  group 
and  individual  work  with  girls,  and  if  the  three  elements  in  the 
process  of  a  girl's  growth  are  to  be  successfully  coordinated, 
there  are  certain  methods  of  procedure  which  should  be  fol- 
lowed, either  closely  if  an  adviser  is  just  growing  into  her  ex- 
perience of  working  with  girls,  or  with  a  great  degree  of  free- 
dom if  a  person  has  found  her  way.  The  following  suggestions 
are  appended,  accompanied  by  a  bibliography  designed  to  equip 
an  adviser  and  secretary  with  right  tools,  to  illustrate  ways  of 
conducting  formal  and  informal  services  of  worship,  and  the 
telling  of  Bible  stories. 

A.  For  Use  in  Worship. 

An  order  of  service  for  more  formal  vespers: 

1.  Opening  sentences  of  invocation. 

2.  Prayer  of  penitence  and  thanksgiving. 

3.  Hymn  of  praise. 

4.  Scripture  reading,  responsive  prayers  or  psalms  re- 
cited in  unison. 

5.  Talk,  story  or  dramatization. 

6.  Hymn  of  consecration  and  action. 

7.  Closing  prayer  and  benediction. 

B.  Plan  for  short,  informal  period  of  worship. 

1.  To  catch  everybody's  attention,  use  a  hymn  or  two, 
such  as  "Day  Is  Dying  in  the  West,"  "Come   Thou 
Almighty  King." 

2.  The  recitation  of  a  psalm  or  some  other  memorized 
passage  together,  trying  to  keep  the  same  thought  of 
thanksgiving  as  in  a  more  formal  service. 

3.  The   club   prayer   or   prayers   by   several   girls    (who 
have  been  asked  previously  to  have  this  share  in  the 
service). 

4.  Hymn  of  Action  (if  around  the  camp-fire,  use  a  good- 
night hymn). 

302 


BENEDICTION. 
Leader — 

The  Lord  bless  thee, 

And  keep  thee. 

The  Lord  make  his  face  to  shine  upon  thee 

And  be  gracious  unto  thee. 

The  Lord  lift  up  his  countenance  upon  thee 

And  give  thee  peace. 
Response — 

God  be  merciful  unto  us 

And  cause  his  face  to  shine  upon  us; 

That  Thy  way  may  be  known  upon  earth, 

Thy  saving  health  among  all  nations. 

Let  the  peoples  praise  Thee,  0  God  ; 

Let  all  the  peoples  praise  Thee. 

All— 

The  Lord  bless  us 

And  keep  us. 

The  Lord  make  his  face  to  shine  upon  us 

And  be  gracious  unto  us. 

The  Lord  lift  up  his  countenance  upon  us 

And  give  us  peace, 

Both  now  and  evermore.    Amen. 

C.    Telling  Bible  Stories  to  Younger  Girls. 

1.    What  stories  to  tell: 

While  the  girls  are  still  in  their  early  teens,  stories  with 
very  concrete  action  and  red-blooded  heroes,  such  as  Joseph 
and  Moses  should  be  used  and  sections  from  the  Acts  may 
be  chosen.  Stories  like  the  one  about  Ruth  should  be  left 
until  the  girls  develop  a  love  for  the  idealistic.  When  this 
is  at  its  height,  usually  when  the  girl  is  between  fourteen 
and  seventeen,  stories  from  the  life  of  Jesus  have  a  unique 
appeal.  It  must  be  a  virile  and  manly  Christ  who  is  por- 
trayed, but  thisa  is  only  to  say  that  advisers  must  get  down 

303 


to  the  real  heart  of  the  gospel  narratives.  This  is  the  time 
to  enlist  to  its  full  the  loyalty  of  the  younger  girl  to  the 
personality  of  Jesus. 

Some  of  the  parables — that  of  the  "Good  Samaritan,"  for 
instance — can  well  be  used  for  the  grade  school  girls,  while 
others,  such  as  'The  Ten  Virgins/'  fit  better  the  need  of 
girls  a  little  older.  The  call  of  Isaiah  and  the  story  of 
Nehemiah  are  excellent  material  for  the  girl  close  to  eigh- 
teen. There  is  recorded  in  the  Bible  a  whole  group  of  expe- 
riences of  men  at  close  grips  with  life;  their  spiritual  sig- 
nificance can  best  be  presented  by  the  story  method  even 
though  such  a  presentation,  strictly  speaking,  cannot  be 
called  telling  stories.  The  way  that  men's  understanding  of 
God  grew  from  the  desert  god  of  war  to  the  Father  God  of 
Jesus  is  an  illustration  of  this  point. 

2.  Preparing  to  tell  Bible  stories, 

Beyond  the  preparation  that  lies  in  the  practice  in  telling 
any  story  is  the  matter  of  Biblical  background  which  gives 
vividness  and  a  real  understanding  of  the  meaning  of  the 
Bible  story  told.  For  help  in  this  see  the  bibliography  at- 
tached. One  caution  may  be  wise.  Nothing  is  ever  gained 
by  cheapening  the  style  of  the  Biblical  narratives  in  an  at- 
tempt to  make  them  sound  like  the  Sunday  supplements,  but 
on  the  other  hand  the  use  of  a  modern  English-  word  for  one 
whose  meaning  is  unfamiliar  may  illumine  a  whole  passage 
for  a  girl.  Neither  is  it  ordinarily  necessary  nor  best  to 
put  into  the  mouths  of  the  characters  a  mixture  of  words 
drawn  partially  from  the  text  and  partially  from  imagina- 
tion. 

3.  Dramatizing  Bible  stories. 

This  may  be  done  in  two  ways.  There  is  first  the  spon- 
taneous dramatization  without  the  use  of  costumes  or  scen- 
ery; this  is  especially  valuable  for  the  grade  school  girls.  A 
long,  elaborate  story  with  several  situations  cannot  be 
handled  as  easily  by  this  method  as  a  short  story  with  a 

304 


good  deal  of  action  centering  around  a  single  point.  How- 
ever, a  long  story  may  be  broken  up  into  shorter  ones.  This 
first  use  of  dramatization  is  valuable  in  training  the  imagi- 
nation. There  is  also  a  rich  field  in  the  dramatization  of 
long  stories,  such  as  that  of  Joseph  or  sections  from  the 
Acts.  In  such  a  case,  the  high  school  girls  may  write  their 
own  play,  taking  several  weeks  perhaps  to  prepare  and  pro- 
duce it.  Their  grasp  on  the  inner  meaning  and  the  human 
reality  of  the  story  will  be  immeasurably  deepened  by  so 
doing. 

4.  When  to  tell  Bible  stories. 

They  may  be  told  at  Sunday  afternoon  recreation  hours 
and  around  the  fire.  The  opening  ceremonial  for  grade 
school  corps  offers  an  opportunity  too,  but  the  telling  should 
not^be  confined  to  stated  occasions.  The  Bible  story  may 
be  used  in  any  story  hour  as  a  climax  (see  appended  sug- 
gestion for  a  story  hour  that  develops  from  the  amusing  to 
the  meaningful  story).  All  the  adviser  needs  is  to  make  the 
Bible  story  so  much  a  part  of  her  own  thinking  that  it  crops 
out  as  an  illustration  along  with  others  when  the  girls  are 
hiking. 

5.  Two  suggested  story  hours. 

(a)  "Rikki-Tikki-Tavi"— from    "The  First   Jungle   Book" 

by  Rudyard  Kipling. 
How  the  Prehistoric  Little  Girl  Learned  to  Tell  Time 

—from  "When  I  Was  a  Little  Girl"  by  Zona  Gale. 
The  Knights  of  the  Silver  Shield. 
The  Queen  Who  Dared  (Book  of  Esther). 

(b)  Tajar  Stories  by  Jane'  Shaw  Ward.* 

Bit-bit  and  the  Deeve — from  "When  I  Was  a  Little 

Girl"  by  Zona  Gale. 
The  Jester's  Sword  by  Annie  Fellows  Johnston. 

*  Published  April,  June  and  July,  1916,  John  Martin's  Book.  Reprinted 
in  1917  Annual  John  Martin's  Book.  Can  be  procured  from  The  Book 
Shop,  600  Lexington  Avenue,  New  York  City, 

305 


The  Forty  Wrestlers — See  any  book  of  early  church 

history. 
Stories  from  the  life  of  Jesus. 

A  Camp  Fire  Story  of  the  Long  Ago. 
Producing  Notes: 

The  story  teller  repeats  the  first  two  paragraphs  as 
stated  here  or  in  a  similar  form.  When  she  is  ready  to  tell 
the  story  of  the  old  man  (the  story  teller  or  teacher  of  the 
tribe)  she  would  use  for  the  source  of  her  story  the  words 
of  the  second  chapter  of  Genesis,  verses  4-23.  The  Historical 
Bible,  Volume  I,  by  Kent,  will  also  be  of  valuable  help  to 
her.  To  expand  -this  story  in  order  to  interpret  the  first 
chapter  of  Genesis,  the  story  teller  should  tell  very  briefly, 
in  story  form,  some  of  the  adventures  of  the  tribe  as  it 
pushed  its  way  into  the  unknown  lands  to  the  west,  of  its 
experience  in  Egypt,  of  the  escape  under  the  leadership  of 
Moses,  and  the  fact  that  eventually  the  people  of  this  tribe 
settled  in  cities.  Their  great  achievement  after  that  was  the 
building  of  the  Temple.  When  the  story  teller  reaches  this 
point,  she  continues  in  words  similar  to  the  ones  suggested 
below.  After  the  point  "richness  of  figure  and  rhythm  of 
verses  fitted  the  beauty  of  the  Temple,"  it  is  of  great  value 
to  the  interest  of  the  story  to  read  the  first  chapter  of 
Genesis  through  the  first  part  of  the  fourth  verse  of  the  sec- 
ond chapter. 

"Once  in  the  long  ago  when  all  the  world  that  we  know 
best  had  never  been  dreamed  of  and  when  mighty  nations 
ruled  the  world  that  to-day  we  know  only  in  history  books, 
there  wandered  a  tribe  of  .desert  people  in  the  barren  lands 
beyond  the  Mediterranean  Sea.  From  time  to  time  they 
pitched  their  camel's  hair  tents  where  a  tiny  spring,  push- 
ing its  way  up  through  the  dry  sandy  dust  gave  water  for 
their  flocks;  or  on  some  nights  their  camp  was  made  where 
several  springs  made  a  green  oasis;  and  once  it  happened 
that  their  wanderings  carried  them  into  a  country  where  a 

306 


great  river  watered  the  earth  and  made  of  it  a  garden.  This 
they  never,  never  forgot  but  always  it  stood  to  them  as  sym- 
bol of  the  goodness  and  protecting  care  of  Jehovah,  their 
God, 

"When  the  supper  had  been  cooked  and  eaten  and  the 
tribe  drew  close  around  the  camp  fire  the  men  sat  in  the 
inner  circle;  a  little  removed,  where  the  shadows  danced  and 
flickered,  sat  the  women  with  the  little  children  cuddled  in 
the  folds  of 'their  mothers7  cloaks,  protected  from  the  evening 
damp.  Then  it  was  that  some  boy  was  sure  to  ask:  'Tell  us 
a  story,  one  of  -the  wisdom  tales  of  the  beginning  of  our 
tribe.'  (The  old  man  who  answered  would  be  the  story- 
teller of  the  tribe,  its  teacher  really,  for  where  there  are  no 
books,  it  is  the  tales  that  are  told  from  the  earliest  memory 
of  their  fathers'  fathers  that  hold  the  wisdom  and  the  truth 
men  find  and  pass  to  their  childrens'  children.)  ,So  sitting 
where  his  face  was  lighted  by  the  fire  he  told  them  the  story 
they  loved  almost  best  of  all  sifting  the  dusty  earth  through 
his  fingers  as  he  talked.  And  this  was  his  story  ('Genesis  II, 
vs.  4-23): 

When  the  old  man  ceased  the  fathers  and  mothers  sat 
looking  into  the  fire  or  up  at  the  stars  so  far  over  head,  say- 
ing to  themselves,  'Lo,  the  beginning  of  all  life  is  with 
Jehovah,  yea  even  the  stars  and  the  food  for  each  day  and 
the  water  that  cools  our  thirst,'  And  the  young  men  and 
maidens  dreamed  of  the  new  families  that  would  be  some 
day  and  thought:  <Lo,  the  love  of  the  children  and  of  the 
husband  and  wife  is  of  Jehovah  and  He  maketh  new 
families.' 

Then  when  the  beautiful  Temple  was  built,  the  priests 
found  the  old  story  told  through  the  years  around  the  camp 
fire  so  simple  that  they  longed  for  a  more  stately  form  in 
which  to  express  the  faith  of  the  people  that  the  very  source 
of  their  life  was  with  Jehovah.  It  was  at  this  time  that  the  old 

307 


story  began  to  be  told  in  poetical  form  with  such  richness 
of  figure  and  rhythm  of  verse  as  fitted  the  beauty  of  the 
Temple.  But  still  there  were  many  who  loved  the  old  story 
well  and  therefore  at  the  first  of  the  Book  of  thg  Begin- 
nings are  found  both  ways  of  declaring  the  faith  of  their 
fathers  in  Jehovah,  the  stately  poem  first  as  is  natural  and 
then  the  camp  fire  story. 


Triangles  for  Girl  Reserves 


HAVE  you  ever  noticed  that  many  electric  trains  use 
miles  and  miles  of  triangles  overhead  to  steady  the 
wires  which  carry  the  power? 

Girl  Reserves  stretch  over  miles  of  country  and  they,  too, 
may  be  triangles  for  power  and  help  hold  the  line  steady  for 
all  girls.  The  triangles  of  power  which  Girl  Reserves  hold 
are  in  home,  school  and  community.  Sometimes  it  is  not  easy 
to  see  just  how  the  line  can  be  kept  steady  and  so  Alice  G. 
Moore  has  written  for  all  Girl  Reserves  these  triangles  which, 
if  thought  about  at  corps  meetings  and  at  home,  may  help 
Girl  Reserves  to  become  triangles  of  power. 

308 


MYSELF 


May  the  words  of  my  mouth  and  the  meditations  of  my  heart  be 
always  acceptable  in  Thy  sight,  O  Lord,  my  rock  and  my  redeemer. — 
Psalm  19,  xiv. 


MYSELF 

"Think  truly  and  thy  words 
Shall  the  world's  famine  feed; 
Speak  truly  and  each  word  of  thine 
Shall  be  a  fruit  seed. 
Live  truly  and  thy  life 
Shall  be  a  great  and  noble  creed." 

To  Think  About— Together 

Recall  some  verse  you  have  memorized  and  particularly  like. 
What  is  the  value  of  memorizing  worth-while  things? 

Why  do  you  think  it  is  important  to  read  good  books?  In 
what  ways  do  our  friends  influence  our  thoughts?  How  will 
our  thoughts  about  others  determine  our  actions  when  we  are 
with  them?  Do  people  judge  us  more  often  by  what  we  say 
or  by  what  we  do.  Is  it  true  that  "actions  speak  louder  than 
words"? 

Read  Philippians  4:8.  Why  do  you  think  this  verse  might 
be  a  good  motto  for  "finding  and  giving  the  best"?  Do  you 
believe  that  "as  you  think,  so  you  are"? 

309 


To  Think  About — Alone 

What  do  I  like  to  think  about  when  I  am  alone?  Do  these 
thoughts  help  me  "to  find  the  best"?  If  I  could  hear  my 
conversations  repeated  at  the  close  of  a  day,  would  it  make 
any  difference  in  what  I  say!  Am  I  always  sure  that  my 
thoughts  are  true  and  kind  before  I  speak  of  another?  Have 
I  the  courage  to  say  what  I  know  is  right? 

HEALTH 

Know  ye   not  that  ye  are   a  temple   of   God   and  that   the   spirit   of 
God  dwelleth,  in  you? — I  Cor,  6,  xix. 


HEALTH 
I  am  helping  to  build  a  highway 

For  great  and  noble  deeds 
That  are  waiting  to  hurry  forward 

To  the  call  of  the  world's  great  needs, 
I  must  build  it  strong  and  steady 

For  the  way  can  no  weakness  show, 
Lest  thoughts  and  deeds  to  conquer  wrong 

With  faltering  footsteps  go. 
I  will  build  with  care  my  highway, 

For  the  temple  of  God  is  there, 
The  way  must  be  free  from  barriers, 

If  the  best  I  find  and  share. 

310 


To  Think  and  Talk  About— Together 

What  are  the  things  you  think  we  must  remember  to  do 
in  order  to  keep  well  ?  What  three  "don'ts"  should  we  observe  ? 
How  could  one  divide  one's  days  into  work,  play  and  sleep  in 
order  to  keep  at  one's  best?  How  does  the  proper  amount  of 
sleep  affect  grades  in  school?  Does  our  posture  when  we 
study  have  anything  to  do  with  the  health?  Is  it  easy  to 
be  cheerful  when  one  has  a  headache?  How  does  health 
affect  disposition?  Do  you  think  that  many  of  our  illnesses 
are  caused  by  our  own  carelessness?  Are  some  caused  by  the 
thoughtlessness  of  others?  What  responsibility  do  we  have 
to  others  for  keeping  well? 

KNOWLEDGE 

Happy  is  the  man  that  findeth  wisdom  and  the  man  that  getteth 
understanding.  For  the  gaining  of  it  is  better  than  the  gaining  of 
silver  and  the  profit  thereof  than  fine  gold. — Prov.  3,  xiii,  xiv. 


KNOWLEDGE 
Books  will  be  like  friends  to  me, 

If  I  truly  care. 
They  will  open  up  their  hearts, 

Deepest  joys  to  share. 
But  they  cannot  give  me  more 

Than  printed  page  can  give; 
Only  friends  and  being  friends 

Teach  me  how  to  live, 

311 


To  Talk  About  When  Together 

Sometimes  a  girl  says:  "Oh,  I'm  not  going  on  to  school; 
I'm  going  to  work." 

Should  a  girl  go  to  school  as  long  as  possible?     Why? 

What  difference  does  the  motive  make — whether  we  study 
because  we  wish  to  know  the  lesson  or  simply  for  a  high 
grade  ? 

Think  of  ways  of  increasing  one's  knowledge  outside  of 
school  hours. 

How  might  our  knowledge  grow  during  a* walk  in  the 
country  ? 

Why  do  we  often  miss  seeing  the  interesting  and  beautiful 
things  all  about  us? 

For  what  reasons  do  you  think  we  should  have  a  knowledge 
of  the  Bible? 

To  Think  About  When  Alone 

Do  I  gain  knowledge  entirely  from  books,  or  do  I  learn  from 
people  by  being  a  good  hostess? 

Am  I  too   eager  to  have  my  own  experiences  heard? 

SERVICE 

Inasmuch  as  ye  did  it  unto  one  of  these  my  brethren,  even  these  least 
ye  did  it  unto  me. — Matt.  25,  xl. 


312 


SERVICE 

We  serve  by  every  loving  thought 

For  those  about  us  day  by  day; 
A  smile,  a  word,  some  kindness  wrought, 

A  letter  to  some  one  far  away. 

There  still  another  gift  must  be, 
If  service  would  be  great  and  true — 

The  gift  of  self,  unbound  and  free, 
For  what  we  are  is  service,  too. 

To  Talk  About  When  Together 

If  certain  things  are  required  of  us  at  home,  how  can  we 
make  this  real  service?  Does  the  spirit  in  which  we  do  our 
work  make  a  difference? 

How  about  making  things  easier  at  home  by  putting  away 
books  and  clothes?  What  are  other  ways  of  being  of  real 
service  at  home? 

Did  you  ever  think  when  you  carelessly  threw  a  paper  in 
the  street  how  your  city  would  look  if  everyone  did  this? 
Do  you  think  helping  to  keep  the  city  clean  is  a  patriotic 
service?  Can  you  think  of  other  ways  in  which  you  might 
serve  your  community? 

Have  you  served  folks  in  other  parts  of  the  world  in  the 
last  year  through  your  club,  church  or  as  an  individual? 

Did  serving  those  folks  make  you  any  more  interested  in 
them? 

Would  knowing  more  about  girls  in  other  lands  make  you 
wish  to  be  of  service  to  them?  How  would  this  service  make 
you  a  world  citizen? 

To  Think  About  When  Alone 

What  can  I  do  today  that  will  be  real  service? 

Think  of  the  many  different  people  Jesus  served  and  the 
many  ways  He  helped  them.  See  how  many  you  can  recall; 
then  find  others  in  Luke. 

•313 


SPIEIT 

Jesus  advanced  in  wisdom  and  stature  and  in  favor  with   God  and 
man. — Luke  2,   lii. 


SPIRIT 

Help  me  to  grow  in  spirit, 

Lord,  I  ask, 
More  ably  to  fulfill 

Every  task. 
Teach,  me  to  speak  in  kindness 

Words  of  cheer, 
Courage  for  all  who  suffer 

And  who  fear. 
Teach  me  Thy  way  of  loving 

Every  day. 
Give  me  Thy  spirit  of  service, 

Master,  I  pray. 

To  Talk  About  When  Together 

Think  of  Florence  Nightingale,  Clara  Barton,  Edith  OavelL 
What  kind  of  spirit  did  they  have? 

Can  we  think  of  some  acts  of  people  we  know  which  show 
the  same  spirit? 

What  opportunities  might  we  have  every  day  to  show  a 
spirit  of  courage?     Of  unselfishness?     Of  helpfulness? 

314 


Why  are  there  so  many  songs  written  about  smiles? 
How    does    being    grouchy   affect    others?      What   kind    of 
spirit  does  it  show? 

Think   of   some   of    the   reasons    so    many   people   followed 
Jesus  wherever  He  went. 

Why  did  He  grow  in  favor  with  men? 

How  do  you  think  He  grew  in  favor  with  God? 

To  Think  About  When  Alone 

Am  I  increasing  my  circle  of  friends  by  being  friendly? 
Is  my  spirit  loving,  cheerful  and  helpful? 


BIBLIOGRAPHY  FOR  RELIGIOUS  EDUCATION. 
Books  for  reading  and  study  by  advisers: 
Adams,  Charlotte— "The  Mind  of  the  Messiah." 
Betts,  George  E. — "How  to  Teach  Religion." 
Brown,  Charles — "Religion  of  a  Layman/' 
Coe,  George  E.— "The  Spiritual  Life)' 
Cope,  Henry  F. — "Religious  Education  and  the  Family." 
Crowe,  Martha  Foote — "Christ  in  the  Poetry  of  To-day." 
Davis,  Maud — "Religious  Education  and  the  Younger  Girl." 
Elliott,  Harrison — "How  Jesus  Met  Life  Questions." 
Glover,  T.  R.— "The  Jesus  of  History." 
Houghton,  Louise  Seymour — "Telling  Bible  Stories." 
Hunting,  Harold  B.-— "The  Story  of  Our  Bible." 
Kent— "The  Historical  iBible"  (4  Vol.  Old  Testament). 
Miller,  Elizabeth— "The  Dramatization  of  Bible  Stories." 
Moxcey,  Mary — "Girlhood  and  Character." 
Ofcttey— "Short  History  of  the  Hebrew  People." 
Richardson,  Norman  E. — "Religious  Education  of  Adolescents." 
Rhibany,  Abraham  M. — "The  Syrian  Christ." 
Smith,  David— "The  Days  of  His  Flesh." 
Stone,  Mabel  E.— "Training  the  Girl  Through  Worship." 
Woods,  Edward  <S. — "Modern  Discipleship." 

315 


Study  courses  for  use  with  girls: 
Cutler,  Ethel — "Out  of  Doors  in  the  Bible." 
Gerwick,  Katharine— "The  Ultimate  Quest." 
Richards,  Katherine— "The  Golden  Word." 
Slack,  Elvira — "Jesus  the  Man  of  Galilee." 
Thoburn,  Helen— "Christian  Citizenship  for  Girls/' 
Thoburn,  Helen— "Studies  in  Knowing  Jesus  Christ." 
Ward,  Jane  Shaw— "Shanghai  -Sketches." 

MATERIAL  FOR  STUDY  ON  WOULD  FELLOWSHIP. 
Burton,  Badley— "India,  Beloved  of  Heaven." 
Coehran,  Jean— "Foreign  Magic." 
Cohen,  Rose— "Out  of  the  Shadow." 

Dewey,  John  and  Evelyn— "Letters  from  China  and  Japan." 
Emerson,  Ruth— "Japan  To-day." 
Kellerman,  Janet  Harvey— -"Children  of  Japan." 
Kipling,  Rudyard— "The  Eyes  of  Asia." 
MacKenzie,  Jean— "African  Adventures." 
Matthews,  Basil— "Yarns  of  the  Near  East." 
Sherwood,  F.  A.-— "Glimpses  of  South  America." 
Tagore,  Rabindranath— "The  Crescent  Moon." 
Ward,  Jane  Shaw— "Shanghai  Sketches." 


CHAPTER  II. 

HEALTH  EDUCATION  AND  RECBEATION. 

HEALTH  is  attainable  in  a  much  greater  degree  than  the 
ordinary  person  realizes.  It  means  much  more  than  just 
being  free  from  serious  ailment.  Children  believe  that  things 
are  won  by  wishing;  adults  know  that  the  best  things  of  life 
are  only  earned  by  joyous  and  determined  effort.  All  the  ster- 
ling values  of  life  must  be  striven  for.  Girls  are  likely  to  take 
health  for  granted  and  to  assume  that  here  at  least  is  some- 
thing one  does  not  have  to  work  for.  But  "something  for 

316 


nothing"  does  not  apply  to  health  any  more  than  it  does  to  any 
other  of  the  real  treasures  of  existence. 

Whether  the  normal  girl  is  splendidly  well  or  just  not  sick 
depends  largely  upon  herself,  for  good  health  habits  are  the 
way  to  good  health.  One  should  not  be  satisfied  with  anything 
less  than  complete  health,  which  makes  possible  the  fullest  ex- 
pression of  one's  powers — physical,  mental,  emotional,  and  spir- 
itual. All  these  various  aspects  of  the  individual's  well-being 
form  what  is  really  one  inseparable  whole.  The  most  economi- 
cal way  to  work  for  health  is  to  strive  for  wholeness  of  life. 

Health  is  a  vital,  positive  thing  which  in  one  sense  may  be 
regarded  as  an  obligation  to  society  and  to  the  person  possess- 
ing it,  but  which,  over  and  above  that,  is  a  right  and  a  privil- 
ege which  every  girl  should  claim.  Health  makes  its  contribu- 
tion in  many  ways  that  appeal  to  girls.  It  gives  beauty;  it 
gives  energy  for  work;  it  gives  zest  for  play,,  and  a  great 
capacity  for  enjoyment.  Health  makes  for  ambition  and  for 
happiness  as  nothing  else  can  do. 

This  phase  of  a  Girls*  Work  program  -cannot  be  too  greatly 
stressed,  for  teen-age  girls  can  do  more  toward  building  healthy, 
robust  bodies  than  can  older  people.  No  girl  can  acquire  later 
this  same  kind  of  health  and  strength  which  should  have  come 
during  adolescence.  A  health  program  involves  much  more  than 
physical  exercise:  it  means  the  right  proportion  and  kind  of 
work,  play,  love  and  worship.  The  definite  health  education 
program* of  the  Girl  Reserve  Movement  is  found  in  all  of  the 
several  programs  for  grade  school,  junior  high  school,  and  high 
school  girls  and  for  younger  girls  in  business,  industry  and 
business  colleges.  For  the  grade  school  girl,  the  many  honors 
which  are  listed  under  health  offer  to  the  adviser  a  unique  op- 
portunity to  make  vivid  through  demonstration  and  very  simple 
plain  discussion  -the  road  to  health.  For  the  place  which  health 
education  holds  in  the  programs  for  high  school  girls  and 
younger  girls  in  business  and  industry  and  business  colleges, 
see  sections  of  Chapter  2,  Section  IV. 

317 


The  subject  of  health  is  by  no  means  prosaic  or  humdrum 
when  rightly  presented  by  secretaries  and  advisers.  Its  most 
practical  aspects  may  become  absorbing  topics  of  conversation 
among  the  members  of  a  class  or  club.  The  subject  need  not  be 
forbiddingly  serious  and  heavy.  Unless  the  girls  inject  into 
their  response  some  of  the  liveliness  which  is  natural  to  their 
age,  the  adviser  may  be  sure  that  the  subject  is  not  being  right- 
ly presented.  The  girl  who  presented  the  health  physician  at 
the  close  of  the  lecture  with  clever  rhymes  of  appreciation  ex- 
pressed a  fundamental  principle  of  health  education  quite  as 
truly  as  if  she  had  attempted  a  more  formal  and  dignified  state- 
ment. 

True  health  education  is  not  something  which  is  made  up  of 
odds  and  ends  of  personal  hygiene,  even  though  the  odds  and 
ends  may  in  themselves  be  favorable  to  health.  True  health 
education  must  be  based  on  a  constant  recognition  of  health  as 
a  positive  value  and  as  the  physical,  mental,  moral  and  spirit- 
ual well-being  of  the  whole  individual. 

The  author  of  the  "Health  Talks'"  listed  at  the  close  of  this 
chapter  gives  it  as  her  experience  that  groups  of  girls  can  be 
just  as  easily  interested  in  the  harmonious  processes  of  life  as 
in  a  limited  subject  like  sex  hygiene.  In  actual  practice  she 
found  that  the  groups  which  came  for  the  talks  on  ''Foods  the 
Source  of  Joyful  Work  and  Play"  were  just  as  large  as  those 
who  came  for  the  talks  on  "Love  and  Health."  The  best  type 
of  sex  education,  like  the  best  type  of  teaching  on  posture,  diet, 
and  exercise,  is  that  in  which  the  special  subject  falls  into  place 
as  a  part  of  the  general  subject  of  health. 

A  special  talk  on  diet,  for  example,  may  be  made  to  include 
by  implication  a  whole  philosophy  of  health.  A  discussion  of 
foods  can  be  made  and  should  be  made  the  approach  to  the 
broadest  and  most  inspiring  of  health  ideals.  The  story  of 
food  and  what  it  means  to  the  human  being  is  full  of  genuine 
romance  and  readily  appeals  to  the  girPs  imagination.  The 
history  of  the  functional  activities  related  to  food  is  a  splendid 

318 


lesson  in  respect  for  the  human  body  and  logically  teaches  the 
interrelation  of  physical  and  mental  habits  and  the  relation  of 
both  to  character  and  personality. 

Similarly,  the  discussion  of  posture,  exercise,  and  "good 
shoes  for  good  feet"  leads  naturally  in  a  real  health  program  to 
the  wider  aspects  of  wholesome  living1.  If  good  health-habits 
are  to  be  rightly  taught,  they  must  be  pictured  forth  in  action; 
they  must  be  projected  against  the  living,  breathing  future  of 
the  individual  girl.  Good  health  habits  cannot  be  vividly  por- 
trayed against  a  future  of  selfish  inactivity  and  dependence  or 
self -centered  ambition.  Health  itself  is  not  attainable  without 
activity,  self-reliance,  and  joy  in  service.  For  this  reason, 
health  education  becomes  social  education,  and  the  most  special- 
ized health  talk  about  posture,  exercise,  or  feet  serves  its  true 
purpose  to  the  same  degree  that  it  builds  towards  normal  and 
socialized  living. 

The  adviser  of  younger  girls  has  a  unique  opportunity,  one 
not  to  be  later  recalled.  It  is  the  age  when  the  eighth  grade 
graduate,  to  her  later  injury,  dons  her  first  pair  of  high-heeled, 
pointed  shoes.  It  is  the  age  when,  as  a  result  of  bad  shoes  and 
the  growth  of  self  consciousness,  the  girl  slips  into  bad  habits 
of  posture,  one  of  the  most  important  elements  of  health.  It  is 
the  time  when  she  should  be  exchanging  the  rough  play  of  child- 
hood for  the  most  highly  coordinated  forms  o$  physical  exer- 
cise. But  too  often  the  girl  falls  under  the  influence  of  a  false 
ideal  of  refinement  or  succumbs  to  indolence,  so  that  she  does 
not  build  up  habits  or  exercise,  or  the  attitude  of  enjoyment  to- 
ward them.  The  same  tendency  appears  in  regard  to  food  and 
recreation;  the  girl  has  reached  the  age  when  she  begins  to  ex- 
ercise her  own  choice  in  regard  to  all  these  things  and  it  is  pos- 
sible to  help  her  in  the  formation  of  good  health-habits  with- 
out offending  that  sense  of  choice  which  it  is  the  right  of  every 
young  girl  of  this  age  to  preserve. 

In  general,  the  teen  age  or  the  younger  girl  group  must  be 
led  through  habit  or  performance,  not  by  abstract  teaching.  It 

319 


is  the  age  in  which  example  is  most  compelling,  when  dreams 
and  ideals  and  achievements  loom  large  in  the  young  girl's 
future.  Although  the  group  sense  and  the  social  desires  are 
waking,  they  are  still  in  need  of  cultivation  and  less  responsive 
to  direct  appeal.  At  this  time,  the  girl  views  all  standards  with 
a  personal  and  individualistic  bias.  It  is  an  age  when  historical 
characters,  pageantry,  and  the  dramatization  of  life  have  a 
strong  appeal.  These  things  should  be  chosen  for  training  in 
character  or  standard  forming  rather  than  the  method  of  lec- 
tures or  moralizing  talks.  Friendships  are  in  the  making,  and 
there  is  at  no  time  greater  need  for  wholesome  group  habits 
and  true  boy  and  girl  comradeship  instead  of  the  enervating 
beau  or  sweetheart  attitude.  Healthy  types  of  friendship  and 
comradeship  can  be  taught  through  literature  and  history,  with 
frank  discussion  from  the  girPs  own  point  of  view.  By  the 
critical  comparison  of  values  and  types,  she  can  be  helped  to 
stabilize  and  master  her  new,  developing  social  sense,  thus  gam- 
ing a  personal  foundation  for  conduct  based  upon  judgment  and 
not  upon  mere  "follow  the  leader"  or  "conventional"  standards. 
The  "give  and  take"  which  is  developed  through  wholesome,  nat- 
ural group  association  and  play,  provides  excellent  training  for 
understanding  of  manners,  custom  and  courtesy.  This  is  need- 
ed to  supplement  the  lessons  learned  within  the  family  circle. 
The  discipline  of  such  intercourse  becomes  the  means  whereby 
they  learn  the.  true  significance  of  personal  ambition,  responsi- 
bility and  opportunity. 

Individual  application  of  reason  and  action  and  ideals  should 
result,  as  far  as  possible,  from  the  awakened  interest  and  de- 
sire of  the  girl  herself. 

Advice  and  instruction  should  be  given,  whenever  possible, 
in  response  to  the  awakened  interest  and  desire  of  the  girl  her- 
self. Her  inquiries  and  criticisms  should  be  answered  as  con- 
structively and  broadly  as  seems  possible,  and  yet  on  the  basis 
of  a  real  understanding  of  what  the  individual  girl  would  be, 
ignoring  as  much  as  is  possible  the  failures  of  undeveloped 

320 


characteristics  of  her  age.  She  is  over-conscious  of  her  inade- 
quateness  to  the  social  world  around  her;  this  is  physiological 
as  well  as  psychological  •  hence  the  ease  with  which  she  is  up- 
set, becomes  hysterical,  feels  misunderstood  and  falls  into  tan- 
trums. Never  is  there  a  time  when  sympathetic  leadership  can 
do  more  to  make  or  mar  the  visions  and  the  powers  of  her 
future  life. 

Healthful  habits  cannot  be  too  boldly  urged,  but  the  fact 
should  not  be  forgotten  that  the  "do  and  don't"  stage  of  moral 
teaching  is  passing  rapidly,  if  it  is  not  already  a  thing  of  the 
past.  But  youth  will  listen  when  we  say:  "This  is  the  alto- 
gether desirable  thing,"  or  "That  will  enlarge  your  oppor- 
tunity to  become  what  you  want  to  be  above  all  else." 

The  skilled  adviser  can  learn  to  understand  the  way  of  help- 
ing girls  to  choose  the  best,  but  in  order  to  do  this,  she  must 
understand  herself  what  is  the  best  and  respond  herself  to  its 
appeal.  In  the  study  of  the  health  education  program  of  the 
Bureau  of  Social  Education  she  will  find  much  valuable  guid- 
ance toward  the  best  health  habits  which  the  experts  of  to-day 
can  offer. 

Many  Associations  will  include  in  their  all-department  pro- 
grams a  Health"  Week,  at  which  time  will  be  stressed  work  by 
a  Health  Unit  consisting  of  a  physician,  and  a  physical  educa- 
tion secretary.  The  examinations,  which  are  given,  should  be 
medical,  physical  and  inspirational.  They  are  essential  to  give 
the  girl  the  constructive  point  of  view  of  health,  to  cause  her 
to  realize  where  she  stands  as  to  health  and  where  she  might 
stand.  They  offer  an  opportunity  for  instruction  in  health 
habits,  including  habits  of  mind — the  girl's  attitude  toward  her 
work,  her  friends,  her  fun,  her  aspirations.  These  examina- 
tions should  include  heart  and  lung  examination  and  a  strength 
test.  In  addition  to  this  technical  assistance,  girls  with  the 
encouragement  of  their  advisers,  may  do  a  great  deal  for  them- 
selves through  the  Individual  Health  Program.  The  Health 
Inventory  is  the  first  step  in  the  Individual  Health  Program. 

321 


Advisers  will  find  very  helpful  a  book  entitled  "Ten  Talks  to 
Girls  on  Health,"  which  may  be  secured  from  The  Womans 
Press,  600  Lexington  Avenue,  New  York  City.  The  following 
brief  resume  will  indicate  its  helpfulness  to  an  adviser: 

Introductory  appeal  to  Club  Leaders. 

1.  Pulling  Uphill  or  Running  Down;  this  is  an  inspira- 
tional talk  to  the  girls  and  explains  what  determines 
the  choice  of  the  Uphill  Eoad. 

2.  A  Good  Food-Tube — A  Basic  Equipment  for  the  Climb 
to  Success;    A  Bad  Food-Tube — The  Source  of  Blues 
and  Failure. 

3.  Teeth:     The  Best  Friend  You  Have;  gives  the  true 
story  of  the  growth  of  teeth,  so  little  understood,  and 
the  health-habits  which  preserve  them* 

4.  Foods:    The  Source  of  Joyful  Work  and  Play. 

5.  Exercise:   A  necessity  for  a  Successful  Climb. 

6.  Hidden  Traps  on  the  Eoad  to  Success:    Infections  and 
Resistance  to  Them.    Shows  the  value  of  courage  and 
good  health  habits;  the  consequences  of  fear  and  self- 
neglect. 

7.  Drugs:    The  Most  Misleading  Sign  on  the  Way. 

8.  The  Feet  on  which  to  climb  to  Success  or  limp  to 
Failure,  and  posture  which  Aids  or  Retards  us. 

9.  Love  and  Health:     The  true  meaning  of  Love  is  the 
making  of   Personality,  the   Building   of  Health,   in 
Creative  Work. 

10.   World  Health:     The  Value  of  Human  Beings  above 

that  of  Material  Things. 

In  addition  to  the  leaders'  talks,  the  following  pamphlet  may 
be  obtained  from  the  Womans  Press.  It  is  adapted  for  the 
use  of  the  individual  girl  or  may  be  incorporated  in  the  regu- 
lar program  of  a  girl's  club: 

The  Health  Inventory,  with  an  Introduction.  This  contains 
questions  on  health  habits  under  the  following  topics:  the 
avoidance  of  headaches,  indigestions,  constipation,  colds;  bath- 

322 


ing,  care  of  teeth,  care  of  hair,  diet,  sleep,  elimination, 
menstruation,  clothing,  posture  of  feet,  exercise,  work,  and 
leisure,  personal  relationships. 

The  following  material  published  by  The  Womans  Press 
gives  valuable  practical  help  toward  individual  health-building: 

Corrective  Exercise  Cards:  twenty-two  illustrations  with  de- 
tailed instructions. 

Exercises  for  Business  and  Professional  Women:  ten  exer- 
cises recommended  for  daily  practice. 

Health  Pamphlets:  a  series  of  general  talks  on  health. 

Foot  Posture  Posters:  a  set  of  seven  posters  for  educational 
campaigns. 

Foot-tracing  'Charts:  for  use  in  testing  the  feet. 

Health  Examination  Cards — Medical  and  Physical.  For  use 
in  the  detailed  health  examination. 

'Special  Parties  and  Stunts:  recreation  material  compiled 
by  Era  Betzner. 

Further  guidance  in  the  attainment  of  health  and  in  the 
appreciation  of  true  health  values  may  be  obtained  from  the 
official  series  of  pamphlets  which  is  published  jointly  by  the 
Women's  Foundation  for  Health,  Bureau  of  Social  Education, 
National  Board,  Y.  W.  C.  A.,  and  the  Council  on  Health  and 
Public  Instruction,  American  Medical  Association.  Address 
600  Lexington  Avenue,  New  York  City. 

These  pamphlets  contain  detailed  and  comprehensive  material 
for  a  program  of  health,  education.  In  each  pamphlet  there  is 
a  short,  concise  statement  of  what  is  meant  by  Positive  Health. 

The  series  is  developed  as  follows: 

1.  An  all-round  discussion  of  health  and  health  habits. 

2.  Health  examination  cards  with  an  interpretation  and 
suggestions. 

3.  How  to  conduct  a  Health  Demonstration  and  how  to 
plan  a  Health  Foundation  Center. 

323 


OF 
IN    T^NY     INDIVIDUAL    LIFE 


Copyright 

Applied 

For 


Used  by  the  permission  of 
The  Women's  Foundation  for  Health 
129  East  52nd  Street,  New  York  City 
Secretary — Dr.  Josephine  H.  KLenyon 


These  are  fhe 
Not"  losing  sighf  of  fhese 
Use  ta  when  necessary; 
Then  go  on  ho  Hie  PosiHve 


-This  is  Hie  PosiMve 
Focus  Your 
AfhenHon 
-Here 


ConsJ-rucJ-ive 


324 


EVOLVING  Berns  OF  VISION  -As  To  THE^BUTH   PROBLEM 
PUBLIC 


Modern: 

ScienhPic 
Boords  o/'tlealrh 
Samtahon 

Scientific  Research 
Diagnosis 
Specialists 
Public  tlealth  Nurses 
Red  Cross  Nurses 
•Anh* -Tuberculosis  NursftS 
Child  Welfare 
Prenatal  Work 
NuWHonal  Clinics 
£rc. 


The  Future  will  Emphasize 

Consh-uchvc'tleall-h  and  Individual  Responsibility 
tlealhh  Physician 
Prochc.ng  Phjrsiaon  with  tfe^h  Rjmhe 
PUblic  Demand  for  Conshruchve  ttaa 


325 


4.  A  special  pamphlet  on  Nutrition  and  Health. 

5.  A  special  discussion  of  Mental  Health. 

6.  A  special  pamphlet  on  Reproduction  and  Health. 

By  the  study  of  thesa  pamphlets1,  prepared  by  specialists 
and  experts,  advisers  of  girls'  clubs  may  increase  their  knowl- 
edge of  health  in  such  a  way  that  they  may  become  intelligently 
helpful  to  their  club  members.  Girls  themselves  should  finally 
arrive  at  the  use  of  these  pamphlets  also,  by  way  of  a  graduated 
course  of  reading-.  The  woman's  movement  for  health  needs  a 
multitude  of  leaders;  it  has  a  place  of  influence  for  every  girl 
who  is  aware  of  her  opportunities  and  awake  to  the  possibilities 
of  increasing  health  by  sharing  it. 

As  has  been  stated,  adolescence  is  the  very  time  when  the 
donning  of  high  heeled  pointed  a  shoes  marks  the  way  to  bad 
posture  habits  and  the  permanent  crippling  of  the  feet.  There 
are  certain  goals  which  every  girl  should  set  for  herself  in 
regard  to  her  feet,  so  that  they  will  not  only  serve  her  "as 
a  good  understanding"  but  will  also  contribute  to  her  state 
of  health.  Foot  fatigue  or  discomfort  results  in  lessened  gen- 
eral health  and  efficiency  and  so  her  chance  of  success  is  reduced. 
Any  girl  should  be  eager  to  have  her  feet  have  (a)  a  straight 
inner  border  which  means  that  the  great  toe  is  in  line  with  the 
heel;  (b)  a  strong  long  arch  which  means  an  inner  line  that 
does  not  touch  the  floor;  (c)  a  good  transverse  arch,  which  means 
an  absence  of  any  callous  on  the  ball  of  the  foot;  (d)  all  of  the 
toes  free  and  able  to  pick  up  pencils  or  marbles  or  to  make  a 
stocking  pass  back  under  the  foot  when  portions  of  it  are 
gripped  by  the  toes. 

This  may  be  achieved  to  a  certain  degree  by  the  normal  foot 
position  in  standing  and  walking  (a  matter  which  deserves  very 
careful  attention  since  the  correct  method  is  to  place  the  feet 
close  together  and  pointing  straight  ahead,  not  toeing  out  as 
people  have  been  taught  for  so  long)  and  by  exercise;  but 
most  of  all  is  it  accomplished  by  the  care  with  which  the  feet 

326 


are  dressed.  The  cuts  on  page  328  indicate  what  can 
and  does  happen  to  the  foot  which  is  improperly  shod.  It  also 
shows  the  beauty  of  foot  with  which  most  girls  begin  life. 


The  Feet  and  How  They  Should  Be  Dressed. 

"Men  do  not  walk  on  pegs — why  should  women  ?" 
"Do  you  buy  shoes  to  fit  someone's   eyes  or  your  feet?" 
Such  questions  are  being  asked  repeatedly  to-day  by  thoughtful 
advisers  of  girls  and  by  girls  themselves  who  have  determined 
somehow  to  find  an  answer  to  tired  feet  at  night. 

327 


Shoes  should  have  a  straight  inner  border,  which  follows  the 
line  of  the  normal  foot ;  there  should  be  room  for  the  toes  with- 
out crowding;  a  broad  low  heel  and  a  flexible  shank  which  al- 
lows action  of  the  arch  muscles  are  indispensable  to  foot  com- 
fort. It  is  believed  that  the  low  cut  shoe  allows  better  circula- 
tion and  increased  muscle  strength. 

A  study  of  the  feet  and  of  correct  shoes  in  which  to  dress 
them  should  be  a  part  of  every  group  program  each  year.  Dis- 
cussions centering  about  the  two  questions  which  are  stated 
above,  and  the  writing  of  two  or  three  hundred  word  essays 
on  "A  Five  Room  Apartment  With  Eoom  for  Every  Toe"  or 
some  similar  subject  can  be  made  still  more  fascinating  by  the 
making  of  foot  pictures  at  club  meetings.  Secure  large  sheets 
of  brown  wrapping  paper,  some  printer's  ink  and  some  benzine. 
Place  the  printer's  ink  on  the  sole  of  the  foot  and  make  a 
print  upon  the  brown  paper.  The  ink  will  come  off  easily  when 
the  benzine  is  applied.  There  should  be  discussion  on  the  fol- 
lowing points:  Is  the  great  toe  straight?  Why  not?  What 
kind  of  an  arch  do  I  have  ?  Why  ?  Draw  an  outline  of  the  foot 
on  paper  and  then  place  the  shoe  over  this  outline  and  trace 
it.  Is  the  shoe  a  "good  five-room  apartment?"  Grade  the  feet 
under  the  four  points  mentioned  in  the  preceding  paragraph. 

The  writing  of  foot  grams  is  another  way  of  developing  an 
interest  in  the  feet.  Some  of  the  following  may  serve  as 
models: 

Stand  and  walk  toeing  straight  forward. 

Use  your  toes — dig  in. 

Use  your  foot  muscles. 

Posture  Tracing : 

The  importance  of  correct  posture  as  an  expression  of 
health  cannot  be  overestimated  and  one  of  the  very  best  ways  to 
help-  counteract  some  of  the  slovenly  habits  of  standing  and 
sitting  which  have  been  aided  by  the  acceptance  of  certain  styles 
of  dress  as  the  height  of  fashion,  is  to  have  the  girls  make 
posture  tracings.  A  good  posture  tracing  can  be  made  by  the 

329 


use  of  a  large  piece  of  brown  paper,  a  candle  and  a  soft  lead 
pencil.  Two  girls  can  work  together.  The  paper  should  be 
pinned  to  the  wall  and  the  candle  lighted  and  set  on  a  table 
in  such  a  position  that  when  the  girl  whose  posture  is  to  be 
traced,  stands  between  the  paper  and  the  candle,  the  shadow  of 
the  profile  of  her  body  falls  on  the  paper.  The  girl  working 
with  her  then  traces  the  outline  with  the  soft"  pencil.  The  sil- 
houette which  is  good  and  of  use  in  determining  her  posture 


(i)  (2)  (3)  (4) 

must  not  be  blurred  by  clothing.  A  close  fitting  union  suit  or 
an  Annette  Kellerman  swimming  suit  should  be  worn.  It  should 
fit  closely  into  the  small  of  the  back.  After  tracings  have  been 
made  for  the  group,  they  should  be  made  into  a  temporary 

330 


exhibit  and  used  to  focus  the  ensuing  discussion  on  correct  pos- 
ture. The  following  points  should  be  considered  in  the  examina- 
tion of  the  silhouettes:  1.  (a)  is  the  head  well  balanced?;  (b) 
the  line  showing  the  back  of  the  neck  should  be  almost  vertical; 
(c)  the  chin  should  be  in.  2.  (a)  does  the  spine  have  a  normal 
curve  backward  or  an  exaggerated  one?;  (b)  are  the  shoulders 
round?  3.  (a)  is  the  chest  normally  full,  low  or  flat?.  4.  Is 
there  a  normal  curve  in  the  lower  spine  or  a  hollow  back?  5. 
Is  the  abdomen  slightly  curved  forward  or  prominent? 

The  tracings  opposite  indicate  some  of  the  defects  which  girls 
need  to  recognize  and  correct;  figure  one  is  representative  of 
GOOD  POSTURE  and  may  be'  used  as  a  standard ;  figure  two 
shows  the  head  thrown  forward,  a  long  round  back,  and  a  promi- 
nent abdomen;  figure  three  shows  a  hollow  back,  and  a  promi- 
nent abdomen;  figure  four  shows  a  round  upper  back,  and  a 
prominent  abdomen. 

How  should  girls  assume  good  posture?  SIT  TALL!  STAND 
TALL!  WALK  TALL!  Push  upward  from  the  arches,  trunk 
and  the  top  of  the  head. 

FUNDAMENTALS  OF  A  DIET 

The  Growing  Girl: 

1.  Total  quantity  offered  in  24  hours  should  not  be  less 
than  2,500  calories. 

2.  Proportion  of  constituents  important.     Meat  once  a 
day  or  a  protein  equivalent.     Green  leafy  vegetables 
twice  daily.     Fruit,  raw  or  stewed,  once  a  day  as  a 
minimum. 

3.  Protective  foods — 

(1)  Milk  and  dairy  products:    The  chance  to  drink  at 
least  one  glass  of  whole  milk  once  a  day. 

(2)  Leafy  vegetables — 

(3)  Foods  made  from  whole  grains,  as:  whole  wheat 
bread,  available  cereals  from  whole  grains. 

(4)  Eggs— 

331 


4.  Foods  for  bulk  and  roughage,  such  as:  root  vegetables, 
bran*  raw  fruits,  including  skins. 

5.  Food  should  be  well  prepared: 
Cooked  sufficiently. 
Appetizingly  flavored  and  served. 

Raw  foods  selected — relishes,  such  as:  radishes,  olives, 

pickles,  celery. 

Aesthetic  value  should  not  be  lost  in  service. 

6.  Some  latitude  in  choice  given:  such  as,  choice  of  cereal, 
choice  of  vegetable. 

7.  Avoid  choosing  two  starchy  foods  at  one  time. 

8.  Opportunity  to  drink  the  necessary  eight  glasses  of 
water  every  day. 

General  application  of  these  fundamentals  of  a  diet  to  the 
girl's  life: 

A.  The  individual  girl  should  be  educated  by  talks  and 
illustrations  at  regular  club  meetings  to  use  her  per- 
sonal judgment  in  the  selection  of  proper  and  sufficient 
quantities(  of  food  to  meet  her  requirements.     This 
is  really  more  than  a  matter  of  judgment;  it  is  a  mat- 
ter of  responsibility.     The  relationship  of  food  and 
sleep  and  rest  and  relaxation  should  also  be  stressed. 
For  too  many  girls,  both  in  school  and  in  industry 
there  is  no  opportunity  for  relaxation  or  rest  after 
the  noon  meal.    In  some  way  this  must  be  achieved. 

B,  The   'exercise    of    her    judgment    should    be    trained 
especially  in  the  matter  of  what  a  girl  should  pur- 
chase for  those   "in-between"   meals  which   seem   so 
essential    to    adolescence ;    fruits — oranges,    bananas, 
prunes,   nuts,    figs,   raisins — in   preference   to   candy. 
The  quality  of  ice  cream  (i.  e.  its  food  value)  should 
concern  a  girl  and  simple  biscuits  should  be  chosen 
to  eat  with  it  rather  than  rich  cake. 

332 


SUGGESTED    SAMPLE   DIET    FOR    ONE    DAY. 

Breakfast:  Fruit — raw  or  cooked. 

Cereal — choice  if  possible,  one  cooked,  one 
dry — portions  should  be  equivalent  in  food 
value. 


Necessary 


Desirable 


Noon  Meal: 
Necessary 


Evening  Meal: 


Necessary 


Preferably    whole    grains — oats,    cream    of 

barley,  wheatina  or  cracked  wheat. 

Toast  or  rolls. 

Butter  (not  a  butter  substitute,) 

Bacon  or  Eggs. 

Sweet  of  some  sort — marmalade,  etc. 
Warm  fluid — tea,  coffee;  (coffee  offered  only 
in     the     morning     is     most     desirable     for 
adolescent). 


A  meat  dish. 

A  starchy  vegetable. 

A  green  leafy  vegetable — preferably  fresh. 

Bread — choice1,  whole  wheat  or  white. 

Butter. 

Dessert,  preferably  fruit. 

Relish  if  desired. 

Thick   soup — or   vegetable   soup,   cooked  to 
conserve  the  soluble  salts. 

One  dish,  such  as  macaroni,  hominy  or  rice, 
with  cheese,  or  escallop  ed  fish,  or  escalloped 
vegetables,  or  escalloped  potatoes. 
Baked  beans,  not  more  than  once  a  week. 
Salad  or  green  vegetable. 
Bread — choice  of  whole  wheat  or  white. 
Butter. 
Simple  dessert. 


333 


Offer  one  glass  of  milk  if  desired,  or  cocoa. 
(Tea  and  coffee  not  desirable  at  night). 
Relish  if  desired. 

EXERCISES   FOB   GIRL  BESERVES  AND   OTHER  TEEN-AGE  GIRLS 

Daily  Exercises,  10  Minutes  Morning  and  Night — Loose  Clothes. 
To  look  one's  best,  to  be  efficient,  and  to  be  fit  are  a  closely 
linked  trio,  with  fitness  as  the  greatest  of  the  three.  Looking 
one's  best  and  being  efficient  depend  so  tremendously  on  fitness 
of  health,  that  we  may  truthfully  say  the  latter  is  the  source 
and  fountain  of  the  other  two.  Everyone  wants  to  look  her 
best — that  goes  without  saying;  and  nowadays  efficiency  is  the 
keynote  of  all  success.  Health,  the  natural  birthright  of  every 
girl,  helps  to  keep  her  looking  her  best.  That  every  girl  may 
come  into  her  birthright,  these  exercises  are  offered  by  the 
Bureau  of  Social  Education  of  the  National  Board,  Young 
Women's  Christian  Associations. 

I.  Signaling. 

1.  Stand  feet  parallel,  hands  at  sides- 

2.  Clap  hands  over  head,  bringing  arms  sideways  upward 
and  bending  knees. 

Repeat  10  to  20  times. 

II.  iSteamboat. 

1.    Stand  feet  apart,  arms  shoulder  height. 
.  2.   Bend  right  knee,  touching  right  foot  with  right  hand. 

3.  Stretch  right  knee   and  sway  to   left,   bending  left 
knee,  touch  left  foot  with  left  hand. 

Repeat  5  to  10  times. 

III.  Brakeman. 

1.  Stand  feet  parallel,  arms  shoulder  height,  palms  up. 

2.  Make  small  circles  with  arms  bringing  arms  forward, 
upward  and  backward. 

Repeat  10  to  20  times. 

334 


Ill 


IV.  'Chopping  Wood. 

1.  Stand  feet  apart,  both  hands  clasped  on  right  shoulder, 
body  twisted  right  as  if  holding  axe. 

2.  Chop  wood,  bringing  both  hands  down  between  legs. 

3.  Swing  back  to  erect  position,  placing  both  hands  on 
left  shoulder,  body  twisted  left. 

4.  Continue,  alternating  left  and  right. 
Repeat  8  to  10  times. 

V.  Climbing  Ladder. 

1.  Grasp  a  ladder  with  left  hand,  bend  right  knee  upward 
and  place  right  foot  on  ladder  rung. 

2.  Climb  by  reversing  arm  and  leg  positions,  bend  knees 
high. 

Repeat  10  to  20  times. 

VI.  Batting  Baseball. 

1.  iStand  feet  apart,  body  twisted  to  right. 

2.  As   leader  throws   ball,   swing  bat  at  ball,   transfer 
weight  to  left  foot. 

3.  Continue  three  times  right  and  three  times  left. 
Repeat  10  to  20  times. 

VII.  Bowling. 

1.  Stand  holding  ball  in  right  hand,  balancing  it  with 
left. 

2.  Run  forward  about  three  steps,  starting  with  left  foot. 

3.  Bowl  ball  with  right  hand,  resting  left  on  left  knee. 

4.  .Stand  erect,  bringing  right  foot  up  to  left. 

5.  Continue  five  times  right,  five  times  left. 
Repeat  8  to  10  times. 

VIII.  Weather  Vane. 

1.  iStand  feet  apart,  hands  on  hips. 

2.  Twist  body  to  left. 

3.  Twist  body  all  way  around  to  right. 

4.  Continue  alternating  left  and  right,  keeping  feet  flat 
on  floor. 

Repeat  10  to  20  times. 

336 


IV 


V 

x? 


VI 


337 


VII 


VIII 


338 


IX 


JL£.  Jumping  Jack. 

1.  iStand  on  toes,  hands  at  sides. 

2.  Jump  with  feet  apart,  clapping  hands  over  head. 

3.  Jump  feet  tog-ether,  bringing  hands  to  sides. 
Repeat  10  to  20  times. 


X 


X.  Rocket.. 

1.  Stand  arms  bent. 

2.  Bang;  stretch  arms  up  quickly. 

3.  Szzz;  lower  arms  sideways  downward* 
Repeat  5  to  15  times. 

339 


Many  girls  do  not  get  enough,  of  the  right  kind  of  exercise. 
Some  school  girls  do  not  really  exercise  and  some  younger  girls 
in  business  and  industry  have  work  which  keeps  them  at  desks 
or  machines  all  day.  Before  girls  know  it  they  find  themselves 
with  a  poor  complexion  which  is  really  due  to  sluggish  digestion, 
poor  circulation,  the  wrong  kind  of  food.  Sometimes  too,  a  tired 
brain  and  something  called  "blues"  come  at  the  same  time. 
The  right  kind  of  exercise  will  do  much  for  all  of  these.  A 
good  slogan  for  every  A  number  1  American  Girl  is — Plenty  of 
fresh  air,  regular  systematic  exercise  and  lots  of  water  to 
drink. 


HEALTH  RECORD 
of 


Name. 


DAILY  HEALTH  CODE— No.  I 

Ten  Counts  for  Health. 

1.  Drink  six  glasses  of  water  daily, 

2.  Eat  an  apple  or  an  orange  and  fresh  vegetables  every 
day. 

3.  Sleep  eight  hours  with  windows  open. 

4.  Brush  the  teeth  at  least  twice  daily. 

340 


5.  Eat  at  regular  intervals — three  meals  a  day. 

6.  Breathe  deeply  (in  good  air)  ten  times  daily. 

7.  Keep  the  body  clean  by  a  daily  tub  or  sponge  bath. 

8.  Take  one  hour  of  outdoor  exercise  daily. 

9.  Wear  shoes  with  low  heels,  or  approved  shoes  and  suit- 
able clothing, 

10.  'Cultivate  good  posture:    S.  U.  S.    Sit  up  straight — .Stand 
up  straight. 

MONTHLY  HEALTH  CODE— No.  2. 

"Joy,  temperance  and  repose, 
Slam  the  door  on  the  doctor's  nose." 

1.  Keep  a  record  of  your  chest  expansion. 

2.  Mark  your  improvement  in  posture. 

3.  Weight  adjustment. 

4.  Attend  at  least  three  health  talks  or  health  programs  in 
your  club. 

5.  Help  some  other  girl  to  understand  and  keep  Code  No.  1. 

6.  Learn  how  to  play  one  new  active  team  game  every  six 
months. 

7.  Attend  a  summer  camp  or  spend  at  least  one  night  in 
camp  during  the  year. 

8.  Write  a  paragraph  of  one  hundred  words,  stating  what 
you  have  discovered  about  Health  and  Personality. 

9.  Measure  your  monthly  progress  in  the  care  of  your  feet 
by  a  decrease  of  corns  and  callouses,  fatigue,  and  in  bet- 
ter walking  and  standing  habits,  and  in  wearing  of  com- 
fortable shoes. 

10.  Health  Service — Keep  a  baby  in  a  health  camp  or  pro- 
vide money  for  a  milk  or  ice  fund,  or  swat  flies. 

341 


£-) 

ft5 

9 

O     >H 

Q> 

Kj    •§ 

I3 

a 


342 


B 

O 

1 

O 

8 

s 

1 

w 

&3 

O 

* 

2 

11 

B 

fci 

S5 

0 

^ 

I 

CO 

B 

» 

0 

OQ 

^ 

ea 

CO 

"^ 

. 

CO 

c- 

CO 

04 

O 

343 


1 

I 

. 

o 

h 

w 

^     CO 

pj    pq 

CD 

rH 

CO 

t~ 

rH 

10 

S 

w 

H    i 

§  E 

REI     U 

g 

x. 

8 

s 

S 

§ 

^ 

CO 

sz; 

tr3 

o 

s 

ft 

w    § 

w   ^ 

Q      P-l 

CO 

00 

§3 

3 

10 

rH 
CO 

CO 

8 

IO 

53 

b- 

8 

PS 

^S 

«1 

w 

p 

H 

£ 

0    g 

s 

S 

CO 

5 

s 

S 

§ 

CO 

u  s 

W 

H     S 

LO 

CO 

PS 

o   o 

s 

8S 

§ 

rH 

S 

3 

tH1 

w  2 

c£ 

a 

5 

WEIGHT  IN 
POUNDS 

s 

t- 

ES 

i 

I 

rH 

1 

co 
ca 

rH 
rH 

S 

^^ 

O 

rH 

r««   . 

I 

CO 

§ 

to 

§ 

t- 
rH 

344 


I 

E 

El 

: 

o: 

^r 

n 

IE 

£ 

c. 

V.L 

E 

o1 

P 

10< 

) 

1 

Q 

P 

P 

:>£ 

T' 

JI 

E 

0] 

sf 

TI 

IE 

S 

C^ 

LL 

E 

O 

P 

1C! 

) 

H 

CO 

& 

P 

R 

1C 

H 

r 

PC 

R 

E. 

\i 

E 

( 

R 

P 

I 

^r 

P 

DI 

IIS 

D 

3 

*""! 

3 

e 

1 

CI 

IE 

s: 

c  : 

23 

P 

A.1 

s[£ 

1C 

N 

I] 

<r 

[^ 

c: 

11 

:s 

a 
fc 

Ed     W 

S  o 

23 

p  ^ 

LI 

Jfr 

G 

c 

A: 

P.4 

C 

T 

r 

I* 

< 

u 

B] 

c 

ii 

rc 

H: 

:s 

o 

ffl 

O) 

g 

H 

v: 

DI 

31 

IT 

I 

tf 

PI 

31 

N 

DJ 

ffl 
^ 

W 

O 

25 

I 

31 

1C 

H 

T 

IN  : 

N 

CI 

IE 

s 

t— 

CO 

W    W 
0    ^ 

O 
Q 

O 

PQ    S5 

s 

£ 

S 

u: 

3 

CO 

g 

oa 

§ 

ir: 

o 

a 

o 
o 

£ 

§ 

£ 

§ 

s 

to 

S 

i8 

c 

. 

0 

iO 
CO 

o 

CO 

345 


HOW  TO  USE  THE  OHAET  ON  THE  GIRL  RESERVE 
STANDARD  MEASUREMENTS. 

Each  interval  equals  five  units. 

First:  Find  the  seven  points  for  the  "-Should  Be"  line,  accord- 
ing to  the  standards  shown  on  the  chart  for  a  girl  of  that 
age. 

Second:    Draw  the  line  in  black  ink. 

Third:  Find  the  seven  points  for  the  "I  Am"  line,  according  to 
the  actual  measurements. 

Fourth:    Draw  this  line  in  red  ink. 

Fifth:  Compare  the  two  lines  and  then  begin  to  plan  for  im- 
provement. 


Grade  posture  and  feet  according  to  the  following  scale: 
A  =  90  —  100 

B  =  80  —  90 

C  =  70  —  80 

D  =  60  —  70 


346 


347 


Suggested  topics  for  talks  at  regular  club  meetings.  Any 
one  of  these  should  be  developed  in  relation  to  the  Health  Edu- 
cation material  found  on  page  816. 


Talks  on  Hygiene  and  Sanitation. 
Suggested  Topics — Home  and  Community  Sanitation: 

1.  Careful  Choice  of  Food. 

2.  The  Back  Yard. 

3.  Relation  of  Clean  Streets  to  Public  Health. 

4.  Pure  Milk. 

5.  Food  and  Flies. 

6.  Home  Sanitation. 

7.  The  Relation  of  Good  Health  to  Good  Citizenship. 

8.  Bangers  of  Impure  Water  .Supply. 

Personal  Health  Talks. 

1.  The  Mouth  and  Teeth. 

2.  Value  of  Exercise  and  Rest. 

3.  The  Air  We  Breathe,  and  the  Value  of  Ventilation. 

4.  Patent  Medicines.     (Exploitation  of  people's  attitudes  of 
mind.) 

5.  Cleanliness. 

6.  Habit  Postures,  Good  and  Bad. 

7.  Feet — a  "Good  Understanding." 

8.  Relation  of  Wholesome  Food  to  Good  Health. 

9.  'Common  Sense  Hints  on  Dress. 
Reference:    "How  to  Live" — Fisher  and  Fiske. 

348 


Recreation 

Recreation  is  the  renewal  of  life  in  the  individual.  This 
renewal  is  found,  as  well  as  expressed,  through  activity,  whether 
work  or  play.  In  creative  production,  mental  and  manual,  there 
is  a  field  where  work  and  play  meet  and  overlap  each  other. 
Work  in  which  there  is  no  element  of  play  is  drudgery;  and 
recreation  in  which  activity  and  effort  have  no  place  lacks  the 
creative  element  which  makes  for  renewal  of  life. 

The  rhythm  of  life  requires  that  relaxation  or  inactivity,  too, 
shall  have  its  due;  but  this  is  not  the  whole  of  recreation,  which 
must  be  a  positive  and  not  merely  a  negative  use  of  leisure 
time.  Recreation  is  essential  for  the  maintenance  of  balance, 
beauty,  and  wholeness  of  life,  and  it  is,  therefore,  essential  to 
health.  iFor  health  is  not  a  limited,  negative  state  of  just  not 
being  sick,  but  a  positive,  all-round  condition  of  the  individual 
which  combines  physical,  mental,  emotional  and  spiritual  well- 
being. 

The  conception  of  health  as  wholeness  and  beauty  of  life  is 
the  one  which  is  most  acceptable  to  girls,  for  whom  the  mere 
absence  or  presence  of  disease  is  naturally  not  a  subject  which 
has  a  strong  appeal.  In  the  same  way,  the  view  of  recreation 
as  the  positive  evaluation  of  leisure  time  is  more  congenial  to 
youth  than  the  negative  idea  of  just  not  being  at  work.  But 
it  is  true  that  girls  need  to  be  guided  into  the  positive  view  of 
health  and  the  positive  view  of  recreation,  all  the  more  since 
their  adult  sisters  nowadays  are  finding  it  necessary  to  retrain 
themselves  in  the  attitude  of  responsibility  toward  health  and 
recreation. 

The  girl,  struggling  for  self-expression,  is  conscious  of 
energy  welling  up  within  her,  but  is  hampered  and  groping  in 
her  search  for  outlets.  We  say  quite  truly  of  her,  "she  is 

349 


trying  to  find  herself."  This  intangible  self  seems  for  the 
moment  almost  hopelessly  obscured  by  the  varied  moods  and 
emotions  which  threaten  to  engulf  her.  Under  wise  leadership 
she  discovers  that  these  troublesome  forces  are  only  trouble- 
some until  she  learns  to  guide  them  and  that  the  normal  develop- 
ment of  one's  emotional  life  is  a  necessary  part  of  a  well- 
rounded  personality. 

There  conies,  in  one  form  or  another,  a  great  yearning  which 
enmeshes  the  girl  in  web  of  fantasy.  Her  air-castles  are  her 
instinctive  protection  and  conservation  of  the  inner  urge  which 
is  as  yet  inarticulate,  which  as  yet  cannot  find  an  appropriate 
outlet  in  the  world  of  fact,  and  which,  nevertheless,  is  as*neces- 
sary  for  her  individual  existence  as  sunlight  and  fresh  air.  She 
tries  out  in  secret,  as  it  were,  a  multitude  of  paths  along  which 
her  soul  would  go  and  returns  from  each  adventure  with  her 
secret  still  intact.  These  ideal  journeyings  are  indeed  "delicate 
blossoms"  and  not  easily  discovered.  Yet,  somewhere  amid 
all  the  fancied  outlets  is  the  right  one  or  the  right  group  of 
outlets  for  the  individual  girl. 

It  is  through  her  understanding  of  the  value  and  importance 
of  the  girl's  dreams  that  the  adviser  will  be  able  to  do  her 
task  successfully.  They  are  the  elusive,  but  indispensable  aid 
of  anyone  who  tries  to  help  the  girl.  What  she  will  one  day 
be  lies  enfolded  within  the  day-dreams  of  her  present.  The 
time  will  come  when  she  will  look  back  and  laugh  at  some  of 
them  as  childish  fancies,  but  others  she  will  recognize  as  the 
tiue  and  valid  unfolding  of  her  own  distinctive  "self"  or  per- 
sonality. The  adviser  will  do  well  to  keep  this  future  in  mind 
as  something  which  is  not  separate,  but  is  inherent  in  the  girl's 
idealism  of  to-day.  The  leader  will  engage  and  develop  the 
strongest  interest  of  a  girl  or  group  of  girls,  in  so  far  as  she 
has  the  tact  and  insight  to  understand  ideals  that  are  too  un- 

350 


formed  to  find  expression  and  too  sensitive  to  expose  them- 
selves to  the  critical  or  materialistic  gaze. 

"Dreamer  of  Dreams?    We  take  the  taunt  with  gladness, 
Knowing  that  God,  beyond  the  years  you  see, 
Has  wrought  the  dreams,  that  count  with  you  for  madness, 
Into  the  texture  of  the  world  to  be." 

The  adviser  of  a  group  of  girls  who  understands  the  spirit 
of  recreation  and  appreciates  its  true  function  will  know  how 
to  make  their  everyday  interests  into  recreational  activities. 
It  is  not  necessary  to  invent  material  for  recreation;  the  best 
material  exists  in  the  habits  and  interests  of  daily  life.  The 
girl's  attitude  toward  exercise  and  work,  fellowship  and  re- 
ligion, is  the  fundamental  consideration.  It  is  the  creative 
impluse  working  through  the  program  which  makes  it  mean 
renewal  of  life  and  release  of  spirit. 

The  adviser  of  a  group  of  girls  has  for  her  initial  guidance 
the  predominating  interest  of  her  group.  This  may  be  basket- 
ball, or  dancing,  or  books.  With  any  of  these  interests  for  a 
point  of  departure,  it  is  possible  to  develop  standards  of  beauty 
and  values  of  life.  Any  of  these  activities  may  become  the 
means  of  increasing  the  girl's  consciousness  of  the  wholeness 
of  life. 

A  proposed  program  should  be  gone  over  with  this  emphasis 
in  mind  and  a  method  of  carrying  it  out  should  be  chosen  by 
which  this  aim  may  be  achieved.  Then,  when  the  time  in  the 
program  for  recreation  arrives,  the  activities  engaged  in  will 
express  not  only  the  chief  interest  of  the  group  but  will  be  .the 
source  of  new  activities,  new  interests,  and  new  standards.  In 
recreation  the  girl  should  learn  that  unity  of  life  may  be  main- 
tained in  the  presence  of  many  diverse  elements. 

Such  a  program  may  become  the  right  education  of  the 
emotions,  if  it  adds  to  the  elements  of  interpretation  and  appre- 

351 


cfation  the  further  element  of  action.  The  emotional  experience 
which  is  always  a  part  of  recreation  should  culminate  in  the 
desire  for  action,  which  is  another  and  an  equal  part  of  recrea- 
tion. 

Outstanding  channels  for  the  expression  of  this  desire  for 
action  may  be  found  in  forms  of  play  which  express  the  love 
of  color,  of  music,  and  of  drama,  as  well  as  that  instinctive  love 
of  home  which  is  fundamental  in  girl  nature.  The  play  which 
satisfies  these  interests  and  desires  by  directing  them  into  chan- 
nels of  suitable  activity  is  the  beginning-  of  that  much  neglected 
art,  "the  art  of  living."  It  brings  new  joy  and  freshness  into 
social  intercourse  and  helps  in  "the  art  of  living."  It  helps 
in  the  formation  of  happy  personal  relationships,  on  which 
depend  the  ultimate  success  of  home,  school,  and  community 
relationships. 

There  are  four  types  of  recreation,  each  of  which  is  com- 
plementary to  the  others.  In  order  to  balance  the  year's  recrea- 
tion, each  of  the  four  types  should  have  its  share  in  increasing 
a  girl's  joy  in  living. 

Individual  Eecreation. 

Every  girl  should  learn  to  enjoy  solitude  by  having  at  her 
command  occupations  which  dispel  the  sense  of  loneliness  and 
create  in  its  stead  the  pleasurable  sense  of  opportunity.  The 
ability  to  swim,  to  skate,  to  row,  to  ride  horseback;  the  knowl- 
edge of  flowers,  trees,  birds,  geography,  music,  photography, 
handicrafts,  literature  and  art — any  and  all  of  these  are  a 
resource  of  happiness  for  the  individual.  It  is  absolutely  neces- 
sary that  a  girl  should  learn  to  develop  within  herself  the  ability 
to  play  alone.  For  it  is  thus,  that  skill  and  expertness  are 
acquired  in  any  accomplishment  or  art,  and  the  consciousness 
of  power  within  the  girl  comes  to  be  based  on  real  effort  and 
achievement.  To  do  good  work  and  appreciate  good  work  in 

352 


solitude  means  the  enrichment  of  her  personality;  it  helps  her 
to  win  friends  and  hold  them;  and  it  aids  in  making  life  joyous 
for  herself  and,  through  her,  for  all  those  with  whom  she  comes 
in  contact. 

Family  Recreation. 

The  proper  balance  in  the  education  of  the  emotions  requires 
that  solitary  play  should  be  supplemented  with  social  play.  When 
either  is  preferred  to  the  total  exclusion  of  the  other,  the  girl's 
emotional  development  suffers. 

In  the  family  the  girl  finds  her  first  social  group.  Her  future 
social  relationships  are  built  up  out  of  the  early  habits  and 
attitudes  developed  within  the  home  circle.  Unfortunately,  the 
parents  sometimes  allow  burdensome  responsibility  or  ambitious 
striving  to  drive  the  spirit  of  play  out  of  the  door.  This  results 
in  an  emotional  poverty  in  the  home,  the  danger  of  which  is 
too  little  appreciated.  The  younger  members  of  the  family 
begin  to  feel  that  home  is  the  realm  of  must  and  don't  and 
that  real  play  is  only  to  be  found  in  the  outside  world.  The 
commercialized  amusements  of  the  present  day  thrive  upon  the 
exploitation  of  this  attitude,  which  can  only  be  counteracted  by 
the  recognition  that  amusement  and  play  have  a  necessary  and 
a  vital  place  in  family  life.  The  individuals  of  a  family  need  to 
learn  to  play  together  and  groups  of  families  need  to  learn  to 
play  together — for  the  mingling  of  old  and  young  in  a  spirit  of 
recreation  helps  to  keep  alive  the  sympathy  and  understanding 
between  old  and  young  which  so  easily  fails  to  function  if  not 
wisely  cultivated.  A  health  carnival,  a  tea,  a  party,  a  picnic, 
or  an  occasional  business  meeting  of  the  club  to  which  the 
families  of  the  members  are  invited  and  served  with  refresh- 
ments by  the  girls,  are  all  types  of  entertainment  which  should 
be  included  in  the  recreation  program  of  the  club. 

Club  or  Group  Recreation. 

This  type  of  recreation  supplies  the  opportunity  for  inspira- 
tion that  comes  from  fellowship  and  comradeship.  Girls  of  the 

353 


same  age  have  abundant  common  interests  on  which  to  base 
a  program.  While  learning  to  play  the  game  at  home  helps 
the  girl  later  in  her  play-life  with  the  group,  it  may  happen 
also  that  she  carries  back  into  the  home  again  the  inspiration 
she  has  gained  from  the  group.  The  development  of  individual, 
family  and  group  recreation  should  all  be  directed  in  such  a 
way  that  the  one  is  an  aid  and  encouragement  to  the  other. 

Community  Recreation. 

Community  recreation  is  built  up  from  the  foregoing  types. 
New  possibilities  arise,  however,  from  the  wider  cooperation 
involved  and  the  greater  resources  available.  A  club "  may 
demonstrate  to  the  community  methods  of  recreation  which  are 
capable  of  adaptation  for  more  inclusive  groups  and  a  larger 
number  of  individuals.  Types  of  play  which  lend  themselves 
well  to  community  use  are  roller-skating  parties,  both  indoors 
and  outdoors;  regular  hikes,  plays  and  pageants,  hare  and 
hound  chases,  match  games  between  different  groups  or  towns, 
swimming  campaigns  and  community  sings.  The  possibilities 
of  community  recreation  are  closely  related  to  the  particular 
facilities  of  the  locality  concerned,  whether  these  are  parks 
and  play  grounds,  spacious  public  buildings,  or  a  picturesque 
natural  environment.  In  the  right  use  of  the  existing  facilities, 
there  are  always  possibilities  of  satisfying  the  love  which  exists 
in  young  and  old  for  romance  and  adventure 

Recreational   Activities. 

Most  of  the  activities  which  follow  will  prove  available  for 
anyone  or  all  of  the  four  types  of  recreation.  The  special  events 
that  occur  in  the  development  of  these  types,  would  meet  the 
needs  of  one  particular  occasion  or  might  be  made  part  of 
a  plan  for  a  whole  year's  program.  These  suggestions  may  be 
given  unlimited  variety  by  adaptation  to  different  forms  of 
recreation,  outdoor,  indoor,  athletic,  social.  For  instance,  almost 
any  basketball  game,  played  with  balloons  and  limited  dis- 

354 


tances,  may  become  a  social  game,  instead  of  being  atHetic.  In 
the  same  way,  a  "conversational  game  played  at  a  Valentine 
Party  with  "Hearts'7  as  the  topic,  may  become  a  Hallowe'en 
game  with  "Ghosts"  as  the  topic  of  conversation.* 

A.    Play  Hours. 

The  play  hour  offers  an  opportunity  to  the  adviser  to  vivify 
the  program  of  the  club  through  the  use  of  the  play  spirit, 
music,  drama  and;  color.  For  instance,  if  the  serious  lesson 
of  the  day  be  world  fellowship,  the  play  hour  may  be  a  demon- 
stration of  play  in  other  lands,  or;  any  other  study  may  be 
thus  continued  over  into  the  play-hour  project.  The  hour 
should  begin  with  a  rollicking  game  to  get  everyone  interested 
and  eliminate  self-consciousness.  Then  girls  may  teach  games 
they  know,  not  only  using  the  entire  group  for  this,  but  also 
breaking  it  up  into  smaller  groups,  so  that  all  the  girls  may  have 
an  opportunity  to  teach.  Each  game  should  be  followed  by  dis- 
cussion of  the  way  in  which  it  might  be  improved,  where  it 
would  be  fun  to  use  it — at  home,  or  at  a  picnic.  Girls  should  be 
encouraged  to  use  the  games  and  dances,  songs  and  stories, 
which  they  learn,  not  only  in  pageants  and  plays,  but  at  their 
parties  and  other  social  entertainments,  in  family  and  school 
and  church  groups.  They  should  learn  to  apply  all  the  materials 
of  play  in  the  most  flexible  way. 

The  useful  points  in  teaching  games  should  be  remembered: 

Be  sure  you  know  your  game. 

The  explanation  should  be  brief  and  to  the  point. 

Waste  no  time  in  getting  started. 

Watch  the  group  for  change  of  interest,  changing  the  game 
just  before  the  first  person  is  ready  to  drop  out. 

Insist  on  fair  play. 

Friendliness  is  an  essential  factor. 

Give  directions  without  scolding — even  if  they  don't  listen! 
It  will  often  suffice  to  start  the  direction,  and  then  wait 
a  moment  and  start  over  again. 

355 


Speak  so  that  every  member  of  the  group  can  hear. 

When  the  game  is  a  guessing  game,  make  an  effort  to  have 

all  of  the  members  hear  and  be  heard. 
Guard   against   rowdyism   in   social   gatherings.     This   can 

be  done  usually  by  changing  the  rhythm  of  the  game 

being  played  or  by  substituting  for  it  another  activity 

of  a  different  rhythm. 

B.    Athletics. 

The  spirit  of  team  work  so  conspicuous  among  boys  is  often 
lacking  in  girls,  therefore  activities  which  develop  this  are  much 
needed.  They  should  provide  an  opportunity  to  arouse  girls  to 
the  health  value  and  the  intrinsic  interest  of  athletics.  Train- 
ing for  team  games  increases  the  efficiency  of  the  group  in  all 
group  activities.  Fundamentals  of  big  team  games  should  be 
learned  and  may  be  used  in  other  competitive  undertakings. 

1.  Individual  Adaptations. 

Form  in  serving  and  hitting  a  tennis  ball.  Tether  ball  is  an 

excellent  way  of  developing  skill  and  quickness. 

Pitching  a  baseball  (stones  may  be  used  for  practice  in 

throwing,  when  on  a  hike). 

Batting  a  baseball. 

Serving  and  returning  a  volley  ball. 

Basketball   goal  throwing  and  practice  games   such  as 

goal  throwing  relays,  allowing  thirty  seconds  to  throw 

as  many  goals  as  possible.     Progressive  goal  throwing 

(progressive  from  easy  positions  to  difficult  ones). 

Ball  passing.    All  kinds  of  ball  passing  games. 

Distance  throw  for  form. 

Principles  of  Newcomb. 

Land  Swimming  drill. 

Kicking  a  soccer  ball. 

2.  Group  Adaptations. 
Soccer  ball. 
Volley  ball. 

356 


Tennis. 
Baseball. 
Dodge  ball. 
Wall  ball. 
Kick  ball. 
Crosstag. 
Chinese  tag. 
Three  deep. 

All  kinds  of  passing;  games  (played  either  with  bean- 
bags  or  an  ordinary  ball  or  basketball). 

Track  meet   (indoor  and  outdoor  meets  are  splendid 
ways  of  bringing  groups  together  and  developing  real 
sportsmanlike  spirit).     Such  a  program  as  the  following 
could  be  used: 
Short  sprints. 

Throwing  balls  for  distance. 
Drilling. 

Folk  dancing  and  singing  (can  be  worked  into  a  program 
with  good  effect). 
Relay  races. 
'Competition  balancing. 
A  short  game  of  volley  ball. 
Tournament. 

C.  Hiking. 

Nature   study   hikes,   with    contests   for  finding   the 
largest  variety  of  plants,  trees,  flowers,  or  birds. 
Bacon  Bats. 

Over-night  hikes  with  ponchos   and  blankets;   sleeping 
under  the  stars. 
Hare  and  hound  chases. 

Hikes,  with  volley  ball  (a  string  strung  up  between  two 
trees  will  answer  this  purpose),  baseball,  story-telling 
singing  around  the  fire,  etc. 

D.  Swimming. 

Class  work — the  club  going  in  together. 

357 


Splash  parties. 

(The  following  articles  in  the  water  add  to  the  pleasure 

of  the  participants.) 

a.  Waterwings. 

b.  Inner  tube. 

c.  Rubber  and  cork  balls. 
e.    Canoe. 

5.  Camping. 
Week-end  camps. 
Vacation  camps. 
All  summer  camps. 

Canoeing,  boating,  horseback  riding,  launch  parties. 

6.  Winter  sports. 
Coasting. 
Skiing. 
Skating. 
Snow  shoeing. 

7*    Pageants   and  dramatics  for  different  occasions. 

Stunts  which  may  dramatize  different  group  experiences 

— "A  Day  at  Summer  Camp"  in  the  winter  time,  etc. 

Tableaux. 

Shadow  Pictures. 

Spring  Opening  Fashion  Show. 

Health  Farces  and  Plays. 

Simple  One  Act  Plays. 

Vesper    service    in    which    the    dramatic    and    pictorial 

elements  are  used. 

8.  Music. 

Dances  of  our  Land  and  other  Lands 
Songs  of  our  Land  and  other  Lands. 
Ukelele,  mandolin,  violin,  piano,  etc. 
Singing  carols. 

9.  Handicraft.     (See  Section  V,  Chapter  IV.) 

358 


10.    Parties  and  social  events  for  girls;  and  for  girls  and  boys. 
National  Holidays  as: 

Valentine. 
St.  Patrick's. 
April  Fool. 
May  Day  Party. 
Hallowe'en. 
Thanksgiving. 
Christmas. 

Special  Parties  ass 
Children's  Party. 
Family  Party. 
Character  Party. 
Mother  Goose  Characters. 
Famous  Characters. 
Books, 
Birthdays. 

Special  Events: 
Circus. 
County  Fair. 
"Spreads." 
Minstrel  Show. 

Health  Carnival  (Family  Recreation). 
A  club,  through  its  discussions,  arouses  an  interest  in  the 
individual  health  program1,  so  that  each  girl  becomes  imbued 
with  a  strong  desire  to  achieve  constructive  health.  She  goes 
home  and  begins  to  work  on  her  own  Individual  Health  Pro- 
gram, so  that  she  may  measure  up  to  her  club  standard  of 
health.  The  family  is  amused,  but  also  interested,  so  much  so 
that  when  the  invitations  to  the  Health  Carnival  come,  they 
are  eager  to  accept  and  see  what  it  is  all  about. 

This  same  health  interest  may  be  used  as  the  Style  Show 
for  the  special  event  in  a  boy  and  girl  party.    Later  in  the  year, 

359 


the  club  may  participate  in  an  event  which  will  epitomize  the 
work  and  ideals  of  the  whole  Association  for  the  community  or 
with  the  community. 

The  idea  of  the  Health  Carnival  here  briefly  outlined  may 
be  used  for  a  small  informal  gathering  or  expanded  to  a 
formal  Health  Exhibit,  with  elaborate  booths,  contests,  Fashion 
Shows,  plays,  pageants,  etc. 

A  ticket  similar  to  this  one  may  be  used.    It  may  be  desir- 
able to  have  fewer  tests  on  it: 
Admission,    the    drinking    of 
one  glass  of  water.  P<>sitive  Healt!l  Theater. 

Tickets    of   admission   to   be 
filled  out  during  the  evening. 


Av.  Wgt 

Lung  Capacity 
Total  Strength 

Posture  

Shoes    


Total    ... 
Av.  Total 


Clowns  act  as  ushers,  "Gen- 
eral Health"  being  the  name  of 
one  who  is  master  of  ceremonies, 
and  the  club  may  choose  names 
relating  to  health  for  the  others. 
Names  and  decorations  should 
be  chosen  from  the  various 
Health  Slogans:  Diet,  Clothing,  Shoes,  Exercise,  etc.  One  side 
or  end  of  the  room  may  be  made  into  booths,  and  the  rest  used 
for  the  seating  of  the  audience  and  a  stage. 

The  outside  of  the  booths  may  be  covered  with  posters. 

The  first,  height  and  weight  booth,  to  have  posters  with 
diet  lists  and  foods,  exercises,  in  and  out  of  door  activities. 
The  second,  lung  capacity,  to  have  posters  on  posture,  and 
activities  which  involve  deep  breathing.  The  third,  strength 
tests,  to  have  posters  on  food,  exercise,  dress,  general  health 
habits.  The  fourth,  shoe  exhibit,  with  posters  including  all 
Association  posters  and  originals  made  by  the  clubs.  The  fifth, 
demonstration  of  health  exercises.  The  sixth,  candy,  ice  cream, 
cake,  etc.,  may  be  sold.  An  hour  may  be  given  to  visiting  the 
booths,  having  individual  tests  given  and  summed  up  (see  the 
ticket). 

360 


The  next  hour  may  be  given  to  a  carnival  program  using 
health  stunts  by  the  clowns,  relay  games,  fathers  against  daugh- 
ters, etc.,  grotesque  dances,  a  competition  in  roller  skating,  a 
swimming  game  (if  there  is  a  pool  in  the  building),  a  com- 
petition in  health  songs,  composed  by  members,  also  one  in  the 
wittiest  healthgrams  delivered  in  the  form  of  telegrams  to 
"General  Health." 

(If  the  usual  apparatus  is  not  available,  substitutes  may  be 
used,  real  or  burlesque). 

Posters  may  be  ordered  from  The  Womans  Press,  600  Lex- 
ington Avenue,  N.  Y.  C. 

Grading  charts. 

Health  Inventory. 

Exercise  cards. 

Group  Activities. 

There  is  no  fun  like  working  for  the  thing  which  fulfills 
the  desire  for  play.  It  is  well  to  bear  this  in  mind  when  arrang- 
ing for  all  activities.  Any  social  gathering  is  like  a  piece  of 
music;  it  is  a  series  of  moods  which  must  be  blended  to  create 
harmony.  The  outstanding  manifestations  of  these  moods  are 
activity  and  quietness;  all  arrangements  on  such  occasions 
should  be  gradations  of  these  moods.  If  they  are  not  properly 
graded,  the  participants  will  not  have  a  good  time.  For  in- 
stance, if  very  active  games  are  played  continually,  the  party 
will  grow  wearisome;  on  the  other  hand,  a  continuous  program 
of  quiet  games  would  be  even  more  wearing.  Variety  both  in 
movement  and  interest  is  obtained  by  changing  the  activities 
of  the  group  and  varying  the  use  of  the  following  elements: 
play,  drama,  color  and  music. 

The  Planning  of  a  Party. 

Great  care  should  be  taken  to  make  as  large  as  possible  the 
number  of  girls  who  are  definitely  responsible  for  some  specific 
part  of  the  event.  Directions  to  these  individuals  should  be 
explicit;  they  should  be  given  to  the  whole  grqup  or  committee, 

361 


and  should  be  the  result  of  the  careful  consideration  of  the 
whole  event  by  the  group  or  committee — not  by  the  secretary 
alone.  A  hostess,  when  she  entertains  in  her  home,  either  opens 
the  door  herself  and  directs  her  guests  to  the  dressing  room 
or  the  servants  do  it.  She  naturally  expects  to  receive  them, 
to  see  that  they  are  entertained,  to  offer  them  refreshment 
and  divertisement  and  bid  them  adieu.  The  success  of  the 
whole  event  is  dependent  upon  the  hostess  and  her  ability  to 
anticipate  the  comfort  and  pleasure  of  her  guests.  When  the 
event  Is  over,  she  has  had  the  joy  of  extending  the  hospitality 
of  her  home  successfully  to  a  number  of  her  friends.  This 
should  be  borne  in  mind  when  an  entertainment  is  being  planned 
by  a  group  for  a  group.  Hence,  the  hostess'  feeling  of  respon- 
sibility and  the  consequent  joy  of  achievement  should  be  shared 
by  all  the  group.  Their  common  success  in  anticipating  the 
pleasure  and  comfort  of  "our  guest"  should  become  a  standard 
by  which  the  success  of  parties  is  measured.  Details  of  respon- 
sibility are  so  often  overlooked  when  groups  are  being  enter- 
tained; the  hostesses  are  not  quite  sure  of  what  they  are  to 
do,  and  consequently  not  quite  sure  of  themselves.  This  com- 
municates a  feeling  of  uncertainty  to  the  guests;  they  do  not 
know  where  to  go  to  remove  their  wraps,  and  they  are  not 
sure  when  things  are  going  to  start.  The  introduction,  by  the 
thoughtful  hostess,  of  people  who  ought  to  know  each  other,  or 
the  bringing  into  the  group  of  persons  who  hate  to  join  in — all 
of  these  things  are  essential  to  the  success  of  a  social  gathering. 
If  they  are  every  one's  responsibility,  they  are  no  one's,  and 
lor  that  reason  different  persons  of  the  group  should  be  detailed 
for  their  respective  parts  in  the  playing  of  hostess  and  the 
whole  group  should  share  in  the  satisfaction  of  having  made 
other  guests  happy  for  the  evening. 

Girl  and  Boy  Party. 

The  following  outline  for  such  a  party  may  prove  useful. 
There  may  be  one  leader  for  all  the  games,  or  the  leadership 
may  be  divided  Between  one  girl  who  takes  the  active  games 

362 


and  another  who  takes  the  quiet  ones,  etc.  It  must  be  remem- 
bered that  the  leader  should  be  familiar  with,  and  ready  to 
teach,  at  least  three  games  for  every  one  she  actually  does 
teach.  This  saves  embarrassment  when  there  is  more  time 
than  she  plans  for  or  when  it  is  necessary  to  substitute  for  one 
game,  which  does  not  go  well,  another  of  the  same  type  will  be 
successful. 

Introduction. 

Some  method  of  introduction  is  necessary;  the  receiving 
line,  the  introduction  game,  or  any  of  the  various  games  for 
getting  acquainted  may  be  used. 

Active. 

About  four  or  five,  a  number  of  which  should  be  musical  and 
some  of  which  should  require  frequent  changing  of  partners. 

Grand  March,  Rig-a-Jig,  Popularity,  etc. 

Eelay  races. 

Balloon  upkeep,  friendship  line,  etc. 
Quiet  Games. 

Various  guessing  games,  or  games  which  require  chairs. 
Music. 

Folk  or  country  dances,  as  pop  goes  the  weasel,  circle  (see 
Elizabeth  Burchanel's  book  on  "Country  Dances"). 

Nigarepolska  (see  "Icebreakers"  by  Edna  Geister). 

The  Dramatic  Element. 

A  special  feature  may  last  from  ten  to  twenty  minutes,  in 
which  one  or  more  members  of  the  group  entertain.  This  spe- 
cial feature  may  be  of  a  formal  or  informal  nature,  it  may  be 
a  chorus  or  play  by  the  hostesses,  or  impromptu  stunts,  or 
simple  charades.  There  may  also  be  singing  by  the  whole  group. 

Refreshments. 

The  serving  of  refreshments  is  the  opportunity  for  the  hos- 
tesses to  see  to  it  that  there  is  a  general  air  of  sociability. 
The  refreshments  themselves  will  do  much  toward  this.  A  pop- 
corn ball,  apples  and  cider,  a  hot  drink  or  a  cold  one — these 
simple  refreshments  are  generators  of  sociability. 

363 


Active  games  to  conclude   the  evening,  preferably  should  be 

music  games. 
Alphabet, 
Virginia  Reel. 
Going  to  Jerusalem. 

Group  singing,  with  a  few  popular  songs,  ending  with 
"Should  Auld  Acquaintance  Be  Forgot,"  "Good  Night,  Ladies," 
or  "My  Country  Tis  of  Thee/' 

•Such  parties  are  most  successful  when  they  do  not  exceed 
an  hour  and  a  half  or  two  hours  in  length.  If  longer,  the  play 
or  special  feature  should  be  longer. 

Field  Day  (Community  Recreation). 

A  field  day  meet  should  epitomize  and  demonstrate  the  vari- 
ous activities  of  one  club  group  or  a  number  of  clubs,  some  of 
which  may  be  Association  clubs  and  others  Community  organi- 
zations. The  average  person's  conception  of  a  field  meet  has 
been  limited  by  the  experience  of  many  people  who  have  par- 
ticipated in  or  observed  collegiate  meets.  These  meets  are  not 
adapted  to  community  use  because  of  the  necessity  of  almost 
professional  training  in  order  even  to  enter,  and  too  often  the 
basis  is  one  of  individual  success  rather  "than  the  success  of  the 
group  in  a  given  activity.  In  planning  a  field  day  which  will 
be  of  interest  to  the  community,  some  of  the  following  things 
should  be  borne  in  mind. 

A.  The  reproduction  in  one  form  or  another  of  all  the  vari- 
ous activities  which  have  entered  into  the  whole  year's  work. 

B.  The  intrinsic  interest  of  each  event  should  be  considered 
from  the  point  of  view  of  the  players  and  spectators.     They 
should  require  a  certain  amount  of  skill  and  yet  not  be  so 
difficult  but  that  all  may  take  part. 

C.  The  scoring  in  all  cases  should  be  for  the  team  and  not 
for  the  individual.    This  makes  all  events  team  events. 

D.  'General  suggestions  for  preparations  should  include  plans 
and    arrangements    for    insignia,    cheering,    trophies,    entries^ 
teams,  etc. 

364 


E.  The  officials  should  be  thoroughly  informed  of  their  du- 
ties, some  of  which  are: 

Referee.  The  referee  shall  enforce  all  rules  and  decide  all 
questions  relating  to  the  actual  conduct  of  the  day. 

•Captain.  The  president  of  a  club  or  one  duly  authorized 
by  her  should  be  captain  for  her  group.  She  shall  represent 
them  on  the  field  day  whenever  necessity  may  arise.  She  should 
have  charge  of  her  group  entry  blanks  and  see  that  they  are 
properly  represented. 

Inspectors.  Inspectors  should  stand  at  such  points  as  the 
referee  may  designate  and  watch  the  competition  closely  for 
fouls  and  enforce  penalties.  They  should  wear  a  distinguishing 
badge. 

Judges.  For  each  race  there  shall  be  two  who  will  decide 
at  the  finish  which  team  comes  in  first.  They  shall  report 
their  findings  to  the  official  score  keeper.  The  first  judge  shall 
act  as  starter.  All  races  may  be  started  with  a  whistle. 

Time  Keeper.  The  time  keeper  shall  call  time  as  directed  by 
referee  and  notify  each  group  in  advance  of  their  event  and 
place  each  competitor  behind  her  proper  mark. 

Scorer.  The  scorer  shall  record  the  winning  team  both  in 
preliminaries  and  finals.  No  individual  scores  shall  be  re- 
corded. 

The  events  may  consist  of  special  exercises  which  have  been 
demonstrated  during  club  meetings  in  connection  with  the 
health  work,  health  stunts,  and  competition  in  music,  singing 
contests,  and  dancing. 

Community  education  through  the  drama  may  be  included 
also  in  such  a  program.  A  pageant  which  puts  into  picture  form 
the  ideals  of  the  community  and  uses  some  activities  such  as 
folk  dancing  and  games,  which  have  been  learned  in  the  regular 
program  work,  etc.,  may  be  used  as  demonstration  of  a  method 
of  expression. 

365 


Social  Games. 

Games  for  Getting  Acquainted. 

1.  Lemon-lemon-lemon. 

Formation:     Single  circle  facing  center. 

Object:    To  learn  everyone's  name. 

When  there  are  twenty-five  girls  in  circle,  have  five  girls 
in  center.  Each  person  in  the  circle  learns  the  names  of 
girls  on  either  side.  On  a  signal  the  five  girls  in  the  center 
run  in  all  directions  and  point  at  a  person  counting  ten. 
While  they  are  counting,  the  person  being  pointed  at  must 
say  both  names  before  ten  is  said;  if  she  doesn't  she  is  a 
"lemon"  and  must  go  into  the  circle  and  be  "it,"  The  girl 
who  has  just  counted  takes  her  place. 

2.  What  are  you  going  to  do? 

Printed  slips  answering  the  question,  "What  are  you 
going  to  do?  are  passed  out  to  the  guests.  They  must,  in 
pantomime,  show  what  they  are  going  to  do  and  look  for  a 
person  who  is  going  to  do  the  same  thing.  Such  things  as 
the  following  may  be  given:  Going  walking  in  the  rain. 
(The  person  carries  an  umbrella  and  goes  through  various 
motions  which  will  lead  one  to  believe  that  he  is  walking  in 
the  rain.)  Swimming,  Paddling,  'Skating.  Each  person 
goes  about  asking  "What  are  you  going  to  do?"  and  the 
person  addressed  may  only  answer  in  pantomime.  This  goes 
on  until  each  person  has  found  a  partner. 

3.  The  Millionaire  Friends. 

This  is  a  good  mixer  which  will  get  everyone  to  shaking 
hands.  The  leader  in  charge  donates  a  dime  to  the  cause. 
This  is  given  to  someone  in  the  group.  The  others,  of 
course,  do  not  know  who  holds  it.  The  leader  announces 
that  the  one  holding  the  dime  will  give  it  to  the  tenth  per- 
son shaking  hands  with  him.  Everyone  at  once  begins  shak- 
ing hands.  The  one  who  holds  the  dime  must  keep  an 
accurate  account  and  give  it  to  the  tenth  person.  A  prize 
may  be  given. 

366 


Active. 
4.    Balloon  Ball  (yellow  and  blue). 

The  players  are  divided  into  two  teams,  the  yellows  and 
the  blues.  Each  team  is  then  divided  into  two  sections.  The 
room  is  divided  into  four  equal  parts  by  lengths  of  ribbon 
fastened  to  chairs.  'Section  one  of  the  yellow  stands  in  the 
space  marked  off  by  the  first  two  lengths  of  ribbon,  section 
one  of  the  blues  stands  in  the  next  space,  section  two  of  the 
yellows  stands  in  the  third  space,  section  two  of  the  blues 
occupies  the  next.  This  arrangement  brings  a  section  of 
the  yellow  team  between  two  sections  of  the  blue,  and  vice 
versa. 

The  balloon  is  tossed  up  between  two  players,  one  from 
each  team,  who  stand  on  the  opposite  sides  from  the  middle 
line.  Each  faces  her  own  group  and  tries  to  strike  the 
balloon  with  her  hand  toward  her  own  players.  The  team 
which  gets  the  balloon  tries  to  keep  it.  That  is,  if  the  yel- 
lows get  the  balloon,  they  try  to  throw  it  over  the  heads  of 
the  blues  so  that  the  other  section  of  their  own  team  gets  it. 
They  continue  throwing  back  and  forth.  The  blues  try  to 
intercept  the  balloon  and  keep  it,  passing  it  back  and  forth 
between  the  two  sections  of  their  team  over  the  heads  of  the 
yellows. 

Instead  of  scoring  one  point  every  time  the  balloon  is 
caught,  each  side  may  score  only  when  the  round  trip  is 
made;  that  is,  when  it  is  caught  from  one  section  and  re- 
turned to  that  section  and  caught.  When  there  are  many 
players,  two  balloons  may  be  used.  A  score-keeper  for  each 
balloon  is  necessary.  When  balloons  are  not  available,  a  ball 
may  be  made  by  crushing  colored  crepe  paper,  and  winding 
it  with  a  cord. 

5.   Feather  Blow. 

The  players  kneel  on  the  floor  or  sit  around  a  table,  with, 
a  sheet  or  blanket  stretched  between  them,  which  they  hold 
by  the  edges.  A  feather  is  put  on  the  blanket.  As  many 

367 


may  play  as  can  get  near.  They  may  be  in  sides,  two  or 
four,  or  each  for  herself.  At  the  signal  "Go"  each  tries  to 
blow  the  feather  off  the  blanket  at  the  enemy's  side  and  to 
count  one  for  herself.  It  is  usually  best  to  stop  the  game 
when  a  score  of  seven,  eleven  or  thirteen  points  has  been 
made. 

6.  Column  Ball. 

The  players  sit  down,  or  stand,  in  two  rows  about 'five 
feet  apart  and  face  each  other.  The  object  of  this  game  is 
to  cause  the  balloon  to  fall  on  the  opponents'  side.  Players 
may  arise  to  bat  the  balloon  but  must  sit  down  immediately 
after  hitting  it.  One  or  more  balloons  may  be  used. 

7.  Folding  Ohair  Eelay. 

This  is  a  good  game  for  large  groups  of  people.  The 
formation  for  it  may  be  easily  arranged  after  a  march, 
which  finishes  with  the  group  in  lines  of  eight  (8)  alternat- 
ing between  boys  and  girls.  Arrange  four  lines  of  partners 
with  spaces  in  between.  Several  feet  in  front  of  the  lines, 
place  folding  chairs,  one  for  each  line.  When  a  whistle 
blows  the  first  couple  in  each  line  runs  forward.  The  gen- 
tleman picks  up  the  chair,  unfolds  it,  places  it  for  the  lady, 
the  lady  sits  down,  gets  up;  the  gentleman  folds  the  chair, 
puts  it  back  on  the  floor,  takes  the  lady's  hand;  together 
they  run  back  to  place,  touch  the  hand  of  the  first  couple 
waiting  for  them  in  their  line  and  run  to  the  rear  of  line. 
Each  couple  in  turn  does  the  same  thing.  The  line  whose 
leading  couple  returns  to  place  first,  wins  the  game. 

8.  Hoops. 

Relay  formation.  The  first  girl  in  each  line  is  provided 
with  a  barrel  hoop  or  willow  hoop  covered  with  colored 
paper  or  cloth  to  match  decorations.  At  a  signal  she  raises 
it,  pulls  It  down  over  her  head,  shoulders  and  body,  steps 
out  of  it  and  hands  it  to  the  one  behind  her.  Then  she  goes 
to  the  end  of  the  line  at'  once.  The  object  of  each  line  is  of 
course  to  draw  itself  through  the  hoops  in  the  shortest 
time. 

368 


Semi- Active, 

9.  The  Lamplighter. 

Each  contestant  is  given  a  lighted  candle.  The  one  who 
in  the  shortest  time  reaches  a  distant  goal  with  his  candle 
burning-,  wins.  If  the  candle  goes  out,  contestant  must  re- 
turn to  the  starting  point  to  have  it  relighted.  The  relay 
plan  must  be  used. 

10.  The  Wind  Blows. 

The  players  stand  in  open  gymnastic  formation.  The 
leader  says  "The  wind  blows  east,"  upon  which  all  turn 
east.  If  the  leader  says  "Turn  west,"  without  the  first  part, 
the  players  stand  still.  If  any  player  turns  in  the  wrong 
direction  or  does  not  move  when  he  should,  he  changes  place 
with  the  center  player. 

11.  Wander  Ball. 

Players  sit  in  a  circle.  A  soft  ball  or'  bean  bag  is  put  in 
circulation,  being  passed  from  one  to  the  other  in  direct 
succession.  As  it  is  being  passed,  all  players  say  in  unison, 
"Kound  and  round  the  wander  ball  goes,  I  wonder  who  is  go- 
ing to  be  'it'."  When  "it"  is  pronounced,  whoever  has  the 
ball  must  get  in  the  circle.  Continue  until  all  are  in  the 
circle.  No  one  can  refuse  to  take  the  ball  when  his  turn 
comes.  Other  articles  may  be  used. 

12.  Jerusalem  and  Jericho. 

Useful  for  large  groups.  The  leader  stations  himself 
where  all  can  see,  and  announces  that  when  he  says  "Jeri- 
cho" no  one  should  bow.  The  leader  seeks  to  confuse  the 
others  by  bowing  at  either  word.  When  one  makes  a  mis- 
take he  must  take  the  place  of  the  leader.  Change  words 
rapidly.  Words  of  local  interest  which  sound  somewhat 
alike  may  well  be  used. 

Quiet. 

13.  Choosing  a  Course  of  Study. 

Each  person  says  what  she  thinks  are  the  most  impor- 
tant courses  of  study.  As  her  choice  is  limited  to  courses 

369 


beginning  with  the  initials  of  her  own  name,  the  courses 
vary  decidedly;  these  Initials  may  be  used  also  to  describe 
personal  characteristics. 

14.  Hat  Trimming  Contest. 

Give  each  player  a  sheet  of  ordinary  brown  wrapping- 
paper,  two  or  three  sheets  of  tissue  paper  of  bright  colors, 
some  pins  and  a  pair  of  scissors  and  tell  her  to  make  and 
trim  a  hat  The  most  successful  hat  can  be  selected  by 
judges  or  by  popular  vote. 

15.  My  Vacation. 

Make  booklets  with  the  pages  entitled  "My  earliest  pho- 
tograph," "My  latest  picture/'  "Who  went  with  me,"  "How 
we  went,"  "Where  we  lived,"  "Some  people  we  met/'  "An 
accident,"  "How  it  turned  out,"  "Our  happiest  moment,"  "A 
near  tragedy,"  "Finis/5  etc.  Give  each  girl  an  old  maga- 
zine, a  pair  of  scissors  and  paste.  She  is  to  cut  illustrations 
from  the  magazine  for  the  pages  of  her  booklet  and  can 
make  some  very  amusing  combinations,  adding  poetry  if  she 
is  clever. 

Folk  Dances. 

Circle  Dance. 

Music  2/4  rhythm  (this  rhythm  makes  possible  the  use  of 
popular  music). 

Partners  join  inside  hands,  take  eight  walking  steps  in  the 
line  of  direction,  hands  swinging  easily.  Take  eight  skipping 
steps  in  the  line  of  direction. 

All  face  center  and  join  hands,  forming  a  single  circle. 

Take  eight  slides  to  the  left  and  eight  slides  to  the  right. 

Still  remaining  in  a  single  circle,  partners  face  each  other. 
Boy  will  have  left  side  toward  center  of  circle.  All  take  four 
slides  to  the  left.  This  will  take  the  boy  toward  center  of  circle, 
girl  away  from  center. 

Take  four  slides,  returning  to  place. 

370 


All  take  four  slides  to  the  right,  girl  sliding  toward  center 
of  circle,  boy  away  from  center. 

Take  four  slides,  returning  to  place. 

Link  right  arm  with  partner.  Take  eight  skipping  steps 
circling  around  partner. 

Link  left  arm  with  partner,  take  six  skipping  steps,  "circling 
around  partner  in  opposite  direction.  On  the  seventh  and 
eighth  counts  partners  unlink  arms  and  progress  to  new  part- 
ners. Boy  will  progress  counter-clockwise,  girls  clockwise. 

At  the  end  of  this  figure  dancers  should  immediately  fall 
into  place  by  the  side  of  new  partners,  being  careful  that  the 
boy  is  on  the  outside  of  the  circle,  and  the  girl  is  on  the  inside. 

Dance  may  be  repeated  as  often  as  desired,  with  a  new  part- 
ner each  time. 

Sliding  Dance. 

Music  2/4 

All  join  hands,  forming  a  circle,  and  take  eight  slides  to  the 
left. 

Take  eight  slides  right. 

Take  three  steps  forward  toward  center  of  circle  and  stamp 
vigorously  on  the  fourth  count. 

Take  three  steps  backward  to  place  and  stamp  on  the  fourth 
count. 

Partners  face  each  other,  and  link  each  other's  right  arms. 
In  this  position,  take  four  skips,  turning  in  place. 

Partners  join  both  hands,  arms  extended,  and  stand  so  that 
the  boy  has  his  left  shoulder  toward  the  center  of  circle,  girl  her 
right,  and  slide  to  the  center  and  then  slide  back  to  former 
position. 

Repeat  three  times,  moving  toward  center  of  circle. 

371 


Suggested  Bibliography   on   Recreation. 
Popular  Amusements — Edwards.     (Social  aspect  of  recreation 

problems.) 
Christianity  and  Amusements — Kichard  Henry  Edwards. 

Games  for  Gymnasium,  Home  and  School — Jessie  Bancroft. 
An  encyclopedia  of  games. 

Handbook  of  Athletic  Games — Pulmacher  and  Bancroft. 
Good  suggestions  for  coaching  major  team  games. 

Play  and  Recreation — Henry  P.  Curtis. 

Suggestions  for  sports  and  community  athletics. 
Stunts — Capt.  Pearl. 

A  valuable  book  for  every  physical  director  or  director  in 

athletics. 

Producing  Amateur  Entertainments — Helen  Ferris. 
Published  by  E.  P.  Button  &  Co. 

Ice  Breakers — Edna  Geister. 
Suggestions  for  Parties. 
Published  by  The  Womans  Press. 

Social  Games  and  Group  Dances — Elsom  and  Trilling, 

.Suggestions  for  Parties — Music  for  several  dances  given. 

Outdoor  Games  and  Sports — Miller. 
Published  by  Doubleday  Page  Co. 

Book  of  Woodcraft  and  Indian  Lore — Ernest  Seton  Thompson. 
Entertainingly  written,  excellent  suggestions  for  camping 
or  interesting  girls  in  hikes,  etc. 

Recreation  in  the  Church — Herbert  Wright  Sales. 

Spaldings — Athletic  Library— Girls  Athletics — American  Sports 
Publishing  Co. 
Inexpensive  but  good. 

Children  at  Play  in  Many  Lands— Katherine  S.  Hall. 

Published   by   Missionary  Education  Movement,   156    Fifth 
Avenue,  New  York. 

372 


Community  Activities — Russell  Sage  Foundation,  35e,  130  East 
Twenty-second  Street,  New  York. 

Contains  information  as  to  where  helps  for  all  community 
activities  may  be  found,  valuable  reference  book. 

Community  Service  Publications,  1  Madison  Avenue,  New  York 
City. 

Material  available  from  Womans  Press: 
Material  prepared  by  Helen  Durham. 

1.  A  series  of  simple  and  elaborate  parties. 

2.  Y.  W.  C.  A.  Circus. 

3.  Groups  of  dances  described  in  detail  for  industrial  girls. 

4.  A  revision  of  "Fashion  Revue  Down  Petticoat  Lane." 

Special  Parties — Era  Betzner. 

Polite  and  Social  Dances — Marie  R.  Hoper. 
Published  by  Clayton  F.  Summy. 

Folk  Dances  and  Singing  Games — Elizabeth  Burchenal. 

Published  by  G.  Schirmer,  3  East  Forty-third  Street,  New 
York, 

Bright  Ideas  for  Money-Making — Jacobs. 

Published  by  George  W.  Jacobs,  Philadelphia. 

Our  American  Holidays — Robert  H.  Schauffler 
Yard  &  Co.,  New  York. 

Nine  volumes  on  holiday  celebrations,  published  by  Moffat, 
Yard  &  Co.,  New  York. 


373 


CHAPTER   III. 

NATURE    LORE. 

Give  me  Thy  harmony,  O  Lord,  that  I 
May  understand  the  beauty  of  the  sky, 
The  rhythm  of  the  soft  wind's  lullaby 
The  sun  and  shadow  of  the  wood  in  spring, 
And  Thy  great  love  that  divells  in  everything! 
— ALEXANDER  PRINGLE. 

LOVE  of  nature  is  instinctive  in  all  peoples — children  rejoice 
in  -flowers  and  birds,  but  Because  of  present  modes  of 
living  this  instinctive  quality  needs  to  be  cultivated.  Girls  who 
have  lived  always  in  cities  have  had  very  little  opportunty  for 
free  observation  of  plants,  birds,  trees  and  stars,  while  the  girls 
of  small  towns  and  the  open  country  are  so  accustomed  to  the 
sight  of  all  that  their  very  "accustomedness"  has  led  them  to 
a  neglect  of  the  very  real  pleasures  of  knowing  the  great  out- 
door world.  Confusion  also  results  from  the  great  variety  of 
flowers,  ferns,  birds,  trees,  grasses,  bugs,  insects,  fish,  rock,  etc., 
and  it  is  hard  to  know  where  to  find  these  friends  of  the  out  of 
doors. 

The  following  rules,  from  The  Woodcraft  Manual  for  Girls, 
on  "How  to  Know  the  Wild  Things,"  will  be  helpful  to  all  girls' 
work  secretaries  and  advisers  as  they  attempt  the  difficult  task 
of  interpreting  Nature  Lore,  both  in  and  out  of  a  regular  club 
program: 

"First,  take  one  thing  at  a  time.  Second,  'Look  in  the 
book/  Have  a  simple  but  comprehensive  guide  book  (if  possi- 
ble one  that  you  can  own)  that  tells  in  simple,  clear  language 
the  main  facts.  Later,  make  a  record  in  a  notebook  of  what 
you  see  and  either  make  drawings  or  preserve  specimens. 
Fourth,  if  you  have  a  friend  'who  knows/  get  information  from 
her  as  to  the  specimen  you  have  seen  or  have  in  your  posses- 
sion." 

374- 


Just  what  the  content  of  such  interpretation  will  be  and  the 
form  of  it,  is  difficult  to  state  because  of  the  widely  varying 
groups  which  this  material  will  serve,  but  the  following  inter- 
pretative material  will  undoubtedly  be  of  service: 

THE   STARS 

I  care  not  for  public  opinion, 

So  paltry  is  fame  or  disgrace, 
But  I  pray  that  I'll  always  be  able 

To  look  all  the  stars  in  the  face. 

R.  McCann. 

Suggested  outlines  for  study  of  the  stars  by  advisers  and 
club  girls  are  included  in  this  chapter.  It  will  be  necessary  of 
course  for  individual  advisers  and  secretaries  to  determine  with 
the  help  of  the  girls  just  where  in  the  year's  work  this  study 
will  be  undertaken  and  then  to  find  complete  information  in  the 
several  texts  and  Nature  'Study  pamphlets,  which  are  listed  in 
the  Bibliography  at  the  end  of  this  chapter. 

I.     The  Sky  Winter  Nights. 

A.  Recognizing  a  star. 

B.  Watching  the  sky:  Ten  Lessons  Out  of  Doors. 

1.  Finding  North. 

2.  Some  Conspicuous  Star  Groups. 

3.  Some  Other  Star  Groups  and  Objects  of  Special  In- 
terest. 

4.  From  Sunset  to  Midnight. 

5.  The  Waxing  Moon. 

6.  The  Waning  Moon. 

7.  The  Milky  Way. 

8.  The  Planets. 

9.  The  Winter  Sun. 
10.    The  Year  Passes. 

C.  Explaining  the  Sky:  Ten  Lessons  Indoors. 
1.   The  Starry  Sky. 

375 


2.  The  Changing  Sky. 

3.  The  Phases  of  the  Moon. 

4.  A  Trip  to  the  Moon. 

5.  Among  Other  Worlds. 

6.  Our  Star:    The  Sun. 

7.  Our  Corner  of  the  Universe. 

8.  The  Year  Passes. 

9.  Why  Winter. 

10.  Some  Great  Astronomers  and  Their  Discoveries. 

IL    The  Sky:    Spring  and  Summer  Nights. 

A.  Virgo,  the  Virgin. 

The  constellation  that  announces  the  coming  of  Spring. 

B.  Bootes,  the  Herdsman;   Corona   Borealis,  the   Northern 
Crown;  Hercules,  the  Kneeler;  Coma  Berenices,  the  Hair 
of    Berenice.    The   Northern  'Crown,    and   the   Hair    of 
Berenice  are  among  the  surprises  of  the  summer  sky. 

C.  Leo,  the  Lion. 

A  Royal  Constellation. 

D.  Gemini  the  Twins. 
They  suggest  their  name. 

E.  Auriga,  the  Charioteer. 

A  winter  constellation  that  lingers  in  the  evening  sky 
until  summer  and  hastens  to  appear  again  in  the  fall. 

F.  Scorpius,  the  Scorpion. 

The  constellation  that  announces  the  summer. 

G.  Sagittarius,  the  Archer. 

The  Archer  aims  his  arrow  at  the  heart  of  the  Scorpion, 

but  he  never  lets  it  fly. 
H.  Cygnus,  the  Swan;  Aquila,  the  Eagle;  Lyra,  the  Lyre; 

Delphinus,  the  Dolphin. 

The  most  beautiful  of  summer  and  fall  constellations. 
I.   Pegasus,  the   Winged   Horse;   Andromeda,  the   Chained 

Maiden;  Perseus,  the  Champion. 

The  "most  romantic  constellations. 

376 


siliiiiii 


Ursa 
Minor 


NbrtlvStar 


Cassiopeia 

1  ,  9  p.  m.    Northern  Horizon 


URSA  MAJOR,  THE  BIG  BEAR;  URSA  MINOR,  THE  LITTLE 
BEAR;  CASSIOPEIA,  THE  QUEEN;  DRACO,  THE  DRAGON. 
These  are  visible  all  the  year  in  the  latitude  of  New  York  or  further 
north.  May  I,  9  p.m.,  Ursa  Major  almost  overhead,  bowl  of  Big  Dipper 
opening  downward;  bowl  of  Little  Dipper  in  Ursa  Minor  at  the  right 
of  fhe  North  Star;  Cassiopeia  low  in  the  north;  head  of  Draco  in  the 
northeast 

377 


Showing  four  different  positions  of  the  Big  Dipper  during  twenty-four  hours 


378 


BOOTES,  THE  HERDSMAN;  CORONA,  BOREALIS,  THE 
NORTHERN  CROWN;  HERCULES,  THE  KNEELER. 

Look  for  these  between  April  I  and  October  i. 

May  i,  9  p.m.,  Bootes  high  in  the  east,  Hercules  lower  toward  the 
northeast;  Corona  between  Bootes  and  Hercules. 

July. -I,  9  p.ni.,  Corona  and  Hercules  almost  overhead;  Bootes 
further  west 

September  i,  9  p.m.,  Bootes  low  north  of  west;  Corona  and  Her- 
cules higher  in  the  west. 

379 


Showing  how  to  find  Coma  Berenices  from  Arcturus, 
from  Spica,  or  from  the  Big  Dipper. 


380 


H 
C/3 

w 
W 

H 


X 

1 

en 

"g 
e> 


J.   Ursa  Major,  the  Great  Bear;  Ursa  Minor,  the  Little  Bear; 
Cassiopeia,  the  Queen;  Draco,  the  Dragon. 

Always  visible  in  northern  latitudes. 
K.  The  Stars  the  Night  Through. 

Lucky  campers  who  can  make  the  heavens  their  roof. 
L.  Telling  Time  by  the  Stars. 

Nature's  own  Time  piece. 
M.  The  Twenty  Brightest  Stars. 

Eleven  of  these  can  be  seen  in  the  evening  in  April. 
N.  Pronunciation. 

The  names   of  stars  are  no  harder  to  learn  than  the 

names  of  our  human  friends. 

THE  MOON. 

I.     A  Trip  to  the  Moon. 

A.  What?    Where?    Why? 

A  fascinating  tale  of  a  journey  to  the  moon  which  makes 
one  appreciate  the  beauties  of  the  earth. 

Flowers,  Trees,  Birds,  Insects. 

All  secretaries  and  advisers  of  girls  will  be  grateful  indeed 
to  have  "Nature  in  Camp,"  a  most  attractive  pamphlet,  in  their 
kits  when  they  go  to  camp  or  conference  or  even  for  an  all- 
day  hike  or  a  few  hours  in  the  woods  and  meadows.  It  has 
been  written  for  use  particularly  by  girls  who  have  only  two 
weeks  in  camp,  and  the  lists  of  flowers,  ferns,  birds,  insects, 
etc.,  include  only  those  which  are  most  easily  found.  Most  of 
the  plants  and  insects  and  birds  named  are  very  common  and 
widely  distributed.  As  for  the  star-groups  mentioned,  they  can 
be  studied  on  the  North  Temperate  Zone  the  world  around,  from 
Europe  and  Asia  as  well  as  from  North  America,  for  stars  have 
this  advantage  over  plants,  that  in  any  given  latitude  the  same 
ones  can  be  observed  from  land  and  sea,  from  desert  and  from 
mountain.  The  directions  for  its  use  show  many  possibilities  to 
the  enterprising:  It  is  easier  to  remember  the  name  of  a  plant 

382 


if  the  name  is  seen  in  print.  Therefore,  take  this  pamphlet 
with  yon  on  your  walks,  and  when  an  adviser  or  friend  intro- 
duces a  plant  to  you,  check  its  name  in  the  list.  Check  a  sec- 
ond time  when  you  are  sure  you  can  recognize  it.  It  is  better 
to  know  twenty  well  than  to  be  able  to  name  one  hundred,  with 
no  real  acquaintance.  Look  closely  at  each  flower.  Often  its 
greatest  beauty  is  hidden.  Notice  the  number  and  peculiarities 
of  its  sepals,  petals,  stamen  and  pistils.  Try  to  get  acquainted 
with  insects  without  killing  them.  You  can  approach  very  near 
to  many  butterflies,  if  you  are  careful. 

I.    Nature  in  Camp. 

A.  One  Hundred  Plants  Flowering  in  July  and  August. 

1.  Flowers — White. 

2.  Flowers— Yellow. 

3.  Flowers — Orange,  Pink  or  Red. 

4.  Flowers — Blue  or  Purple. 

5.  Flowers — Greenish  or  Inconspicuous. 

B.  Twenty  Ferns  Conspicuous  in  July  and  August. 

C.  Twenty-five  Trees. 

D.  Summer    Stars — -Seven    bright    stars,    visible    between 
eight  and  eleven  o'clock  in  July  and  August. 

Fifteen  star  groups  visible  in  July  and  August. 

E.  Forty  Land  Birds  Easily  Found  in  Summer. 

F.  A  few  of  Our  iCommon  Insects. 

1.  Butterflies, 

2.  Moths. 

3.  Beetles. 

4.  Flies. 

5.  Bees,  Wasps,  Ants. 

6.  Bugs. 

7.  Grasshoppers,  Crickets,  etc. 

383 


Stars. 

The  Monthly  Evening  Star  Map. — Leon  Barrett,  Editor 
and  Publisher,  150  Nassau  Street,  New  York  City,  40c  each. 
This  is  the  paper  to  consult  for  current  events  in  the  sky. 
It  not  only  gives  a  map  of  the  evening  sky,  but  it  also 
answers  the  questions  boys  and  girls  are  always  asking: 
What  is  the  evening  star?  Why  did  people  think  that  the 
world  was  coming  to  an  end  December,  1919  ?  Are  wireless 
signals  coming  from  Mars?  And  if  there  is  any  question 
that  it  does  not  answer  send  it  to  Mr.  Barrett,  for  he  has  a 
question  and  answer  column  for  that  purpose. 

A  Beginner's  Star  Book. — Kelvin  McKready.  G.  P.  Put- 
nam's Sons,  $3.50.  This  is  one  of  the  best  popular  books  in 
astronomy.  It  should  be  in  every  nature  library.  One  of 
its  best  features  is  the  excellent  photographs  it  contains — 
photographs  of  the  moon,  the  planets,  star-clusters,  comets, 
Nebulae,  as  seen  with  the  best  telescopes.  Such  a  book  is 
a  good  substitute  for  a  visit  to  an  observatory. 

The  Sky,  Winter  Nights.— ^Louise  Brown.  The  Womans 
Press,  600  Lexington  Avenue,  New  York  City,  35c.  A  course 
for  busy  young  people  who  want  to  get  acquainted  with  the 
starry  sky  through  their  own  observations.  This  pamphlet 
is  adapted  for  use  by  individuals  or  by  clubs.  It  gives  direc- 
tions for  ten  lessons  out  of  doors,  and  ten  lessons  indoors, 
with  seven  charts  of  constellations  visible  in  the  winter  and 
spring. 

The  Sky,  Spring  and  Summer  Nights. — Louise  Brown. 
The  Womans  Press,  600  Lexington  Avenue,  New  York  Citv, 
40c.  A  description  of  constellations  visible  spring  and  sum- 
mer evenings, 'with  twenty  illustrative  charts.  Designed  es- 
pecially for  use  in  camps. 

All  Night  With  the  Stars. — Louise  Brown,  The  Womans 
Press,  600  Lexington  Avenue,  New  York  City,  20c. 

A  Trip  to  the  Moon. — Louise  Brown.  The  Womans 
Press,  600  Lexington  Avenue,  New  York  City,  25c.  A  story 

384 


of  the  experiences  of  some  girls  who  visit  the  moon.  Only 
a  story — but  of  value  for  those  who  want  a  real  acquaint- 
ance with  this  nearest  neighbor  of  ours. 
Starland. — Sir  Robert  Ball.  Ginn  and  Company,  $1.20.  One 
of  the  best  astronomies  for  boys  and  girls  and  delightful 
reading  for  everybody.  Do  you  want  to  know  how  we  know 
how  far  off  the  moon  is,  why  it  changes  its  shapes,  why 
we  have  winter  and  summer.  This  is  the  book  to  give  you 
answers  that  you  can  understand. 

Flowers. 

Field  Book  of  American  Wild  Flowers. — F  Schuyler 
Mathews.  G.  P.  Putnam  Sons,  $3.00. 

How  to  Know  the  Wild  Flowers. — Mrs.  Wm.  Starr 
Dana.  Charles  Scribner's  Sons,  $3.00. 

Flower  Guide. — Chester  A.  Reed,  Doubleday,  Page  & 
Co.,  $1.25 

These  remain  the  best  flower  books  for  beginners.  Those 
who  know  some  botany  will  prefer  the  more  complete  man- 
uals of  Gray  or  Britton. 

Ferns. 

Our  Ferns  and  Their  Haunts. — William  Nelson  Clute. 
Frederick  A.  Stokes  Co.,  $2.50.  Ferns  are  much  easier  to 
identify  than  the  average  person  realizes.  The  ostrich 
fern,  and  the  little  polypody,  once  known,  becomes  as  dear 
friends  as  hepaticas  and  violets. 

Trees. 

Our  Native  Trees. — Hariet  L.  Keeler.  Charles  Scribner's 
Sons,  $3.00.  One  of  the  best  books  for  the  study  of  trees. 

Insects. 

The  Butterfly  Guide.— W.  J.  Holland.  Doubleday,  Page  & 
Co.,  $1.25.  Manual  for  the  Study  of  Insects.  John  H. 
Comstock.  Comstock  Publishing  Co.,  Ithaca,'  N.  Y.,  $3.75. 

385 


The  Butterfly  Guide  is  excellent  for  butterflies  but  no  inex- 
pensive book  has  yet  been  published  for  moths  and  other 
insects.  Comstock's  Manual  is  a  large  book  but  there  is 
none  better  for  the  club  leader  who  really  wishes  an 
acquaintance  with  insect  life. 

Birds. 

Land  Birds.— ^Chester  A.  Reed.  Doubleday,  Page  &  Co., 
$1.25.  Handbook  of  Birds  of  Eastern  North  America. 

Bird  Studies  With  a  Camera.— F.  M.  Chapman.  D.  Ap- 
pleton  &  Co.,  $3.00.  Education  Building,  Albany,  N.  Y. 
It  is  hard  to  select  the  best  bird  books  from  the  large  num- 
ber in  the  market. 

The  bird  pictures  issued  by  the  Educational  Department 
in  Albany  are  excellent.  The  National  Association  of  Audu- 
bon  iSocieties,  1974  Broadway,  New  York  City,  publishes 
leaflets  and  a  magazine  of  interest  to  all  bird  lovers. 

The  Dennison  Manufacturing  Company  presents  for  use 
as  stickers  some  very  attractive  reproductions  in  colors 
of  birds  most  usually  known.  These  stickers  will  help  to 
make  most  attractive  records  of  bird  study  trips.  Secure 
them  at  62  East  Randolph  Street,  Chicago,  or  Fifth  Avenue 
and  26th  .Street,  New  York  City. 

General  Helps. 

Secure  "Nature  in  Camp."  Price  ten  cents,  from  The 
Womans  Press,  600  Lexington  Avenue,  New  York  City. 

The  Boy  Scout  Manual  and  the  Woodcraft  Manual  for 
Girls,  both  have  good  material  in  them.  Secure  from  the 
public  library  stories  about  the  stars,  especially  any  myths 
connected  with  them.  See  also,  "Trees  Stars,  Birds,"  by 
Edwin  Moseley,  World  Book  Company,  Yonkers,  New  York. 
$1.40. 

386 


CHAPTER   IV. 

HANDICRAFT. 

HANDICRAFT,  like  any  other  program  activity,  has  a  two- 
fold value — one,  the  actual  product  of  the  work  done, 
and  the  other,  an  intangible  resultant  in  the  spirit  of  a  girl 
who,  herself,  has  striven  to  create  or  reproduce  a  thing-  of 
beauty.  The  latter  can  never  be  computed  in  definite  terms 
but  any  friend  of  girls  will  always  take  it  into  consideration 
and  consciously  strive  to  incorporate  this  ideal  into  any  handi- 
craft program.  For  clubs  which  wish  to  include  it,  the  following 
suggestions  are  made;  it  is  essential,  in  carrying  out  these 
suggestions,  that  the  club  advisers  and  the  program  committee 
remember  that  such  work  often  must  be  done  at  a  time  apart 
from  the  regular  club  meeting.  This  will  ensure  a  more 
satisfactory  attendance,  for  those  girls  who  are  not  interested 
would  then  have  no  excuse  for  not  being  present. 

(1)  Leather  work,  especially  making  covers  for  maga- 
zines. 

(2)  Wood  block  printing. 

(3)  Batik  work. 

(4)  Tie  dyeing. 

(5)  Decorating    flower   pots,    wooden   bowls,    glass    jars 
and  coffee  cans. 

(-6)  Making  lamp  shades. 

(7)  Sealing  wax  craft. 

(8)  Art  and  decoration  in  crepe  and  tissue  paper. 

(9)  Flower  making. 

(10)  Pottery, 

(11)  Raffia  work. 

(12)  Bead  work.' 

(13)  -Stenciling. 

387 


(14)  Making  Recipe  books. 

(15)  Making  doll  houses,  doll  furniture  and  doll  outfits. 

(16)  Boxcraft 

(17)  Collecting  leaves,  flowers,  bark  of  trees,  bird  nests, 
for  exhibits, 

(18)  The  making  of  matting  baskets. 

Books  of  value  for  help  in  the  above  work  are: 
"What  a   Girl   Can   Make   and  Do."     By  Lina   and 
Adelia  Beard.    Scribner.    $2.25. 

"The  Jolly  Book  of  Boxcraft."     By  Pattern  Beard. 
Stokes.    $2.00. 

''Art  Craft  for  Beginners."     Sanford.     $1.75. 
"The  Woodcraft  League  Manual  for  Girls."     Chap- 
ter III,  by  Ernest  Thompson  Seton.     Price  75  cents 
(paper).     $1.25    (cloth). 

"Prang's   Industrial  Art  Books."     Obtained  at  any 
School  Supply  Company. 
The  Dennison  Costume  Book,  free  and 
The    Dennison   Art   and    Decoration    in    Crepe    and 
Tissue  Paper  Book,  $.15. 

Published  by  Dennison   Manufacturing    Company, 
62  East  Randolph  Street,  Chicago,  111. 
Fifth  Avenue  and  26th  Street,  New  York  City. 
1007  Chestnut  Street,  Philadelphia,  "Pa. 
23  Franklin  Street,  Boston,  Mass. 
Girls'     Make-at-Home     Things,,     Carolyn     iSherwyn 
Bailey.     $1.75. 

Every  group  of  girls  taking  up  handicraft  should  approach 
the  subject  through  a  study  of  good  examples  of  old-world 
handicraft,  such  as  laces,  embroideries,  textiles,  wood  carvings, 
and  pottery.  The  foreign  girls  in  the  group  should  be  encour- 
aged to  find  these  treasures  in  their  own  homes,  for  almost 
every  foreign  family  has  things  of  rare  beauty  hidden  away 
in  closet  or  trunk,  possessions  which  have  been  brought  by 
the  parents  from  the  home  countries.  Not  only  will  the  girls 

388 


get  many  helpful  suggestions  for  their  own  handicraft  from 
the  beauties  of  color,  line  and  design  of  the  present  handicraft, 
but  they  will  be  taught  a  greater  respect  and  love  for  the  gifts 
brought  to  the  new  world  from  the  old.  Moreover,  an  interest 
in  the  art  work  of  the  foreign  girls  is  valuable  as  one  means 
of  breaking  down  race  prejudice ;  a  girl  of  one  nationality 
becomes  as  eager  to  study  the  similarities  in  design  of  the 
embroideries  and  laces  of  other  countries  as  to  show  the  handi- 
craft of  her  own  land.  Moreover,  the  foreign  mothers  feel 
that,  through  this  interest,  they  are  being  looked  up  to  and 
consulted  and  the  girls  of  American  birth  are  taught  a  new 
respect  for  their  parents,  race  and  artistic  background.  The 
foreign  mother  will  have  many  a  helpful  suggestion  to  give  on 
the  working  out  of  certain  designs  or  the  combining  of  colors, 
and  the  girls'  work  secretary  or  adviser  will  find  that  through 
teaching  handicraft  to  her  girls  she  is  unconsciously  creating 
a  close  bond  of  understanding  between  herself  and  the  homes 
from  which  her  girls  have  come. 

In  planning  handicraft  for  grade  school  girls,  it  is  necessary 
to  keep  a  balance  in  the  program.  The  girls  respond  so  eagerly 
to  the  suggestion  "to  make  something,"  that  there  is  a  tempta- 
tion to  let  it  become  the  major  activity  or  emphasis  in  the 
regular  corps  work.  Moreover  it  is  essential  that  the  adviser 
and  secretary  remember  that  grade  school  girls  are  less  capable 
of  sustained  effort  and  therefore  the  craft  work  must  be  simple. 
There  should  be  adequate  provision  in  the  way  of  tools  and 
space:  i.  e.  tables  and  scissors  and  paste  and  supplies,  with 
sufficient  advisory  or  supervisory  help,  for  grade  school  girls 
are  more  liable  to  become  discouraged  than  are  older  girls,  if 
they  have  no  one  with  whom  they  may  talk  about  their  work. 

The  place  which  handicraft  will  occupy  in  any  high  school 
club  program  cannot  be  definitely  stated.  This  is  due  to  the 
fact  that  some  girls  of  high  school  age  are  interested  in  handi- 
craft and  others  are  just  as  certainly  not  interested. 

389 


Younger  girls  in  business  and  industry  are  interested  in 
handicraft  provided  it  is  presented  to  them  in  an  attractive 
way;  provided  it  is  of  an  attractive  nature  and  not  so  com- 
plicated that  it  takes  a  great  deal  of  time.  For  instance, 
cigandie  collar  and  cuff  sets  are  easy  to  make,  and  ornamental. 
They  have  a  practical  value  to  a  girl  at  work.  Such  handicraft 
may  sometimes  be  started  and  sometimes  finished  at  the  noon 
hour,  provided  it  is  simple  enough;  sometimes  girls  will  be  so 
interested  that  a  class  may  be  formed.  This  is  especially  true 
of  the  making  of  Christmas  presents. 

SEALING  WAX   CRAFT 

A  few  sticks  of  sealing  wax,  an  alcoho1  lamp,  using  only 
the  best  denatured  alcohol,  a  steel  knitting  needle,  a  tiny 
palette  knife  (one  has  been  designed  especially  for  this  art), 
and  a  modelling  tool  or  nut  pick,  comprise  the  inexpensive 
outfit  for  this  delightful  craft.  A  box  of  the  assorted  colors 
of  Dennison  Sealing  Wax  reminds  one  of  a  lovely  box  of  paints 
The  colors  and  shades  of  the  different  colors  are  beautiful  and 
immediately  the  suggestion  comes  to  use  them  as  paint. 

Draw  a  little  design  of  a  rose  and  leaves.  Hold  a  stick  of 
light  pink  sealing  wax  over  the  flame  until  it  is  soft;  then 
spread  it  over  the  little  rose  which  has  been  drawn.  Heat  the 
palette  knife  and  spread  the  wax  out  smooth.  This  little 
foundation  serves  for  the  outer  petals  of  the  rose  when  com- 
pleted. Heat  a  stick  of  the  dark  pink  wax  and  drop  one  drop 
at  a  time  on  the  little  foundation  which  has  been  made,  until 
ten  or  fifteen  drops  have  fallen.  Let  the  wax  harden  and  then 
spread  on  the  top  of  the  little  mound  some  of  the  light  pink. 
Heat  the  modelling  tool,  or  a  nut  pick  and  make  a  hole  in  the 
center  of  the  mound  of  wax.  Heat  tool  again  and  make  three 
cuts  around  the  hole,  heating  the  tool  each  time.  An  attrac- 
tively modeled  rose  is  the  result.  Hold  a  stick  of  leaf  green 
over  the  flame  and  scrape  a  little  wax  with  the  palette  knife. 
This  palette  knife  is  now  used  as  a  brush  to  make  the  green 

390 


leaves.  All  flowers  except  the  rose  are  made  by  using  the 
palette  knife  as  a  brush.  The  wax  tools  must  be  kept  hot,  or 
the  design  will  look  rough.  The  flowers  may  be  used  to 
decorate  boxes,  place  cards,  basketry,  glass  and  pottery.  Very 
little  drawing  is  necessary,  only  a  few  lines  are  needed  to 
indicate  where  the  design  is  to  be  placed.  Designs  may  be 
cut  from  crepe  paper  napkins,  pasted  on  the  articles  to  be 
decorated,  and  worked  over  with  sealing  wax.  They  may  also 
be  transferred  by  using  tracing  paper.  Tiny  garlands  are 
most  attractive  on  hat  bands.  The  wax  flowers  are  especially 
pretty  on  velvet,  but  may  be  used  on  satin,  georgette,  or  silk. 
The  making  of  wax  flowers  is  very  interesting  to  girls, 
and  money  for  the  Red  Cross  Fund  or  some  other  service  may 
be  made  by  selling  boxes,  place  cards,  candles  and  candlesticks 
decorated  with  the  wax.  The  boxes  can  be  used  for  lingerie 
libbon,  balls  of  twine,  powder,  gloves,  and  handkerchiefs.  This 
method  of  decorating  is  very  simple  and  one  does  not  need 
artistic  ability  to  get  good  results.  It  is  one  of  the  simplest 
forms  of  color  work,  as  the  colors  are  all  mixed  and  the  designs 
simply  filled  in  with  color.  Flowers  may  also  be  made  by 
taking  a  small  bit  of  wax  in  the  fingers  and  moulding  in  the 
shape  of  a  petal.  The  petal  is  then  heated  and  stuck  to  the 
card  or  whatever  is  to  be  decorated.  Faces  may  be  moulded 
from  wax.  This  is  a  little  more  tedious,  but  nevertheless, 
very  interesting. 

Inexpensive  vases  are  covered  with  sealing  wax,  giving 
them  the  effect  of  expensive  pottery.  To  cover  the  vase,  warm 
the  article  just  a  bit  before  starting.  Hold  a  stick  of  sealing 
wax  over  the  flame  until  it  begins  to  melt;  then,  beginning 
at  the  bottom  edge  of  the  vase,  press  the  wax  against  it  in  two 
or  three  places,  using  a  small  amount  of  wax  at  a  time.  The 
wax  will  adhere  to  the  vase  and  become  cold;  but,  by  holding 
the  waxed  part  of  the  vase  over  a  tongue  of  the  flame,  it  will 
melt  and  run  into  a  smooth  surface.  Add  more  wax  and  con- 
tinue smoothing  it  down  by  slightly  heating,  always  turning  the 

391 


vase  In  the  same  direction  so  that  when  colors  are  blended  the 
swirl  will  follow  the  same  general  lines.  Do  this  until  the 
vase  is  entirely  covered.  Several  colors  may  be  blended,  and 
it  is  particularly  advisable  to  use  shades  of  the  same  color, 
as  this  gives  the  light  and  shade  effects  that  come  in  all  pot- 
tery. Wax  may  be  used  in  this  way  on  glass,  cardboards  or 
china. 

The  making  of  beads  from  sealing  wax  is  a  delightful  pas- 
time. Beads  may  be  made  in  almost  any  desired  color.  Charm- 
ing strings  of  beads  and  unusual  beads  for  decorating  lamp 
shades  may  be  produced  with  little  effort.  To  make  beads 
proceed  as  follows:  Choose  a  stick  of  Dennison's  letter  wax, 
the  desired  color  for  the  beads.  Break  into  pieces  as  nearly  the 
correct  size  for  the  beads  as  possible.  Heat  a  steel  knitting 
needle  about  one  and  one-half  inches  from  the  end.  Then  press 
it  carefully  into  a  piece  of  wax.  Hold  the  piece  of  wax  on 
i-eedle  above  the  flame,  revolving-  it  slowly  until  an  even,  round 
bead  is  formed.  Revolving  it  all  the  time,  carry  it  to  a  glass 
of  water  and  then  dip  it  in  the  water  until  cool.  Dry  the  beads 
with  the  cloth 'before  holding  over  the  flame  again,  so  that  no 
bubbles  will  form'.  In  removing  the  bead,  heat  the  needle  on 
each  side  of  the  bead  one  inch  from  the  bead.  When  bead  is 
loosened,  slide  it  back  and  forth  on  the  needle  before  taking 
it  off;  this  leaves  a  cleancut  hole. 


s 


CHAPTER   V. 

STORY  TELLING. 

TOEY  telling,  if  used  in  the  right  way  and  place,  can  be 
made  of  great  value  in  work  with  younger  girls.  A  story 
hour  helps  to  stimulate  the  girl's  imagination,  to  arouse  whole- 
some emotions,  to  introduce  her  to  what  is  beautiful  in  thought 
and  expression,  to  increase  her  enthusiasm  for  good  reading, 
and,  most  important  of  all,  it  offers  opportunity  to  bring  the 
best  spiritual  influences  to  bear  upon  the  girl  when  she  is  at 
a  most  impressionable  age. 

392 


Care  must  be  taken  that  the  story  and  the  story  teller  are 
3f  the  best.  Many  communities  now  have  a  Story  Teller's 
League,  the  members  of  which  are  often  glad  to  give  time  to 
groups  of  girls.  From  the  Public  Library  in  any  community 
a  list  of  stories  can  always  be  obtained. 

The  following  are  suggestions  for  obtaining  good  material 
Cor  story  telling: 

"The  Story  Hour."  A  pamphlet  published  by  the  Ameri- 
can Book  Company,  New  York.  Contains  a  splendid  list  of 
books  illustrating  different  characteristics. 

"The  Woodcraft  Manual  for  Girls/'  mentioned  before, 
contains  some  fascinating  Indian  stories  which  make  de- 
lightful fireside  stories. 

The  following  books  have*  been  found  of  special  value 
for  the  story  teller: 

1.  -"Fifty    Famous     Stories    Retold"    James    Baldwin. 

American  Book  Co.    56  cents  (exclusive  of  postage). 

2.  "Around  the  Fire"  H.   M.  Burr.     Association  Press. 

75  cents. 

3.  "Indian  Days  of  the  Long  Ago"  Edward  S.   Curtis. 

World  Book  Co.    $1.00. 

4.  "Uncle    Eemus,    His    Songs    and    His    Sayings"    Joel 

Chandler    Harris.      Appleton.      $2.00. 

5.  "Just    So    Stories"    Rudyard    Kipling.      Doubleday, 

Page   &   Co.     $1.20. 

6.  "iGreen    Fairy    Book."      Andrew   Lang.      Longmans. 

$2,00. 

7.  "Donegal  Fairy  Tales."    Seumas  McManus.    McClixre, 

Phillips  &  Co.    $1.00. 

8.  '"Heroines    Every    Child   (Should    Know."      Hamilton 

Wright  Mabie.     Doubleday,  Page  &  Co.     $1.50. 

9.  "The  Golden  Windows"  Laura  E.   Richards,     Little, 

Brown  &  Co.     $1.35. 

10.    "East  o'  the  Sun  and  West  o'  the  Moon."    Mrs.  G.  T. 
Thomsen.    Row,  Paterson  &  Co.    60  cents. 

393 


11.    "The  Happy  Prince,  and  Other  Tales.5'     Oscar  Wilde. 
Little,  Brown  &  -Go.     $1.00. 

The  following  books  have  been  found  interesting 
to  girls  whose  desire  for  reading  has  been  aroused 
through  story  telling  or  club  work  in  general: 

BIBLE  STORIES 

On  Nazareth  Hill— Elbert  E.  Bailey. 

The   Golden   Cobwebs    (In   "How  to   Tell   Stories)— 

Sarah   Cone   Bryant. 

Jesus  Among  His  Friends — Ethel  Cutler. 

When  the  King   Came — George  Hodges. 

Who  was  It  Stories — Julia  Johnson. 

The  Lost  Boy — Henry  Van  Dyke. 

The  First  Christmas   Tree — Henry  Van  Dyke. 

The  First  Christmas   Spirit — Henry  Van  Dyke. 

The  Story  of  the  Other  Wise  Man — Henry  Van  Dyke. 

The  Birds*  Christmas  Carol — Kate  Douglas  Wiggin. 

cnacs 
Lessons  for  Junior  Citizens — Mabel  Hill. 

MYTHS  AND  LEGENDS 

Stories  from  Northern  Myths — Emilie  Kip  Baker. 
Fairy  Tales  from  Far  Japan — Susan  Ballard. 
That's  Why  Stories — Catherine  T.  Bryce. 
Children  of  the  Dawn — Elsie  Finnimore  Buckley. 
Blackfoot  Lodge  Tales — George  B.  Grinnell. 
Book  of  Nature  Myths — Florence  Holbrook. 
Indian  Fairy  Tales — Joseph  Jacobs.         ' 
Greek   Heroes — Charles    Kingsley. 
Stories    of    Legendary    Heroes    (in    "the    Children's 
Hour/'  Vol.  4) — Eva  March  Tappen. 
Old  Indian  Legends — Zitkala-Sa- 

394 


SHORT    STORIES    ILLUSTRATING    CHARACTERISTICS 

Bravery. 

"The   Eed   Thread   of   Courage"    (in    "How   to   Tell 
Stories") — Sarah   Conet  Bryant. 

"The  Golden  Horse  and  His   Eider"    (in  "The  City 
That  Never  Was  Reached")— Jay  Thomas  Stocking. 

Contentment. 

"The  Crooked  Fir  Tree"  (in  "Outlook  Story  Book") — 
Laura  Winnington. 

Discontent. 

"The  Mill  Widow"  (in  "Storyland")— Elizabeth  Har- 
rison. 
"The  Golden  Windows" — Laura  E.  Richards. 

Faithfulness. 

1.   "The    Little    Hero    of    Harlem"    (in    "How    to    Tell 

Stories") — Sarah  Cone  Bryant. 
2-    "How    Cedric    Became    Knight"    (in    "Storyland")— 

Elizabeth  Harrison- 

3.  "A  Message  to  Garcia" — Elbert  Hubbard. 

4.  "Keeping  Tryst"— ^Anna  F.  Johnston. 

Friendship. 

1.  David  and  Jonathan — The  Bible. 

2.  "Three  Friends"    (in  "Three  Years  With  Children") 

— Amos  Wells. 

Generosity. 

1-    "Margaret    of    New    Orleans"    (in    "Best    Stories    to 
Tell") — Sara  Gone  Bryant- 

2.  "The  King  of  the  Golden  River" — John  Ruskin. 

3.  "The  Happy  Prince" — Oscar  Wilde. 

4.  "An  Old   Story"    (in  "Outlook  Story  Book")— Laura 

Winnington. 
Happiness. 

1.    "The  Enchanted  Mirror"  (in  "Storyland") — Elizabeth 
Harrison. 

395 


2.  "The  Maker  of  Rainbows" — Richard  LeGallienne. 

3.  "The  Blue  Bird" — Maurice   Maeterlink. 

4.  "The   Land   of  the   Blue   Flower" — Frances   Hodgson 

Burnett. 

Influence. 

1.  "The    Witness"    (in    "The    Militants")-— Mary    Ray- 

mond Shipman  Andrews. 

2.  "Jean   Valjean"    (In    "World    Stories") — adapted    by 

Joel  Metcalf- 

Patience. 

1.  "The  Desert  of  Waiting" — Annie  F.  Johnston. 

2.  "The  Lame  Boy"  (in  "First  Book  of  Religion") — Mrs. 

Chas.  Lane. 

3.  "The   Crosses"    (in   "Just   Over  the  Hill") — Margaret 

Slattery. 

Selfishness. 

1.    "Prince      Harwada"    .  (in      "Storyland")  —  Elizabeth 
Harrison. 

Service. 

1.  "The    Wheat-^Field"    (in    "Gol&en    Windows")— Laura 

E.  Richards. 

2.  "The  Cup  of  Loving  Service" — Eliza  D.  Taylor. 

Sincerity. 

1.  "The   Nightingale" — Hans   Christian   Anderson. 

2.  "The  Real   Thing"    (in  "Stories   That   End  Well") — 

Octave  Thanet. 

3.  ''Truth   is   Mighty   and  Will   Prevail"    (in  "Twenty- 

three  Tales") — Leo  Tolstoi. 

*  STORY-TELLING    POEMS 

1-    "Pippa    Passes" — Robert    Browning. 
2.    "The  Pied  Piper  of  Hamelin  Town" — Kobert  Brown- 
ing. 
3*   "The, Vision  of  Sir  LaunfaP' — James  Eussell  Lowell. 

4.  "Home  to  Him's  Muwer" — Margaret  Prescott  Mon- 

tague. 

396 


5.  "Story-Telling   Poems.'*      Edited   by   Frances   Jenkins 

Olcott. 

6.  "Idylls  of  the  King:" — Alfred  Tennyson- 

7.  "The  Toiling  of  Felix" — Henry  Van  Dyke- 

8.  "The  Legend  of  Service" — Henry  Van  Dyke. 

9.  "The  Foolish  Fir  Tree" — Henry  Van  Dyke. 

STORIES    OF    A    GIRL,   AND    HER    MOTHER 

"Andrew's    Cap"    (in    "Second    Book    of    Stories*5) — 
Ida  Coe. 

"The  Pot  of  Gold"  (in  "Second  Book  of  Stories") — 
Ida  Coe. 

"The    Closing    Door"    (in   "Mother    Storios") — Maud 
Lindsay. 

"About  Angels"    (in  "Golden  Windows") — Laura   E. 
Richards- 
Mis  CELL  ANEOUS    STORIES 
"The  Sandy  Road"    (in  "Jataka  Tales")— Edited  by 

Ellen  C.  Babbitt. 

"A  Little  Brother  of  the  Books."      (To  be  adapted.) 

— Josephine  Daskam  Bacon. 

"The    Story   of   Cossetts"    (in  "Dream    Children") — 

Elizabeth  Brownwell. 

"Mignon"    (in  the  same) — Elizabeth  Brownwell. 

"A    Sisterly    Scheme"     (in    "Short    Sixes")— iH.    C. 

Bunner. 

"Stories    from   the    Operas" — Gladys    Davison. 

"The    Vision    of    Anton"    (in   "The    Richer   Life") — 

Walter  Dyer. 

"The    Little    Maid    at    the    Door"     (in    "A    Tale    of 

Witchcraft") — Mary  E.  Wilkins  Freeman. 

"The  Story  of  Chinese  Gordon" — E.  A.  Hake* 

"The    Man    Without    a    Country" — Edward    Everett 

Hale. 

397 


"The  Three  Weavers" — Annie  F.  Johnston. 

"The   Persian  and  His  Three   Sons"— Mrs.   Charles 

Lane. 

"Everybody's  Lonesome."     (To  be  adapted,) — Clara 

E.  Laughlin. 

"The  Stone  of  Gratitude"  (in  "Quaint  Old  Stories") 

— Marian  Lindsay. 

"Stories  from  Wagner" — Joseph  McSpadden. 

"Blue  Sky  and  White  Cloud"   (in  "More  Bed-Time 

Stories") — Louis   Chandler  Moulton. 

"The  Tide  March"  (in  "Poor  Dear  Margaret  Kirby") 

— Kathleen  Norris. 

"The     Hill"     (in    "Golden    Windows" )— -Laura     E. 

Richards* 

"Deer     Godchild" — Edith     Serrell    and    Marguerite 

Bernard. 

"Where  Love  Is,  God  Is"— Leo  Tolstoi. 

"Three  Questions"   (in  "Twenty-three  Tales")-- Leo 

Tolstoi* 

"A   Handful   of   Clay"    (in   "The  Blue   Flower")— 

Henry  Van  Dyke. 

"The  Keeper  of  the  Light" — Henry  Van  Dyke. 

"The  Wonder  Maker"    (in  "Stories   of   Scientists") 

— Mary  Wade. 

"Stories  From  Old  French  Romance"— E.  M.  Wil- 

mot-Boxton. 

This  list  of  books  is  not  intended  to  be  a  reading  course, 
but  merely  a  suggestive  guide.  A  more  complete  list  will  be 
found  in  the  Girl  Reserve  Book  List,  Chapter  11,  page  485. 

398 


CHAPTER  VI. 

THE  PLACE  OF  THE  DRAMA  IN  THE  GIRL  RESERVE  MOVEMENT. 

DRAMATIC  instinct,  that  inner  force  eternally  reaching  out 
for  the  opportunity  to  do  and  to  be  something  beyond 
the  doing  and  being  of  this  work-a-day  world  (reaching  out 
most  eagerly  in  the  period  before  mental  and  emotional  dis- 
cipline is  established),  is  a  force  which,  if  rightly  guided,  may 
be  used  to  develop  and  to  stimulate  the  deepest  spiritual  powers. 

It  will  be  found  that  this  force  exists  in  an  individual  in  a 
greater  or  lesser  degree  in  proportion  to  his  knowledge  and 
understanding  of  life,  and  it  is  in  supplying  a  medium  for 
developing  and  enlarging  his  experience  imaginatively  that  the 
drama  makes  so  large  a  contribution  to  education. 

The  inevitable  identification  which  comes  of  sincerely  "play- 
ing a  part"  provides  opportunity  for  the  expression  of  talent 
and  power  which  are  dormant  or  have  been  too  often  completely 
repressed.  The  joyous  recreation  which  is  the  result  of  the 
laying  aside  for  a  time  of  one's  own  personality,  and  the  put- 
ting on  of  the  character  and  individuality  of  another,  is  too 
common  an  experience  to  need  discussion.  It  is  the  process 
gone  through  in  the  creation  of  any  art — poetry,  singing-, 
dancing.  "I  do  not  ask  the  wounded  person  how  he  feels," 
says  Walt  Whitman,  "I  myself  become  the  wounded  person, 
my  hurts  turn  livid  upon  me  as  I  lean  on  a  cane  and  observe-" 

Intelligently  approached,  keeping  ever  the  ideal  of  complete 
identification  in  mind,  there  is  nothing  from  the  great  literature 
of  the  Bible  to  the  story  of  "The  Three  Bears,"  which  may 
not  be  of  infinite  value  when  presented  in  dramatic  form.  And, 
by  this  same  token,  it  would  be  difficult  to  overestimate  the 
harmf ulness  to  the  adolescent  mind  of  identification ,  with  the 

399 


cheap  and  unworthy  in  drama.  This  does  not  mean  that  one 
must  be  "highbrow."  It  does  mean,  however,  that  a  great 
responsibility  in  the  choice  of  material  devolves  upon  those 
yho  assume  dramatic  leadership. 

There  are  certain  dramatic  forms  peculiarly  suitable  to  the 
understanding  and  needs  of  certain  types  of  girls.  In  planning 
a  dramatic  program,  it  is  as  important  to  determine  the  form 
which  will  contribute  most  to  the  enjoyment  and  development 
of  the  group  as  it  is  to  determine  the  content. 

In  poetry,  the  nature  of  a  given  thought  is  largely  responsi- 
ble for  the  form  of  its  expression.  This  same  rule  governs  the 
drama.  Dramatization,  pantomime,  the  short  play,  the  long 
play,  the  masque,  and  the  pageant  are  forms  which  may  be 
used  as  mediums  for  dramatic  expression. 

Bibliography. 

Cabot,  Richard  C.— What  Men  Live  By. 

Curtis,  Elnora  W.— The  Dramatic  Instinct  in  Education-  Hough- 
ton,  Mifflin  Co.,  New  York,  1914. 

Pry,  Emma  Sheridan — Educational  Dramatics.  Moffat,  Yard 
&  Co-,  New  York,  1913. 

Herts,  Alice  Minnie— The  Children's  Educational  Theatre. 
Harper  &  Bros.,  New  York,  1911. 

Herts,  Alice  Minnie— The  Kingdom  of  the  Child.  E.  P.  Dutton 
&  Co.,  New  York,  1913. 

Hillard,  Evelyne — Amateur  and  Educational  Dramatics.  Mac- 
millan  Co.,  New  York,  1917. 

DRAMATIZATION. 

The  impromptu  dramatization  of  stories  is  a  fun  process 
which  releases  the  imagination  and  permits  it  the  freest  expres- 
sion of  which  it  is  capable.  Much  of  the  fun  arises  from  the 
impersonation  not  only  of  the  people  in  the  story,  but  also 
of  animals,  elements,  and  things.  Such  impersonation  is  of 

400 


good  and  ancient  usage — witness  "Wall"  and  "Lion"  in  "Mid- 
summer Night's  Dream,"  "Bread,"  "Water,"  and  any  number 
of  similiar  characters  in  "The  Bine  Bird." 

The  more  imagination  is  expended  upon  the  costumes, 
properties,  lighting,  publicity  (announcement  either  by  placards 
or  by  "word  of  mouth"  of  scenes  and  characters),  staging, 
make-up  and  music,  the  greater  the  fun  will  be;  a  glass  bowl 
for  Cinderella's  slipper;  nightgowns — one  for  the  body,  one 
for  the  head,  one  for  each  arm,  and  behold  a  ghost!  a  girl 
upon  the  floor,  her  feet  against  some  object  supposed  to  be  a 
wall,  and  a  gate  has  been  achieved,  which,  at  least,  will  be 
like  many  another  in  that  it  will  swing  in  only  one  direction; 
this,  by  the  bending  of  her  knees* 

The  following  outline  is  suggested  with  the  explanation 
that,  although  it  is  possible  to  carry  the  work  of  dramatization 
to  a  finished  production,  this  section  deals  primarily  with  the 
impromptu  form  of  this  dramatic  activity. 

The  steps  involved  are  as  follows: 

A.  Selection  of  the  story. 

1.    The  leader  should  be  prepared  to  present  in  brief 
outline  several  stories  to  the  group. 

B.  Reading  or  telling  of  the  story  which  has  been  chosen. 
1,    Special  emphasis  on  plot  and  characters. 

C.  The  names  of  the  characters  are  written  on  a  black- 

board. 

1.    Space  should  be  allowed  for  descriptions  of  each 
one. 

D.  Suggestions   of  adjectives   descriptive  of  eacli  char- 
acter are   made   by  the   group   and  written   on  the 
board. 

E-  The  incidents  are  listed  in  chronological  order  upon 

the  board- 
F.  The   players   for  the   parts   are   chosen  by  popular 

vote. 

401 


G.  The  committees  are  selected. 

1.  One  person  or  a  group  should  be  chosen  for  the 
necessary   committees. 

2.  It  should  be  clearly  understood  that  the  work  of 
whatever  committees  are  required  is  just   as   im- 
portant to  the   success  of  the  play  as   the  inter- 
pretation   of  the    characters. 

H.  The   rehearsing  is   begun. 

1.  Using  the  blackboard,  upon  which  is  a  list  of  the 
incidents,  sketch  out  the  details  of  the  action  or 
the  "business"  of  the  play.  Draw  a  diagram  of 
the  stage  indicating  entrances  and  exists.  If 
possible,  diagram  the  action,  using  dotted  lines 
and  arrows.  In  the  diagram  of  the  stage,  work 
out  the  placement  of  stage  properties  and  there- 
after adapt  the  action  to  the  setting. 

2-  If  the  group  is  a  large  one,  two  or  three  directors 
may  be  appointed  and  the  story  divided  into 
episodes-  Each  director  selects  the  players  for 
her  episode  and  rehearsals  are  then  conducted 
separately.  If  this  is  done  there  will  be  a  dupli- 
cation of  characters  and  some  way  must  be  devised 
to  clarify  their  identity  to  the  onlookers. 

3.  Each   time   the   story   is    gone    over   the   business, 
action,    and  dialogue  should  be  enlarged. 

I.  The  play  is  presented. 

1.  Space  for  the  stage  should  be  cleared  at  one  end 
of  the  room,  and  audience  chairs  arranged  in  rows 
before  it. 

2.  Screens,  or  four  girls  holding  two  double  sheets 
high  above  their  heads,  form  the  curtain. 

3.  The  lights  in  the  room  are  put  out  leaving  only 
those  necessary  to  illuminate  the  stage,  and  the 
play  begins. 

402 


Bibliography. 

Chubbs,  Percival  and  Associates — Festivals  and  Plays.  Harper 
&  Bros.,  New  York,  1912.  Contains  section  on  drama- 
tization called  "First  Steps  in  the  Development  of  Fes- 
tival and  Dramatic  Activities." 

Getchell,  Margaret — Red  Letter  Day  Plays,  The  Womans  Press, 
New  York,  1920. 

MacKay,  Constance  D'Arcy — How  to  Produce  Children's  Plays. 
Henry  Holt  &  Co.,  New  York,  1915.  Contains  dramatiza- 
tion and  analysis  of  "The  Pied  Piper  of  Hamlin"  in  chap- 
ter called  "Play  Analysis  for  Children." 

Miller,  Elizabeth — Dramatization  of  Bible  Stories.  University 
of  Chicago  Press,  Chicago. 

PANTOMIME 

Pantomime  is  the  corner-stone  in  the  building  of  dramatic 
technique.  What  has  been  responsible  for  the  very  prevalent 
theory  that  a  pantomime  is  more  difficult  to  produce  than  a 
play  and  that  it  is  "not  much  fun?"  A  single  experience  will 
discredit  this  theory.  To  prepare  a  pantomime  for  public  pre- 
sentation is  as  simple  as  any  dramatic  undertaking  can  be, 
and  for  the  inexperienced  dramatic  director*  it  is  far  less  beset 
with  pitfalls.  The  scenario  of  a  pantomime  contains  sugges- 
tions for  characterization  and  action  to  a  greater  extent  than 
is  to  be  found  in  the  text  of  a  play.  Also,  since  pantomine  per- 
mits much  more  freedom  of  interpretation  than  a  play,  a  lesser 
degree  of  discipline  and  of  technique  is  required  of  the  players. 
This  does  not  mean  that  the  art  of  pantomime  may  not  be  very 
Hghly  developed-  But  it  has  been  proved  that  in  a  dramatic 
program  which  is  cumulative,  the  use  of  pantomime  conserves 
enthusiasm  and  develops  ability-  This  is  true  because  a 
dramatic  form  is  being  used  which  can  be  brought  to  a  more 


*The  term  "dramatic  director"  is  applied  to  the  person  who  is  in  charge 
of  the  dramatic  work.  She  may  be  an  adviser  or  a  secretary  or  a  profes- 
sional director. 

403 


successful  conclusion  than  can  be  reached  if,  at  the  very  first, 
the  production  of  a  play  is  attempted.  Pantomime  demands 
of  the  player  only  as  much  as  she  is  able  to  give  to  it.  A  play 
demands  a  certain  amount  of  established  technique. 

Before  attempting  to  produce  a  pantomime  with  any  group 
of  girls,  it  is  wise  to  begin  with  an  informal  discussion  of 
pantomime,  what  it  is,  its  relation  to  gesture,  and  its  place  in 
dramatic  work. 

Self -evidently,  pantomime  is  the  logical  successor  of  im- 
promptu dramatization  and  the  precursor  of  the  short  or  full 
length  play.  Mr.  William  Lee  Sowers  in  an  article  iri  "The 
Drama"  (May  1919),  states  that  in  his  opinion  "through  the 
improved  knowledge  of  gesture,  facial  expression  and  miming 
with  the  body  pantomime  training  would  consid- 
erably raise  the  level  of  acting."  The  necessity  for  exacting 
analysis  of  character  and  situation  also  adds  largely  to  the 
equipment  of  the  player  for  the  interpretation  of  speech  parts. 

Perhaps  the  simplest  definition  of  pantomime  is,  action 
without  words.  Any  group  will  formulate  half  a  dozen  defini- 
tions which  would  be  equally  true.  It  is  gesture  enlarged  and 
made  to  take  the  place  of  words.  It  is  mind  speaking  through 
the  medium  of  the  silent  body.  It  is  emotion  conveyed  to  an 
audience  through  gesture  and  posture. 

After  the  general  subject  of  pantomime  has  been  discussed 
until  the  group  is  no  longer  in  strange  waters,  some  descrip- 
tive pantomime  should  be  worked  out.  An  interesting  experi- 
ment is  to  take  a  phrase,  add  to  it  a  gesture  which  amplifies 
the  thought,  then  amplify  the  gesture  until  it  takes  the  plact 
of  the  phrase.  Organize  groups  of  girls  to  play  imaginary 
ball  or  jump  imaginary  rope  together-  This  should  be  followed 
by  the  assignment  of  definite  problems,  or  the  request  for 
original  problems,  which  may  be  developed  by  one  or  by  several 
of  the  group  together-  Naturally  some  incident  which  is  a 
more  or  less  common  experience  would  be  the  subject  of  the 

404 


pantomime  problems.  "At  the  Movies,"  "Sewing*,"  "Practicing 
the  Piano/'  "In  a  Beauty  Parlor,"  might  be  subjects  assigned 
for  development. 

Even  in  this  preliminary  work  in  pantomime  there  are 
certain  laws  and  principles  which  should  be  understood  and 
obeyed;  for  instance,  no  sound  of  any  sort  should  be  made; 
the  mouth  may  be  used  only  as  the  eyes  or  brows  are  used — 
to  indicate  mood  and  feeling, — no  words  should  be  formed  on 
the  lips;  every  action  must  be  as  carefully  completed  as  in  a 
sentence ;  if  there  are  imaginary  chairs  or  tables  required  by 
the  setting,  the  players  must  remember  where  these  are,  and 
not  walk  through  them;  any  imaginary  object  which  is  sup- 
posedly being  held,  must  be  treated  with  the  reality  of  an  actual 
object.  Possibly  it  would  be  interesting  also,  to  have  a  group 
discussion  of  the  following  and  kindred  questions:  How  do 
thought,  pride,  humility,  kindness,  anger,  show  themselves  in 
the  body;  face,  head,  arms,  posture,  attitude  of  torso?  What 
habit  of  mind  is  expressed  by  a  mouth  which  is  turned  down 
at  the  corners?  or  by  a  relaxed  carriage?  or  by  a  head  held 
high?  What  is  the  difference  between  the  way  a  man  stands 
and  walks  and  the  way  a  woman  stands  and  walks.  Such  a 
discussion  is  an  invaluable  aid  to  character  study  and  analysis. 

By  now  the  group  should  be  ready  for  the  actual  work  on 
the  pantomime  selected  for  production.  The  text  should  be 
read  aloud  slowly,  while  each  listener  tries  to  visualize  the 
action  in  all  its  detail  as  it  is  described. 

After  the  cast  has  been  selected  and  the  committees  ap- 
pointed, the  rehearsing  begins.  Before  meeting  with  the  group, 
the  director  should  have  blocked  out  the  action  in  sections,  and 
these  sections  should  each  be  gone  over  separately  many  times 
and  then  be  pieced  together,  little  by  little. 

Each  player  is  told  where  to  go  on  the  stage  and  what  to 
do,  but  never  how  he  goes,  nor  how  he  does  it.  All  possible 
freedom  in  the  matter  of  interpretation  should  be  permitted  and 

405 


encouraged  so  long  as  individual  ideas  do  not  conflict  with  the 

plan  of  the  whole. 

Bibliography. 
Betzner,  Era — Three  Pantomimes — The  Awakening  of  Spring, 

Celestial  Love,  The  Fortune  Teller.    The  Womans  Press, 

New  York  City,  1920. 
Durham,   Helen — Fashion   Revue   Down   Petticoat   Lane.     The 

Womans  Press,  New  York  City,  1920. 
Gleason,    Marion    Norris — Cat    Fear — a   Japanese    Pantomime- 

Rameses  Dreams — an  Egyptian  Pantomime.    Scenes  and 

Songs  of  Home — a  Pantomime  of  the  Civil  War.     The 

Womans  Press,  New  York  City,  1920. 
Hudson,    Holland — The    Shepherd   in    the   Distance.     Stewart 

and  Kidd,  Cincinnati,  1921. 
Walker,  Stuart — The  Seven  Gifts.    Playground  and  Recreation 

Association,  1  Madison  Avenue,  New  York  City. 

THE    PLAY 

Since  the  rise  of  the  Little  Theatre  Movement  the  one-act 
play  has  come  to  be  a  very  popular  form  of  amateur  dramatic 
entertainment.  And  there  is  cause  for  rejoicing  that  such  is 
the  case,  since  a  production  consisting  of  two  or  three  one-act 
plays,  carefully  chosen  for  contrast  and  balance,  presents  fewer 
difficulties  to  the  group  which  is  limited  artistically  and  finan- 
cially, than  the  production  of  a  long  play.  A  three-act  play 
makes  heavy  demands  upon  the  ability  of  the  player — not  only 
in  the  matter  of  memorizing  lines,  but  in  the  sustaining  of  the 
part.  Further  than  this,  it  is  more  nearly  possible  to  meet  the 
taste  and  ability  of  each  individual  in  the  group  in  a  program 
of  short  plays  than  in  presenting  a  "full  evening"  play. 

Play  Selection. 

There  are  certain  factors  which  need  to  be  determined  before 
the  selection  of  a  play  or  group  of  plays.  One  should  ask, 
what  purpose  is  being  served  by  giving  the  play?  Is  it  for 

406 


entertainment,  or  to  raise  money,  or  to  celebrate  some  special 
event?  How  much  time  is  there  for  preparation  not  only  in 
days,  but  in  the  number  of  hours  in  each  day?  Where  is  the 
play  to  be  given, — indoors  or  outdoors,  on  a  large,  or  a  small 
stage?  How  many  participants  are  to  be  included  as  players 
before  and  behind  the  scenes?  What  is  the  range  of  the  age 
of  players,  are  they  children,  or  adults,  or  both?  What  type 
of  material  is  desired — shall  it  be  seasonal,  patriotic,  imagina- 
tive, realistic?  Only  after  all  these  points  have  been  deter- 
mined, should  the  actual  selection  of  the  play  take  place.  Much 
confusion  may  be  avoided  by  appointing  (by  majority  vote)  a 
committee  to  read  plays  of  the  type  desired  and  to  report  on 
these  to  the  groups. 

At  the  first  meeting,  there  are  three  very  definite  things  to 
be  accomplished:  the  reading  of  the  play,  the  appointing  of 
the  committees,  and  the  casting  of  the  characters-  Let  this 
f rst  meeting  set  the  standard  for  all  meetings  and  all  rehear- 
sals which  are  to  follow-  Let  it  begin  promptly.  Punctuality 
should  be  one  of  the  sterling  by-products  of  all  amateur 
dramatics;  so  begin  at  the  tim^e  appointed,  if  only  two  or  three 
are  there,  and  establish  this  practice  at  the  start.  Order  is 
not  only  heaven's  first  law — it  is  the  stalwart  backbone  of 
dramatic  production.  Noise  and  confusion  at  rehearsals  and 
meetings  are  not  conducive  to  earnest  work,  and  the  serious 
minded  are  disturbed  by  it  and  lose  interest.  Players  who  are 
not  rehearsing  should  not  be  allowed  to  chatter.  Lastly 
(whether  a  committee  meeting  or  a  rehearsal),  let  it  be  recrea- 
tion, shot  through  with  the  joy  of  creation,  of  cooperative 
endeavor,  and  of  imaginative,  spiritual  and  technical  develop- 
ment. These  are  joy  processes. 

There  are  several  methods  of  play-reading,  but  the  reading 
of  the  speeches  in  rotation  is  perhaps  the  most  satisfactory. 
It  is  more  interesting  to  all  the  group,  since  in  this  way  each 
has  a  share,  and  also  it  serves  to  reveal  to  a  certain  extent 
the  relative  interpretative  abilities,  the  voice  and  speech  quali- 

407 


ties  of  eacli  member  of  the  group.  Before  the  reading  is  begun, 
the  director  should  ask  that,  as  the  reading  progresses,  every- 
one will  be  determining  in  her  own  mind  how  the  play  should  be 
cast.  When  the  reading  has  been  completed  the  next  step  is 
to  cast  the  play. 

Casting. 

It  is  suggested  that  the  director  appoint  the  entire  group 
as  the  casting  committee,  acting  herself  as  the  chairman.  It 
is  only  through  the  democratic  method  of  voting  that  it  is 
possible  to  eliminate  the  personal  element  in  selecting  the 
characters.  Ask  the  group  to  base  its  individual  judgment  on 
honest  belief  in  the  ability  of  a  member  to  play  her  part.  One 
method  of  casting  which  has  been  successfully  carried  out,  is 
to  have  any  member  of  the  group  nominate  any  other  member 
for  the  most  important  part.  Those  who  have  been  thus  nom- 
inated read  (one  after  the  other  without  the  interruption  of 
comment),  the  same  or  different  significant  parts  of  the  text 
of  the  leading  character-  Then  by  the  "handraising  process" 
of  voting,  eliminate  until  the  most  able  player  is  left  in  pos- 
session of  the  part.  Players  for  the  next  most  important  part 
are  then  nominated  **from  the  floor,"  tried  out  and  eliminated, 
and  the  process  is  repeated  until  all  the  cast  has  been  selected- 
The  same  girl,  of  course,  may  be  nominated  for  different  parts 
any  number  of  times.  It  is  important  that  the  director  should 
hold  together  the  spirit  of  the  meeting.  It  is  for  her  to  lift  it 
from  any  possible  personal  complication  into  the  realm  of  an 
art  ideal  wherein  "the  play's  the  thing."  It  should  also  be 
clearly  understood  that  if  any  player  proves  unsatisfactory  in 
lehearsal  another  will  be  substituted. 

Committees. 

After  the  play  has  been  read  and  cast,  the  final  thing  to 
be  accomplished  at  the  first  meeting  is  to  appoint  committees 
and  their  chairmen.  The  type  of  the  play  will  determine  the 
number  of  committees  which  are  needed.  Usually  for  a  produc- 

408 


tion  which  involves  less  than  fifty  participants,  committees  on 
staging,  costume,  properties,  lighting,  music,  publicity,  and 
finance  are  needed. 

The  various  committees  should  begin  their  work  at  once. 
Ihe  rehearsal  times  should  be  also  the  times  for  the  workshop 
activities.  By  organizing  in  this  way  the  continuing  interest 
of  the  entire  group  is  safe-guarded. 

The  work  of  the  committees  can  and  should  be  made  com- 
pellingly  interesting,  but  unless  especial  attention  is  paid  to 
this  phase  of  production  it  is  not  possible  to  expect  efficient 
committee  cooperation-  The  director  should  call  together  the 
chairmen  and  the  committees  for  a  brief  conference.  It  would 
be  well  at  this  time  to  emphasize  the  share  of  all  in  the  pro- 
duction- The  interpretation  of  the  parts  is  only  a  fragment  of 
the  whole.  The  interpretation  of  the  play  through  tKe  costum- 
ing, through  the  setting,  with  the  lighting,  and  by  music,  is  of 
equal  importance.  Says  Emerson:  "All  are  needed  by  each  one, 
nothing- is  good  or  true  alone."  This  is  fundamentally  the  basis 
of  good  production.  To  develop  all  phases  which  are  divided 
in  the  production  of  a  play  requires  devotion,  patience,  inge- 
nuity and  the  expenditure  of  one's  self  in  larger  proportion  than 
does  the  playing  of  the  parts.  Since  this  is  true,  the  service 
of  the  committees  should  receive  recognition  equal  to  that  given 
the  actors  in  the  program. 

There  must,  of  course,  be  the  closest  cooperation  between 
the  various  committees  in  order  that  the  unity  of  the  produc- 
tion may  be  preserved.  In  general,  the  duties  of  the  commit- 
tees are  as  follows: 

Staging:  This  committee  is  responsible  for  the  setting  and 
properties,  for  assembling  these,  for  having  them  in  their  ap- 
pointed places  before  the  rise  of  the  curtain  and  on  hand  for  re- 
hearsals as  they  are  required.  The  committee  is  also  respon- 
sible for  the  safe  return  in  good  condition  of  any  borrowed  stage 
properties.  Extreme  care  in  the  treatment  of  these  cannot  be 
stressed  too  strongly. 

409 


Costume:  The  .costume  committee  Is  called  together  by  its 
chairman  to  re-read  the  play  and  analyze  it.  First  to  be  de- 
termined is  the  class  into  which  the  play  most  nearly  falls.  Is 
it  realistic  or  imaginative,  a  little  of  both  perhaps,  or  something 
between,  which  is  completely  neither.  The  type  of  the  play  will 
determine  the  mode  of  the  costuming,  the  content  of  the  play 
will  determine  the  color  scheme.  The  psychology  of  color  is 
too  large  a  subject  to  be  dealt  with  here.  Suffice  it  to  say  that 
it  is  a  problem  for  the  costume  committee  to  solve.  Definite 
mental  and  emotional  vibrations,  both  for  players  and  audience, 
are  set  in  motion  by  the  use  of  color  in  costuming  and  setting, 
and  as  such  the  subject  needs  very  careful  consideration.  The 
care  of  costumes — cleaning,  pressing,  repairing,  listing,  packing 
— is  one  of  the  important  duties  of  the  committee  both  before 
and  after  the  performance. 

Properties:  There  are,  of  course,  stage  and  personal  "props.'1 
When  the  term  is  used,  however,  it  generally  is  meant  to  desig- 
nate the  personal.  In  many  instances  the  players  are  able  to 
provide  these  for  themselves,  but  if  a  period  or  imaginative 
play  is  being  presented  it  is  the  duty  of  this  committee  to  pro- 
cure or  make  all  the  properties.  In  any  event,  the  chairman  of 
the  properties  committee  is  responsible  for  seeing  that  each 
player  has  her  personal  properties  at  the  time  of  the  dress  re- 
hearsal and  at  the  performance. 

Lighting  and  Music:  There  is  little  that  can  be  said  of  the 
activities  of  these  two  committees  since  the  problems  involved 
depend  wholly  upon  local  conditions  and  the  demands  of  the 
play.  It  is  important,  however,  for  these  committees  to  re- 
member that  both  the  music  and  the  lighting  should  serve  as  a 
background  for  the  idea  and  action  of  the  play. 

Publicity:  All  arrangements  concerning  advertising,  posters, 
bulletins,  press  notices,  etc.,  are  the  responsibility  of  this  com- 
mittee. In  their  hands  also  is  usually  placed  the  business  of 
arranging  for  the  hall  in  which  the  play  is  to  be  presented,  the 

410 


decorations,  ushering,  etc.     Frequently  the  publicity  committee 
takes  complete  charge  of  the  sale  of  the  tickets. 

Finance :  Anything  which  involves  the  expenditure  of  money 
comes  under  the  province  of  this  committee. 

Rehearsing-* 

At  the  first  rehearsal,  the  discussion  of  the  underlying 
motive  of  the  play  and  of  each  of  the  characters  is  a  stimulat- 
ing proceeding,  too  often  neglected  by  amateurs  in  their  eager- 
ness to  get  to  the  actual  work  of  rehearsing.  Only  those  who 
have  had  the  experience  of  rehearsing  a  play  which  has  been 
thoroughly  analyzed  by  the  members  of  the  cast,  can  know  how 
the  production  is  deepened  and  enriched  by  this  intellectual 
contribution. 

If  it  is  necessary,  further  "try-outs"  should  come  now,  and 
then  the  rehearsing  of  the  action  (ignoring,  for  the  time  being, 
interpretation)  of  the  first  act  or  scene.  The  action  should 
have  been  entirely  "plotted,"  i.  e.,  worked  out  by  the  director, 
before  the  first  rehearsal.  Much  of  it  will  doubtless  have  to  be 
changed,  suggestions  from  the  players  will  add  to  it,  but  inde- 
scribable is  the  confusion  which  results  from  having  no  definite 
plan  of  stage  action  to  form  a  basis  for  the  work  of  the  first 
rehearsal.  Further  than  this,  it  cannot  be  too  often  stated  that 
every  bit  of  action  must  always  be  the  result  of  a  real  reason 
for  moving  from  one  point  to  another. 

There  are  certain  technical  terms  with  which  it  is  wise  to 
familiarize  a  group  of  players  at  the  outset  of  dramatic  work. 
In  giving  directions  right  and  left  are  now  generally  accepted 
to  designate  the  players  right  and  left  rather  than  that  of  the 
audience.  Down  stage  refers  to  the  part  nearest  the  audience; 
up  stage  to  that  farthest  away.  The  entrances  are  referred  to 
by  numbers,  one  being  nearest  the  audience.  More  often  than 
not  there  are  only  right,  left  and  center  entrances,  but  if  on 
the  right  there  are  two  or  three  they  are  so  numbered.  The 
following  abbreviations  are  frequently  used  especially  in  act- 
ing editions  of  plays:  L. — left;  R. — right;  D.  L. — down  left; 

411 


D.  R.— down  right;  U.  L.— up  left;  U.  R.— up  right;  C. — cen- 
ter; U.  C.  or  D.  C.- — up  or  down  center;  E.  U.  E.  or  L.  U.  E. — 
right  or  left  upper  entrance,  or  R.  2  L.  2  may  be  used  to  indi- 
cate the  upper  entrances.  "Backing"  is  a  section  of  setting 
used  behind  a  door  or  window  that  is  to  be  opened.  "Practical" 
is  the  technical  term  for  useable— a  practical  window  or  door  is 
one  which  will  open  or  close,  a  practical  lamp  is  one  which  will 
light.  "Plot"  is  the  technical  term  for  list— i.  e.,  property  plot 
means  the  list  of  properties  arranged  in  relation  to  the  differ- 
ent scenes  in  which  they  are  used. 

The  second  rehearsal  reviews  the  last  rehearsal's  work,  not 
to  perfect  it  but  to  recall  it  and  to  get  continuity;  the  action  of 
the  next  scene  is  gone  over,  and  attention  is  given  to  the  inter- 
pretation and  reading  of  speeches. 

Each  subsequent  rehearsal  reviews  xthe  new  work  of  the  pro- 
ceeding rehearsals.  The  action  is  perfected  little  by  little  until 
the  play  moves  smoothly.  The  speeches  are  worked  over  until 
the  players  are  letter  perfect  and  speak  their  lines  clearly  and 
intelligently. 

If  a  costume  play  is  to  be  presented  it  is  important  to  have 
two  dress  rehearsals,  with  an  interval  of  two  or  three  days  be- 
tween in  order  to  allow  time  in  which  to  make  the  necessary 
changes  and  additions.  At  the  first  dress  rehearsal  all  stage 
properties  should  be  in  their  places,  all  individual  properties  to 
be  used  by  the  players  should  be  given  to  them,  and  all  music, 
cues,  lighting  effects  and  changes  of  scenes  should  be  thoroughly 
rehearsed.  At  the  second  dress  rehearsal  the  players  should  be 
in  complete  costume  (make-up  and  wigs  if  these  are  used),  and 
the  entire  play  should  be  gone  through  without  interruption,  as 
if  the  actual  performance  were  taking  place. 

Bibliography. 

Clark,  Barrett.  How  to  Produce  Amateur  Plays.  Little, 
Brown  &  Co.,  New  York,  1917. 

MacKay,  Constance  D'Acy.  'Costumes  and  Scenery  for  Ama- 
teurs. Henry  Holt  &  Co.,  -New  York,  1915. 

412 


MacKay,  Constance  D'Arcy.  How  to  Produce  Children's  Plays. 
Henry  Holt  &  Co.,  New  York,  1915. 

Second  List  of  Plays  and  Pageants.  -Compiled  by  the  Bureau 
of  Pageantry  and  the  Drama  of  the  National  Board  of  the 
Young1  Womens  Christian  Association.  Order  from  The 
Womans  Press,  New  York  City.  A  selective  list  for  the  use 
of  girls  and  young  women.  It  also  contains  descriptions  of 
all  books  listed  in  these  bibliographies. 

PAGEANTRY. 

Much  of  the  philosophy  and  technique  which  underlies 
dramatization,  pantomime  and  play  production  is  applicable  to 
pageantry,  hence  it  is  only  logical  that  a  discussion  of  this 
form  of  the  drama  should  come  last  in  an  outline  for  construc- 
tive, cumulative  dramatic  work. 

"A  pageant  is  primarily  something  'compacted  together,'" 
says  Robert  Withington  in  his  very  valuable  historical  outline, 
called  "English  Pageantry."  "Moreover,  the  pageant  is  at  its 
best  when  produced,  not  by  one  group  or  set  in  a  community, 
but  by  all;  not  by  paid  performers  but  by  townspeople  in  volun- 
tary cooperation." 

Of  the  various  forms  of  pageantry,  Miss  Hazel  MacKaye 
says: 

"The  term  'pageantry'  to-day  implies  the  use  of  the  drama 
by  large  numbers  of  amateur  groups  in  a  spectacle  of  consider- 
able magnitude.  The  term  'community  drama*  is  often  used 
interchangeably  with  'pageantry,'  but  'community  drama'  in- 
cludes all  dramatic  activities  which  are  non-professional, 
whether  these  activities  take  the  form  of  a  community  pageant 
in  the  city's  largest  auditorium  or  a  community  play  in  a  Little 
Theater. 

"A  pageant  in  the  original  use  of  the  term  meant  a  gor- 
geous spectacle  or  parade  without  the  accompaniment  of  dia- 
logue, but  in  its  modern  application  a  pageant  means  a  series 
of  dramatic  episodes  (often  with  'pageant'  features)  strung,  as 

413 


it  were,  on  a  string  like  beads,  each  'bead'  or  episode  being 
complete  in  itself,  but  all  being:  interpretative  of  the  same  un- 
derlying- idea.  More  often  than  not,  dialogue  is  used  in  these 
episodes.  The  pageant  form  is  best  suited  to  historical  subjects, 
such  as  the  history  of  a  city  or  town,  or  the  history  of  a  move- 
ment, like  Education,  or  the  history  of  an  institution,  like  the 
Church. 

"A  'masque'  is  constructed  on  the  same  lines  as  a  play,  in 
that  there  is  a  plot,  with  all  that  implies  of  conflict  and  sus- 
pense. The  plot,  however,  is  symbolical  or  allegorical.  It  deals 
with  universal  or  impersonal  problems,  not  with  particular  or 
personal  ones.  In  addition,  the  masque  lends  itself  to  pageant 
features,  pageant,  in  this  sense,  meaning  'gorgeous  spectacles 
and  parades/  The  masque  is  especially  adapted  to  the  inter- 
pretation of  social  and  ethical  problems  where  it  is  desired  to 
portray  the  difficulties  to  be  overcome. 

"Then  there  are  dramatic  forms  less  easy  to  classify,  such 
as  dramatic  ceremonies,  rituals  and  services.  These  are  used 
often  to  celebrate  certain  observances,  such  as  the  dedication  of 
a  church  or  civic  building,  or  to  celebrate  a  holiday,  such  as 
Memorial  Day,  or  to  observe  some  religious  festival,  such  as 
Christmas  or  Easter." 

But  whatever  the  form,  the  underlying  principles  and  phil- 
osophy are  the  same.  "We  must  be  no  more  tolerant  of  bad 
art  than  of  bad  civics,  for  bad  art  is  bad  sociology  and  bad  edu- 
cation," says  Percy  MacKaye  in  his  essay,  "Community  Drama." 
In  addition  he  states  that  "Community  Drama  seeks  the  effi- 
ciency of  neighborliness.  It  seems  to  provide,  and  rightly  or-, 
ganized,  it  does  provide,  a  substitute  for  ineffectual  goodwill  in 
the  effectual  definite  processes  of  cooperative  art.  It  takes  its 
first  hints  from  childhood.  Children  are  nearly  always  definite 
and  cooperative.  When  child  neighbors  meet,  they  play  to- 
gether; that  is,  each  relates  himself  to  a  community  process; 
or,  if  they  squabble,  they  cooperate  in  groups  to  do  so.  The 
games  of  childhood,  modern  survivals  of  ancient  folk  art  (when 

414 


they  have  not  been  perverted  by  a  spirit  of  military  national- 
ism), are,  then,  first  lessons  in  community  drama. 

"'Here  we  go  round  th,e  mulberry  bush !'— not  'here  I  go 
round/  but  'we/  It  is  always  'we/  among  children:  we  small 
neighbors,  linked  hand  in  hand,  each  self -included  circle-symbol 
of  the  world  itself.  ...  So  from  as  little  and  homely  a  thing 
as  a  'mulberry  bush'  we  may  cultivate  and  gather  fruit  of  the 
International  Mind/' 

To  a  local  Association  the  reasons  for  using  a  pageant  or 
masque  are  usually  one  of  the  following: 

A.  To  arouse  interest  in  a  cause. 

B.  To  provide  an  art  activity  for  a  large  group. 

C.  To  raise  money. 

For  any*  pageant  or  masque  which  assumes  community  pro- 
portions, expert  leadership  is  absolutely  essential — the  organi- 
zation alone  of  such  a  production  requires  knowledge  and  abil- 
ity, which  can  only  come  through  specialized  training  and  ex- 
perience. 

In  organizing  a  pageant,  there  are  two  distinct  sets  of  activ- 
ities to  be  "set  up" — community  activities  and  the  dramatic 
activities.  For  the  community  activities  there  needs  to  be  a 
general  committee  composed  of  an  executive  committee  with  its 
chairman  and  executive  secretary,  the  community  director  and 
the  chairman  for  the  general'  committee.  There  should  be  a 
recruiting  committee  responsible  for  enrollment  in  the  different 
districts;  a  publicity  committee  responsible  for  speakers,  mass 
meetings,  newspapers,  posters  and  literature,  special  advertis- 
ing features  and  the  programs;  a  finance  committee  responsible 
for  the  budget,  underwriting,  business  administration,  contracts, 
sale  of  tickets,  seating  arrangements;  a  fellowship  committee 
to  give  assistance  with  the  workroom,  at  rehearsals  and  at  per- 
formances. There  must  also  be  an  office,  the  activities  of  which 
are  'filing,  notifications,  distribution,  records  and  minutes,  in- 
formation, correspondence  and  business  details. 

415 


For  the  dramatic  activities  there  needs  to  be  a  general  com- 
mittee composed  of  its  chairman,  an  executive  committee  chair- 
man and  executive  secretary,  the  director  of  production  with  a 
staff  consisting  of  the  assistant  director,  music  director,  dance 
director,  light  director,  costume  director  and  scenic  director. 
Also  there  needs  to  b~e  a  workroom  where  the  costumes,  scenery 
and  props  are  made. 

Where  expert  leadership  is  not  possible  the  outdoor  produc- 
tion of  a  pageant  in  the  spring  or  summer  is  often  within  the 
reach  of  an  inexperienced  group,  For  such  a  production  it  is 
well  to  select  a  simple  pageant  with  few  principals,  with  much 
of  processional,  pantomime,  dance,  and  little  speech,  and  to 
keep  the  activities  attendant  on  the  production  within  a  limited 
group  rather  than  to  enlist  community  cooperation. 

The  selection  of  background  and  setting  for  an  outdoor  pro- 
duction is  of  vital  importance,  as  also  the  level  of  the  ground 
for  the  seating  of  the  audience.  Clustered  trees,  or  tall  bushes 
which  form  a  fairly  solid  background  and  admit  of  entrances 
and  exits,  a  slight  rising  of  the  ground  back  of  this  "stage," 
which  will  permit  the  beauty  of  long  distance  processional,  and 
again  rising  ground  for  the  audience,  form  the  ideal  conditions. 
Often,  however,  the  side  of  a  house,  heavily  vine-covered,  makes, 
a  good  background.  Sometimes  a  natural  pool  may  be  utilized. 
The  underlying  principle  is  that  the  site  for  the  stage  shall  be 
an  obvious  point  of  focus,  both  through  being  naturally  beauti- 
ful and  dramatically  effective. 

Bibliography. 

Bates  and  Orr.  Pageants  and  Pageantry.  Ginn  &  Co.,  New 
York,  1912. 

Chubb,  Percival  and  his  Associates.  Festivals  and  Plays.  Har- 
per &  Bros.,  New  York,  1912. 

Davol,  Ralph.  A  Handbook  of  American  Pageantry.  Davol 
Publishing  Co.,  Mass.,  1914. 

416 


MacKay,  Constance  D'Arcy.     Patriotic  Drama  in  Your  Town. 
Henry  Holt  &  Co.,  New  York,  1918. 

MacKaye,  Percy.     Community  Drama.     Houghton,  Mifflin  Co., 
New  York,  1917. 

Mitchell,   Roy.     Shakespeare  for   Community   Players.     E.   P. 
Dutton  &  Co.,  New  York,  1919. 

Withington,  Robert.     English  Pageantry.     Harvard  University 
Press,  Cambridge,  Mass.    Two  volumes.    1918-1921. 


SOME   PRACTICAL  SUGGESTIONS   ON  FORMING  A  DRAMATIC   STUDY 
GROUP    OF    GIRL    RESERVES.* 

The  term  Dramatic  Study  Group  is  here  used  to  designate  a 
group,  which  may  be  formed  in  any  Girls'  Work  Department, 
to  forward  the  study  and  interpretation  of  the  several  phases 
of  the  drama  as  outlined  in  the  preceding  pages  of  this  chap- 
ter. In  its  membership  should  be  included  all  younger  girls 
who  are  particularly  interested  in  the  drama  and  who  want  to 
build  up  in  the  Association  and  in  the  community  a  drama 
movement.  The  work  of  this  group  would  not  duplicate  in  any 
measure  the  suggestions  made  "earlier  in  the  chapter  about  the 
place  of  the  drama  in  the  Girl  Reserve  Movement.  Those  sug- 
gestions are  made  to  help  put  the  drama  in  its  rightful  place 
in  the  regular  program  work  of  each  of  the  corps,  companies 
and  clubs. 

Perhaps  a  contribution  of  real  merit  may  be  made  to  the 
Community  Drama  movement,  if  every  Girl  Reserve  Dramatic 
group  starts  out  on  the  right  basis — that  is  with  the  motto, 
"What  is  worth  doing  at  all  is  worth  doing  well." 

Since  many  people  have  had  experience  in  forming  dramatic 
study  groups,  it  would  be  well  to  take  advantage  of  this  expe- 
rience from  the  beginning  and  avoid  making  some  very  serious 
mistakes. 


*  The   following:   suggestions   were   compiled  specifically  for   Girl  Reserves 
by  Hazel  MacKaye. 

417 


The  following:  are  some  of  the  principles  which  it  has  been 
found  wise  to  follow: 

1.  The  group  must  be  put  on  a  good  business  basis.    This 
does  not  mean  that  it  must  be  run  for  money.     On  the 
contrary,  that  is  the  worst  possible  basis,  for  if  the  ob- 
ject is  to  "make  money"  then  the  artistic  worth  of  the 
production  becomes  only  a  secondary  matter.     The  ar- 
tistic side  of  the  play  must  be  the  first  consideration,  but 
some  system  of  financial  support,  aside  from  "gate  re- 
ceipts" must  be  thought  out.      Dues,  subscriptions,  un- 
derwriting (by  interested  friends) — all  of  these  may  be 
combined  to  enable  the  club  to  have  the  necessary  capital 
with  which  to  begin  the  nucleus  of  its  stage  effects,  such 
as  stage  hangings  or  sets,  a  wardrobe,  a  few  properties, 
and  a  simple  lighting  equipment.    Each  play  will  add  to 
all  these  things,  but  a  beginning  must  be  made,  and 
"capital"  of  some  sort  is  necessary. 

2.  Responsibility  for  enforcing  rules,  especially  with  regard 
to  attendance  at  rehearsals  and  committee  meetings,  must 
be  placed  squarely  upon  the  group  membership  and  not 
upon  the  dramatic  director. 

3.  The  work  of  producing  a  play  or  plays  must  be  divided 
equally  among  the  membership.     Those  who  act  in  one 
play,  should  be  the  managers,  directors  and  committee 
members  in  the  next  play.    "Turn  and  turn  about  is  fair 
play." 

4.  Painstaking  care  should  be  given  to  the  selection  of  the 
plays  (or  series  of  plays)  as  well  as  to  every  detail  in 
carrying  them  out.     "Artistic  integrity,"  should  be  the 
underlying  purpose  of  every  production. 

First  Step. 

It  is  impossible  to  lay  down  any  rule  regarding  the 
amount  of  ground  to  be  covered  at  each  meeting,  but  the 
following  activities  are  taken  up  in  their  relative  order: 
1.   Discussion  of  the  Community  Drama  Movement. 

418 


2.  Discussion  of  policies. 

3.  Selection  of  a  Dramatic  Study  Chairman. 

4.  A  Committee  should  be  appointed  (or  an  individual  as- 
signed) to  submit  several  plays  to  be  discussed  at  the 
subsequent  meeting. 

Second  Step. 

1.  Readings  of  the  plays,  or  outlines  submitted,  with  final 
choice  by  the  club  membership  of  the  play  to  be  'given. 
(Where  the  club  is  large,  a  Play  Reading  Committee  may 
choose  the  play.) 

2.  Discussion  of  the  underlying  meaning  and  significance  of 
the  play  and  the  characters. 

3.  Appointment  (or  election)   of  chairman  and  committees. 
The  committees  will  grow  out  of  the  needs  of  ths  play. 

4.  Assigning  of  parts  by  "try-outs"  or  other  means.     The 
try-out  system  by  a  Oast  Committee  has  proven  to  be  a 
very  effective  way  of  removing  all  personal  animosities. 
It  also  helps  to  foster  a  spirit  of  "good  sportsmanship ' 
among  the  members. 

5.  Conferences  between  the  Director  and  her  assistants  as 
well  as  with  her  committees.    (Note:   It  is  just  as  impor- 
tant that  time  be  set  aside  for  these  conferences  as  for 
the  rehearsals.     Either  before   or  after  the  rehearsals 
doubtless  would  be  best.) 

The  success  with  which  the  play  is  interpreted  will  depend 
greatly  upon  the  care  with  which  it  is  analyzed  and  discussed  by 
the  Director  and  the  club.  All  the  members  on  the  Production 
Committee  should  know  the  play  as  well  as  the  actors,  for  they 
have  an  equal  share  in  its  interpretation.  The  setting,  cos- 
tumes, properties,  music  and  lights  should  be  designed  and  car- 
ried out  with  a  view  to  the  effect  of  the  play  as  a  whole.  In 
short,  the  aim  should  be  to  have  a  synthesized  production.  This 
can  only  be  obtained  by  the  proper  understanding  of  the  play 
by  all  concerned  in  its  presentation  on  the  stage. 

419 


It  is  not  possible  to  go  into  the  many  details  of  rehearsing 
a  play  in  this  brief  setting-forth  of  the  subject,  but  a  few  gen- 
eral rules  may  be  suggested: 

First.  Absolute  and  undivided  attention  must  be  given  to 
the  business  at  hand  by  those  taking  part  in  the  play,  while 
those  looking  on  must  be  perfectly  quiet.  A  rehearsal  cannot 
be  conducted  in  the  midst  of  confusion.  If  the  study  group  is 
truly  "self-governing"  this  rule  will  be  carried  out  by  the  girls 
themselves  and  not  left  to  be  enforced  by  the  Director. 

Second.  The  Director  should  be  in  sole  control  of  the  re- 
hearsal until  it  is  dismissed,  when  suggestions  and  comments 
should  be  invited.  (Each  member  of  the  cast  should  have  a 
copy  of  the  entire  play  so  that  she  may  be  intelligent  about  the 
play  as  a  whole  and  not  merely  her  own  part.)  The  Director, 
especially  if  unskilled,  should  be  guided  by  the  wishes  of  the 
majority,  in  case  of  any  disputes,  but  divided  authority  during 
the  rehearsal  is  impossible.  This  pre-supposes  that  the  Direc- 
tor has  given  the  play  great  thought  and  has  largely  mapped 
out  her  plans  before  rehearsal. 

Third.  The  rehearsal  should  take  place,  if  possible,  on  the 
actual  stage.  If  not,  then  the  proportions  of  the  stage  and  the 
exact  location  of  the  entrances  should  be  adhered  to  in  re- 
hearsing the  action. 

Fourth.  The  action  should  grow  out  of  the  thought  and 
emotion  revealed  through  the  speeches,  and  not  arbitrarily  im- 
posed because  some  action  "would  look  well." 

Fifth.  The  speeches  should  not  be  committed  to  memory  at 
the  first  rehearsal,  but  the  sooner  the  player  frees  herself  from 
the  effort  of  trying  to  remember  her  lines,  the  more  quickly 
can  she  throw  herself  into  her  part.  Great  care  should  be  taken 
to  speak  clearly  and  audibly  at  all  rehearsals. 

Sixth.  There  should  be  two  dress  rehearsals.  The  first  for 
a  "line  perfect"  rehearsal  on  the  stage  combined  with  the  scen- 
ery properties  and  music.  The  second  should  have  all  these 

420 


with  the  addition  of  costumes,  makeup,  etc.,  and  lights.  The 
play  should  be  performed  at  least  once  exactly  as  it  is  to  be 
given  before  the  audience. 

Performance. 

It  is  here  that  "team  work"  between  the  "front  of  the 
house"  and  "behind  the  scenes"  may  be  used  so  advantageously 
as  to  give  the  audience  the  "atmosphere"  of  the  play  from  the 
first  moment  they  enter  the  auditorium.  If  the  play  is  a  cos- 
tume play,  the  ushers  may  echo  certain  features  of  the  period 
in  their  dress,  while  the  decorations  and  programs  may  also  re- 
peat this  note.  If  the  play  is  modern,  let  the  ushers  adopt  a 
dress  which  is  decorated  with  the  symbol  of  the  club  and  let  the 
decorations  and  programs  be  symbolic  of  the  underlying  mes- 
sage of  the  play.  This  gives  a  certain  creative  interest  to  those 
on  the  "Promotion  Committee"  for  they  can  use  their  ingenuity 
in  making  the  "front  of  the  house"  a  veritable  delight  to  all 
who  enter. 

As  to  the  running  of  the  performance  "behind  the  scenes" 
that  is  again  too  technical  a  matter  to  be  treated  here.  Suffice 
it  to  say,  that  all  the  actors  should  be  in  their  dressing  rooms 
at  least  an  hour  before  the  curtain  rings  up;  that  the  stage 
manager,  costume,  property  and  other  directors  should  have  all 
things  in  readiness  so  that  the  curtain  may  rise  on  the  ap- 
pointed hour. 

Workshop. 

As  the  activities  of  the  study  group  lead  more  and  more 
into  the  visual  side  of  play-making,  the  desirability  of  having 
some  place  where  the  necessary  scenery,  costumes,  etc.,  may 
be  made  with  comparative  ease  will  become  increasingly  ap- 
parent. The  creative  instinct  of  the  girls'  may  be  used  to  ad- 
vantage here  as  in  the  actual  performance,  while  the  activities 
of  designing,  decorating  and  making  the  costumes  can  be  readily 

421 


allied  to  the  already  existing  training-classes  of  the  Young 
"Women's  Christian  Association,  the  Workshop  being  a  practical 
and  fascinating  application  of  the  skill  developed  in  these  vari- 
ious  classes. 

Dramatic  Program. 

When  the  study  group  has  really  made  one  or  two  success- 
ful productions,  it  is  more  than  likely  that  the  idea  of  plan- 
ning some  of  their  plays  ahead,  and  planning  them  in  relation 
to  one  another  will  be  conceived.  This  opens  a  large  oppor- 
tunity for  study  and  research,  as  well  as  variety  in  the  choice 
of  plays. 

The  Bibliograhy  suggests  where  resources  for  dramatic 
programs  may  be  found.  After  a  perusal  of  these  sources,  it 
is  quite  likely  that  each  individual  group  will  have  ideas  of  its 
own  regarding  the  kind  of  program  it  wishes  to  carry  for- 
ward, but  help  along  this  line  is  doubtless  necessary  in  the 
beginning. 

Regular  Meetings. 

Aside  from  the  rehearsals  and  meetings  growing  out  of 
the  needs  of  the  play,  time  should  be  set  aside  when  the 
group  as  a  whole  meets  to  discuss  its  principles,  its  aims  and 
its  problems.  It  is  impossible  to  set  any  definite  time  for 
these  meetings  since  conditions  vary  so  greatly  in  different 
places.  But  at  such  times  it  would  be  well  to  have  someone 
from  outside  speak  briefly  on  the  drama  or  related  subjects 
so  that  the  girls  keep  in  touch  with  aims  and  problems  other 
than  their  own.  In  this  great  "cooperative  art"  of  the  drama  it 
is  well  to  inculcate  the  habit  of  mind  of  thinking  of  one's 
study  group  as  a  part  of  a  whole  great  community  of  equally 
aspiring  and  earnest  groups — seeking  to  find  the  hidden  beauty 
in  themselves  and  in  the  world  about  them. 

422 


CHAPTER  VII. 

THE    PLACE    OF   DISCUSSION   IN   THE    GIRL   RESERVE    MOVEMENT. 

THE  value  of  discussion  in  girls'  club  work  is  the  same  as 
in  every  other  phase  of  every  day  living-.  It  Brings  about  an 
exchange  of  ideas,  serves  as  a  clarification  of  many  opinions 
which  teen-age  girls  have  heard  and  which  they  have  been 
holding  in  their  minds  unexpressed,  and  opens  up  many  ave- 
nues of  thought  which  have  been  closed  to  the  girls.  It  stim- 
ulates a  desire  for  further  thinking  and  actual  study  along 
these  lines. 

There  is  a  growing  conviction  on  the  part  of  many  edu- 
cators and  social  workers  to-day  that  many  of  the  life  stand- 
ards which  are  offered  to  present  day  youth,  are  adult  in 
their  conception.  Youth  accepts  them,  sometimes  with  pro- 
test, but  not  having  thought  them  through  for  itself,  fails  to 
uphold  them  at  critical  moments.  Therefore,  the  opportunity 
to  present  to  growing  girls  questions  which  are  vital  to  their 
every  day  living  is  a  very  great  one. 

This  does  not  mean  the  abandonment  of  established  stand- 
ards nor  a  disregard  for  the  experience  of  the  past  which  has 
produced  standards,  but  it  does  mean  that  the  rising  gener- 
ation is  allowed  to  enter  into  this  experience  of  the  past  and 
to  make  the  adjustments  to  their  own  age,  so  that  standards 
of  the  past  are  conserved  rather  than  destroyed.  Youth  some- 
times sets  aside  the  thing  which  is  automatically  given. 

"Modern  college  work  is  largely  a  pouring-in  process.  In 
the  class  room,  through  the  lecture  method,  the  student  is  told 
what  is  true  and  what  to  believe,  and  his  examination  tests 
him  in  how*  well  he  can  repeat  what  he  has  been  told.  In  the 

423 


religious  meetings  he  is  told  what  is  true  and  what  to  believe 
and  what  to  do  religiously.  He  is  robbed  too  largely  of  the 
joy  of  finding  some  things  out  for  himself,  of  daring  to  have 
ideas  of  his  own.  Ideas  are  dynamic;  yes,  but  common  sense 
and  modern  psychology  agree  that  they  are  dynamic  and  re- 
sult in  action  only  when  they  become  a  part  of  one's  own 
thought  and  conviction."  -Harrison  Elliott. 

This  pouring-in  process  is  undoubtedly  less  a  part  of  sec- 
ondary school  work  than  of  college  and  university  work^ 
More  and  more  the  formal  recitation  method  is  being  sup- 
planted by  the  project  method,  which  offers  a  great  field  of 
discussion  because  it  represents  an  individual  or  group  effort 
and  the  pupil  speaks  from  a  certain  experience  which  has  re- 
sulted from  the  work  undertaken,  but  in  addition  to  what  this 
may  do  to  help  a  girl  form  standards  for  living  which  come 
as  the  result  of  right  thinking,  there  is  still  a  tremendous 
field  for  helping  either  school  girls  or  younger  girls  in  business 
and  industry,  to  know  upon  what  to  base  their  own  judgments. 

Leading  a  Discussion. 

It  is  very  desirable  to  have  club  members  assume  respon- 
sibility for  directing  the  discussion  in  a  regular  club  meeting. 
This  cannot  be  done  without  thorough  consultation  between 
the  girl  leader  and  an  adviser.  There  may  be  certain  topics 
-which  demand  the  skillful  guidance  of  an  adviser  herself  when 
presented  to  the  whole  group.  Whether  she  is  directing  a 
discussion  herself  or  advising  a  girl  in  her  preparation  for  the 
discussion,  an  adviser  will  meet  this  situation  more  adequately 
if  she  has  some  of  the  following  qualifications:  a  real  interest 
in  what  she  is  doing,  an  earnest  desire  for  the  well-being  of 
girls,  such  joy  in  helping  girls  to  understand  the  possibilities 
of  what  is  being  discussed  that  she  is  willing  to  direct  their 
thinking  step  by  step,  and  to  put  at  their  disposal  all  of  her 
skill,  her  teaching  power,  her  mental  vigor,  her  insight  into 
character,  her  knowledge  of  methods,  and  most  of  all  her  power 
of  graphic  application. 

424 


The  language,  the  arrangement  of  material,  the  method 
of  presenting  the  questions  and  the  manner  of  the  person 
directing  the  discussion,  are  fundamentals  in  successful  dis- 
cussion and  the  girl  leader  of  any  discussion  should  be  "coached" 
along  all  of  these  lines.  The  language,  both  of  presentation 
and  answer,  should  be  simple,  clear,  forceful  and  correct.  The 
manner  of  the  girl  leader  or  the  adviser  has  a  real  bearing  upon 
the  group  response;  spirit,  energy,  life,  and  the  very  tone 
quality  of  the  voice,  add  to  the  general  interest  in  any  subject. 
Where  all  of  these  elements  have  been  considered  in  the  pre- 
paration for  any  discussion,  the  matter  of  discipline  in  the 
group,  or  the  holding  of  attention  becomes  almost  negligible. 

The  girl  leader  or  the  adviser  must  have  the  necessary 
information  regarding  the  topic  in  such  order  that  she  passes 
ouickly  and  clearly  from  the  introduction  to  the  real  body  of 
the  discussion.  This,  too,  must  be  so  arranged  that  it  repre- 
sents a  real  progression  and  there  must  be  always  a  relation- 
ship between  the  main  theme  and  all  questions  and  answers. 
If  the  leader  is  a  girl,  she  should  make  first  her  own  plans  for 
the  presentation  of  the  subject.  Consultation  with  the  adviser 
should  follow,  thus  giving  the  girl  the  opportunity  for  initia- 
tive,— a  very  desirable  thing  and  one  of  the  aims  of  this  dis- 
cussional  work. 

Method  of  Discussion. 

The  really  successful  discussion  does  not  begin  with  a 
lengthy  presentation  which  has,  within  its  bounds,  answers  to 
all  of  the  questions  which  may  be  asked  later.  The  art  of  vivid 
presentation  lies  in  the  fact  that  it  is  thought  provoking.  It 
contains  statements  which  arouse  immediate  questions  in  the 
minds  of  all  who  share  in  the  discussion ;  it  projects  questions 
^hich,  by  their  very  edge,  make  an  immediate  answer  a  neces- 
sity or  the  asking  of  a  new  question  the  only  present  satisfac- 
tion for  that  girl  who  wants  to  know. 

The  Art  of  Questioning  is  a  difficult  one  but  it  is  not  insur- 
ixiountable  to  the  adviser  who  is  really  anxious  to  do  her  dis- 

425 


eussion  work  in  a  craftsmanlike  way.  Briefly  stated,  questions 
may  be  grouped  under  the  following  headings:  the  preliminary 
or  experimental  question,  the  question  employed  to  give  actual 
instruction,  and  the  question  of  examination.  This  last  form 
is  little  used  in  discussion  with  girls  in  a  club.  However  ques- 
tions are  couched,  they  should  be  definite  and  not  open  to  too 
many  interpretations;  they  should  not  tell  too  much,  and  they 
should  be  the  real  questions  of  the  person  conducting  the  dis- 
cussion. Fully  as  important  as  the  questions  asked  are  the 
answers  received.  If  an  answer  is  given  which  is  wrong,  or 
lion-pertinent  to  the  subject  under  discussion  or  not  clearly 
related  to  the  question  asked,  it  should  not  be  discarded  by  the 
leader  of  the  discussion.  Neither  should  there  be  an  immediate 
reply  which,  in  its  entire  disapproval  of  the  statement  made, 
reduces  the  speaker  to  complete  silence  during  the  remainder 
of  the  discussion  and  to  outspoken  discontents  after  the  club 
meeting  is  over.  In  other  words,  such  answers  deserve  the 
most  careful  consideration  and  there  should  be  always  a  com- 
plete sense  of  impartiality  on  the  part  of  the  leader  of  the 
discussion.  * 

If  the  membership  of  a  club  is  large,  it  is  better  to  divide 
into  several  groups,  with  a  girl  leader  or  an  adviser  directing 
each  group;  after  discussion,  the  whole  club  comes  together 
for  reports  of  their  group  findings  and  for  further  discussion. 

While  the  question  method  is  the  usual  one  for  beginning 
discussional  work,  there  are  other  ways  such  as  pictures  and 
diagrams,  stories,  observation,  and  demonstration.  Illustra- 
tions of  these  various  methods  are: 

(a)  Questions;  If  the  subject  for  the  discussion  is  "con- 
duct" and  the  first  question  is:  "Why  does  the  way  we  act 
make  any  difference?"  the  implication  is  that  it  does  make  a 
difference.  If  the  first  question  were:  "Does  the  way  we  act 
make  any  difference?"  the  girl  has  an  opportunity  to  think  for 
herself.  A  question  that  can  be  answered  by  "Yes"  or  "No" 
should  be  used  very  rarely;  but  if  used,  it  should  be  followed 

426 


by  questions  that  will  lead  to  reasons  for  the  answer  given, 
as  illustrated  by  this  example.  If  the  discussion  is  centering 
about  purity,  especially  purity  of  thought,  instead  of  the  ques- 
tion: "How  can  we  keep  our  thoughts  pure?"  the  question 
"What  do  you  think  about  when  you  are  alone?"  will  help  every 
girl  to  face  squarely  the  challenge  as  to  the  quality  of  the 
contents  of  her  mind. 

(b)  Story:  If  the  subject  for  discussion  is:  "A  Girl's 
Scale  of  Values,"  and  the  purpose  is  to  help  girls  discover 
those  principles  for  living  which  have  true  value  in  that  they 
express  right  relations  to  man  and  God,  the  story  of  "The 
Plant  That  Lost  Its  Berry,"  to  be  found  in  "Story  Tell  Lib/' 
by  Annie  Trumbull  Slosson,  can  be  used  to  introduce  the  sub- 
ject. See  page  447  for  a  further  interpretation  of  the  mes- 
sage of  this  story. 

i(c)  Observation:  If  the  subject  is  "A  Good  Understanding" 
and  the  purpose  is  to  present  to  the  girls  the  value  of  wearing 
the  right  kind  of  shoes,  ask  each  girl,  at  least  two  weeks  before 
the  meeting,  to  observe  the  shoes  of  passers-by,  noticing  the 
type  and  condition  of  many  of  them.  Narrow  shoes  with  pointed 
toes  and  high  heels  usually  result  in  heels  which  are  run  over 
and  counters  which  are  broken  down,  soles  worn  off  at  the  tips, 
or  on  the  sides.  Have  the  girls  watch  advertisements  to  see 
what  points  are  emphasized  and  also  the  display  windows  of 
scores.  At  the  club  meeting,  combine  the  results  of  this 
observation  with  the  demonstration  method  and  have  an  exhibi- 
tion of  shoes  which  meet  the  requirements  of  a  normal  natural 
foot.  See  the  chapter  on  Health  Education,  page  326  ff. 

(d)  Pictures  and  diagrams:  If  the  subject  is  "What  is  my 
relation  to  the  little  girls  who  feed  the  silk  worms  in  China" 
and  the  purpose  is  to  present  to  girls  their  dependence  upon 
the  labor  of  hundreds  of  children  in  other  lands,  thereby  arous- 
ing a  spirit  of  fellowship,  pictures  illustrating  the  care  of  the 
silk  worms,  the  feeding  of  mulberry  leaves  and  the  patient 
winding  of  the  delicate  threads  of  silk,  can  be  used  to  open 

427 


this  discussion.  Ask  the  girls  to  define  the  boundaries  of  tneir 
lives.  Is  It  the  neighborhood  or  the  school  or,  if  it  were  to 
be  illustrated  by  a  diagram  upon  a  blackboard  or  map,  would 
lines  run  out  to  the  far  distant  lands?  Are  the  girls  one- 
country  girls? 

(e)  Debate:    The  debate  suggested  here  as  one  form  of  dis- 
cussion is  not  the  carefully  prepared,  formal  debate  in  which 
many  of  the  club  members  might  participate  in  school.    Topics 
which  are  of  pressing  interest  to  girls  should  be  assigned  some- 
time in  advance  of  the  meeting.    It  usually  adds  interest  not  to 
choose   the   debaters    until   the   time   for   the   debate    and   the 
amount  of  time  allotted  to  this  introduction  to  the  real  body 
of  discussion  should  not  be  too  great.     A  suggested  topic  is: 
Resolved:     That  teamwork   in   the  preparation   of  lessons   is 
allowable. 

(f)  Demonstration:    If  the  subject  for  discussion  is:     "Are 
expensive  clothes   necessary  for  one  who   wishes   to   be  well 
dressed'*  and  the  purpose  is  to  show  that  an  attractive  per- 
sonality may  express  itself  through  simplicity  in  design,  har- 
monious colors,  and  moderately  priced  and  durable  material,  an 
exhibition  of  dresses  suitable  for  school,  afternoon  or  evening 
parties,  and  street  wear  will  serve  as  an  excellent  setting  for 
this  most  practical  discussion.    Secure  these  garments  through 
the  courtesy  and  cooperation  of  a  standard  department  store. 
It  is  essential  that  the  secretary  or  adviser  in  charge  of  this 
discussion  is  very  sure  that  the  person  sent  from  the  store  to 
help  in  this   exhibition  is  aware  of  the  standards  which  the 
Association  and  the  club  are  eager  to  maintain,  so  that  the 
affair  does  not  become  a  demonstration  of  the  latest  "fads." 

(g)  Dramatics:      If   the    subject   for    discussion    is    "Child 
Labor"  and  the  purpose  is  to  bring  to  girls  an  understanding 
of  some  of  the  conditions  which  make  possible  labor  by  children, 
and  to  arouse  in  them  a  determination  to  face  squarely  their 
ultimate  responsibility,  as  future  citizens,  for  the  abolition  of 
anything  like  this  which  stunts  the  fullness  of  life  of  children, 
the  pageant,  "Sunshine  and  Shadow/7  published  by  the  National 

428 


Child  Labor  Committee,  105  East  22nd  Street,  New  York  City, 
proves  a.  very  effective  way  of  stimulating  interest.  It  does  not 
require  elaborate  preparation.  Eoyalty  is  paid  to  the  National 
Child  Labor  Committee. 

Content  of  the  Discussion: 

In  the  preceding  description  of  the  Method  of  the  Dis- 
cussion, it  is  evident  that  not  only  ways  of  conducting  dis- 
cussions have  been  suggested  but  also  considerable  content  has 
been  indicated.  The  following  topics  for  discussion  are  listed 
in  the  hope  that  they  will  be  suggestive  of  many  others  which 
can  be  used  to  stretch  the  muscles  of  a  girPs  mind. 
A.  "What  Do  I  Cost?" 

A  girl's  budget:    Living  expenses.    Education.   Cloth- 
ing,    Amusements. 
Bl  "Purpose." 
"To  each  man  is  given  a  day  and  his  work  for  the 

day; 

And  once,  and  no  more,  he  is  given  to  travel  this  way. 
And  woe  if  he  flies  from  the  task,  whatever  the  odds ; 
For  the  task  is  appointed  to  him  on  the  scroll  of  the 

gods. 

There  is  waiting  a  work  only  his  hands  can  avail; 
And  so,  if  he  falters,  a  chord  in  the  music  will  fail, 
He  may  laugh  to  the  sky,  he  may  lie  for  an  hour  in 

the  sun; 
But  he  dare  not  go  hence  till  the  labor  appointed  is 

done. 
Yes,  the  task  that  is  given  to  each  man,  no  other 

can  do; 
So  the  errand  is  waiting;  it  has  waited  through  ages 

for  you 

And  now  you  appear;  and  the  hushed  ones  are  turn- 
ing their  gaze 

.To  see  what  you  do  with  your  chance  in  the  chamber 
of  days." 

— Edwin  Markhaxft. 
429 


C.  "The  Ideal  Home."     House  and  Home  Series.     Eliza- 
beth Jenkins.      Secure  from   the   Womans   Press,  600 
Lexington  Avenue,  New  York. 

"Planning-  the  House." 

"Furnishing  the  House." 

"A  Budget  of  Personal  and  Household  Accounts." 

"Literature  in  the  Home." 

"The  Home  and  the  Neighborhood." 

D.  "How  Wide  Is  My  World?" 

"The  world  stands  out  on  either  side 
No  wider  than  the  heart  is  wide; 
Above  the  world  is  stretched  the  sky — 
No  higher  than  the  soul  is  high. 
The  heart  can  push  the  sea  and  land 
Farther  away  on  either  hand; 
The  soul  can  split  the  sky  in  two 
And   let   the  face   of   God   shine   through." 

— Edna  St.  Vincent  Millay. 

(If  possible  obtain  a  copy  of  the  picture  "Sic  Te 
Amo,"  by  Marie  Collier,  sometimes  called  "How  Wide 
Is  My  Love?") 

E.  "One  hundred  per  cent,  health  for  the  High   School 
girl."    There  are  several  "ways  of  presenting  this  topic. 
It  could  be  done  through  the  medium  of  a  splendid 
and  inspiring  talk  by  a   doctor,   or  through  a  mock 
trial  of  the  American  girl  on  the  following  counts: 
Firm  versus  flabby  muscles. 

Red  versus  white  corpuscles. 
Straight  versus  crooked  backs. 
Pink  versus  pale  cheeks. 
Bright  versus  shadowed  eyes. 

F.  "Modes,  Manners,  Customs  and  Costumes."  • 

(a)  Standards  of  conduct  for  the  American  girl. 

(b)  "Clothes." 

430 


A  demonstration  of  attractive  dresses  for  high 
school  girls,  suitable  for  all  occasions,  can  often 
be  obtained  through  the  courtesy  of  the  Misses' 
Department  of  a  store.  Care  needs  to  be  taken 
that  extreme  styles  are  not  featured, 
(c)  "Hair." 

A    demonstration    of   up-to-date    styles    of   hair 
dressing1  for   girls    of   high   school   age,   can   be 
obtained  through  the  courtesy  of  a  reliable  hair- 
dressing  establishment.    The  same  care  in  regard 
to  extremes  needs  to  be  exercised  here  also. 
G.  "All  Work  and  No  Play  Makes  Jill  a  Dull  Girl." 
The  place  of  recreation  in  a  high  school  course. 
EL  "Gossip  versus  Conversation." 

Is  gossip  confined  to  any  one  group  of  people?  Is 
it  as  apt  to  be  heard  in  drawing  rooms  as  in  the  con- 
versation occurring  over  the  backyard  fence?  What 
is  the  difference  between  conversation  and  gossip? 
What  makes  conversation  worth  while? 
"Natural  talk,  like  ploughing,  should  turn  up  a  large 
surface  of  life,  rather  than  dig  mines  into  geological 
strata — it  should  keep  close  along  the  lines  of  human- 
ity, near  the  bosoms  and  businesses  of  men,  at  the 
level  where  history,  fiction  and  experience  interest 
and  illuminate  each  other." — Kobert  Louis  Stevenson. 
I.  "What  Are  You  Laughing  At?" 

Different  sorts  of  laughter,  kind  and  unkind — "gig- 
gling"— e.  g.,  "the  time,  the  place  and  the  laugh." 
J.  "Your  Castles  in  the  Air," 

Do  you  believe  that  "Dreams  are  the  record  of  our 
waking  moments?" 

SCHOOL  GIRL  IDEALS. 

"School  Girl  Ideals,"  which  follow,  are   offered  as  a   dis- 
cussional  series,  which  may  become  the  background  for  dis- 

431 


cussional  work  during  a  year.  The  topics  are  suitable  for  a 
genera!  meeting,  but  there  will  be  a  more  informal  and  spirited 
discussion  if  they  are  used  by  smaller  groups.  The  girls  them- 
selves should  lead  the  discussion,  with  a  more  mature  leader 
acting  as  referee.  Some  girls  enjoy  taking  the  outlines  home 
after  the  meetings  for  further  thought  and  study,  writing 
answers  to  the  questions  and  later  comparing  these  with  the 
answers  of  other  girls. 

The  Biblical  quotations  establish  the  Christian  standards 
ir  these  matters  and  can  serve  as  texts,  while  the  topics  call 
attention  to  the  more  important  phases  of  the  subjects  under 
consideration.  The  questions  are  only  suggestive  and  intended 
to  stir  up  thought.  The  girls  themselves  will  think  of  many 
n«ore  to  be  added. 

The  leader  of  this  discussion,  with  the  aid  of  the  adviser 
or  the  secretary,  should  always  give  a  summary  of  the  import- 
ant points  at  the  close  of  the  discussion,  being  careful  to  avoid 
stating  any  conclusion  unless  the  group  has  arrived  at  such 
a  conclusion.  If  there  is  to  be  a  more  or  less  formal  con- 
clusion, which -would  result  in  taking  a  stand  upon  a  given 
question,  or  forming  a  policy  which  would  result  in  definite 
action,  such  should  come  from  the  group. 

A  GIBL'S    LOVE    OF     THE    BEAUTIFUL. 

"Whatsoever   things    are    lovely,    think   on   these    things, 
Phil.  4:8. 

"Let  your  speech  be  always  with  grace."    Col.  4:6. 

"I  will  greatly  rejoice'  in  Jehovah,  my  soul  shall  be  joyful 
in  my  God ;  for  he  hath  clothed  me  with  the  garments  of  salva- 
tion, he  hath  covered  me  with  the  robe  of  righteousness,  as  a 
bridegroom  decketh  himself  with  a  garland,  and  as  a  bride 
adometh  herself  with  her  jewels."  Isa.  61:10. 

I.  Beauty  of  Thought  and  Speech. 

What  is  the  meaning  of  being  a  gentlewoman?    Are  my 
thoughts  always  pure  ?    Does  the  book  I  am  reading  now 

432 


give  me  true  ideas  about  life?  How  can  I  tell  whether 
a  book  is  worth  reading?  How  does  what  I  read  affect 
what  I  say?  Have  I  a  gentle  voice?  How  far  does 
my  tone  of  voice  tell  the  kind  of  girl  I  am.  Have  I 
listened  to  anything  to-day  that  I  could  not  tell  my 
mother  ? 

[I.  Beauty  of  Conduct. 

Is  it  true  that  "actions  speak  louder  than  words?"  What 
does  it  mean  to  be  truly  courteous?  Why  does  it  make 
any  difference  how  I  act?  Do  I  show  my  kindness  best 
by  the  things  I  do  or  by  the  things  I  do  not  do?  Why 
is  a  crowd  with  which  one  has  to  travel  sometimes  so 
apt  to  be  disagreeable?  Do  the  same  standards  apply 
to  conduct  at  home,  on  the  street  and  in  school? 

III.  Personal  Beauty. 

Does  my  face  reflect  sunshine  within  me?  Have  I  a 
smile  for  those  I  greet?  Is  it  really  true  that  "hand- 
some is  as  handsome  does?"  Is  a  pretty  face  ever  a 
disadvantage  to  a  girl?  Have  I  the  beauty  which  comes 
from  "beauty  sleep/'  each  hour  of  which  before  midnight 
is  worth  its  weight  in  gold?  Do  I  look  well — not  only 
well  dressed  but  physically  well?  If  not,  why  not? 
When  am  I  dressed  appropriately?  Does  my  dress 
always  express  the  kind  of  a  girl  that  I  am?  Should 
it?  Are , expensive  clothes  necessary  for  one  who  wishes 
to  be  well  dressed?  Why  should  I  think  that  I  must 
have  the  same  clothes  as  the  other  girls?  Who  makes 
fashions  ? 

IV.  Beauty  in  Nature — in  art — in  surroundings. 

Can  I  enjoy  myself  when  alone  out  of  doors?  Why 
should  it  make  me  happy  to  see  a  beautiful  autumn  sun- 
set, the  earliest  spring  flower  or  to  hear  the  first  robin? 
How  do  I  know  that  I  love  good  music  and  good  pictures  ? 
How  can  I  tell  what  is  good  poetry?  What  is  the  best 
way  to  try  to  know  what  the  poet  wants  to  tell  me? 

433 


Why  does  it  refresh  me  when  tired?  How  many  pic- 
tures copied  from  the  great  masters  can  I  call  by  name  ? 
Were  I  free  to  choose  any  picture  in  the  world  for  my 
own  room,  which  would  it  be?  When  a  guest  enters  my 
room,  by  what  could  she  test  my  sense  of  beauty?  My 
sense  of  neatness  ?  What  makes  a  truly  beautiful  room  ? 

V.  Beauty  In  All  Things. 

Why  should  I  try  to  live  up  to  my  most  beautiful  ideals  ? 
How  do  I  discover  the  beautiful  in  everything  and  in 
every  person  that  I  see?  If  I  constantly  look  for  the 
best  friends,  can  I  through  my  demand  help  create  the 
beautiful  and  best  in  their  lives?  What  is  the  most 
beautiful  thing  in  the  world? 

Have  I  spent  any  time  this  week  with  the  most  beautiful 
character  in  the  world,  Jesus  Christ?     He  can  teach  me 
to  see  the  beautiful  and  how  to  make  the  world  more 
beautiful  because  I  have  lived  with  him  in  it. 
"Whatsoever  thou  seekest,  that  shalt  thou  find." 

Closing  Prayer. 

Our  loving  Father,  we  would  be  true  and  beautiful  in 
all  that  we  do  and  say.  Open  our  eyes  to  see  the  beauty 
in  the  world  which  Thou  has  made.  Put  into  our  hearts 
the  desire  to  grow  into  the  beauty  of  Christ,  our  Lord 
and  Saviour.  Amen. 

Note — The  above  and  later  questions  are  to  be  answered 
by  each  girl  herself,  quite  frankly  and  honestly.  Perhaps  she 
will  want  to  try  writing  the  answers  in  a  book  opposite  the 
questions.  Then  she  will  be  able  to  compare  her  answers 
"vnritten  at  the  time  with  answers  she  might  want  to  make  a 
month  or  three  months  later  when  she  has  shared  in  a  club 
discussion  or  has  talked  them  over  again  with  some  older  per- 
son— a  teacher,  an  adviser  or  a  secretary. 

434 


II. 

THE    JOY    OP    LIVING. 

"Rejoice,  and  be  exceeding  glad."    Matt.  5:12. 

"I  came  that  they  may  have  life,  and  may  have  it  abund- 
antly/' John  10:10. 

"For  ye  shall  go  out  with  joy,  and  be  led  forth  with  peace; 
the  mountains  and  hills  shall  break  forth  before  you  into 
singing-;  and  all  the  trees  of  the  fields  shall  clap  their  hands." 
Isa.  55:12. 

"My  soul  doth  magnify  the  Lord, 

And  my  spirit  hath  rejoiced  In  God  my  Saviour." — Luke  1:43. 

I.  Joy  in  Things. 

When  am  I  truly  happy?  What  do  I  call  real  joy? 
Where  do  I  look  f  or  my  happiness  ?  Is  it  in  things  which 
I  can  do,  in  the  things  which  I  possess  or  the  places 
where  I  may  go?  If  I  weigh  my  interest  in  trashy 
books  and  vulgar  stories  over  against  good  reading  what 
do  the  scales  show?  Why?  What  is  there  in  my  way 
of  living  that  makes  me  not  enjoy  making  pretty  things  ? 
What  kind  of  shows  and  other  amusements  leave  me 
tired  in  body  as  well  as  in  spirit?  What  are  wholesome 
pleasures?  Do  I  find  real  joy  in  the  great  out-of-doors?' 
How  well  do  I  care  for  my  garden?  Do  I  always  go  out 
for  my  pleasures  or  can  I  have  the  best  kind  of  a  time 
at  home?  What  happens  to  a  person  who  stores  up  all 
the  things  which  vex  and  bother  her? 

II.  Joy  In  Work. 

What  have  I  accomplished  to-day  that  has  made  some- 
one else  really  happy?  What  did  I  neglect  to  do  yes- 
terday that  I  might  have  done  well?  Why  do  I  find  so 
much  pleasure  in  doing  things  for  others?  Is  it  the 
thing  that  I  do  or  being  able  to  do  it  well  that  gives 
me  pleasure?  Why  was  I  glad  to  be  called  upon  in 
class  yesterday?  Why  do  some  girls  "just  hate  marks?" 

435 


Are  all  my  joys  at  the  mercy  of  things  that  happen  to 
me,  or  have  I  a  joy  that  cannot  be  taken  away?  Is  the 
pleasure  that  I  take  in  my  work  contagious?  What 
does  the  joy  of  forgetting  oneself  reveal  to  other  people? 
Why  should  I  endeavor  to  complete  promptly  whatever 
I  begin?  What  happens  to  the  "togetherness"  of  my 
family  if  I  surprise  the  other  members  by  cooking  some 
particularly  good  dish?  How  can  tasks  be  turned  into 
joyful  work?  Why  was  the  last  thing  I  did  to  help  my 
mother  joy-producing? 

III.  Joy  In  Companionship. 

How  does  doing  things  together  make  life  happier?  Why 
is  reading  aloud  while  another  sews  a  twofold  pleasure  ? 
What  is  necessary  in  order  that  two  people  can  be  happy 
together?  Is  it  true  that  our  best  friends  are  those 
with  whom  we  may  Tbe  silent?  Why  are  pet  animals 
such  good  companions?  In  what  ways  should  a  Christian 
be  joyful  and  full  of  life?  How  may  I  have  the  abiding 
joy  that  comes  from  friendship  with  Jesus  Christ  ?  Why 
do  some  people  think  it  necessary  to  be  long-faced  and 
negative  if  one  is  a  Christian?  Why  should  Christian 
companions  be  the  happiest? 

IV.  The  Influence  of  a  Joyful  Life. 

How  do  I  make  life  more  worth  living  for  those  around 
me?  How  do  joy  and  light  in  my  heart  make  the  world 
any  brighter  and  happier?  How  often  do  I  remember 
to  share  my  joys  with  my  family?  In  what  ways 
Joes  the  cheerfulness  of  my  life  reach  beyond  those  of 
my  immediate  circle?  How  can  I  best  help  to  make  my 
town  a  prettier  place  to  live  in,  my  school  a  better  place 
to  work  in  and  my  country  the  happiest  place  to  be  in? 
If  every  one  were  like  me,  how  happy  would  the  world 
be?  What  kind  of  a  Christian  makes  other  people  want 
to  be  Christians,  too?  Am  I  that  kind  of  a  Christian? 
If  I  really  follow  Jesus  Christ,  I  must  be  a  bringer  of 

:  436 


joy  to  many  hearts.  "Give  us  to  awaken  with  smiles, 
give  us  to  labor  smiling,  and  as  the  sun  lightens  the 
world,  so  let  our  loving-kindness  make  bright  this  house 
of  our  habitation." 

— Eobert  Louis   Stevenson. 

Closing  Prayer. 

"0  give  me  the  joy  of  living 
And  some  glorious  work  to  do! 
A  spirit  of  thanksgiving, 
With  loyal  heart  and  true; 
Some  pathway  to  make  brighter 
Where  tired  feet  now  stray; 
Some  burden  to  make  lighter 
While  'tis  day." 

Amen. 

III. 

A    SCHOOL    GIRL'S    SENSE    OF    HONOR. 

"Whatsoever  things  are  true,  whatsoever  things  are  honor- 
able .  .  .  think  on  these  things."  Phil.  4:8. 

"Take  thought  for  things  honorable  in  the  sight  of  all  men." 
Rom.  12:17. 

"Judge  not,  that  you  he  not  judged."    Matt.  7:1. 

"Why  beholdest  thou  the  mote  that  is  in  thy  brother's  eye, 
but  considerest  not  the  beam  that  is  in  thine  own  eye?" 
Matt.  7:3. 

"Jehovah^  who  shall  sojourn  in  thy  tabernacle? 

Who  shall  dwell  in  thy  holy  hill? 

He  that  walketh  uprightly,  and  worketh  righteousness, 

And  speaketh  truth  in  his  heart; 

He  that  slandereth  not  with  his  tongue, 

Nor  doeth  evil  to  his  friend, 

Nor  taketh  up  a  reproach  against  his  neighbor."    Ps.  15:1-3 

437 


I.  Honor  In  School. 

What  is  honor  in  school  work?  What  are  bluffing, 
cribbing,  copying  or  use  of  other  people's  work  ?  Where 
do  you  place  them  in  your  honor  scale?  Why?  Why 
should  I  be  willing  to  be  called  "mean"  rather  than  to 
give  dishonorable  help?  If  I  write  a  note  to  someone 
else  in  the  class  and  expect  several  other  girls  to  pass 
that  note  for  me,  do  I  force  others  to  join  in  my  decep- 
tion? Am  I  afraid  to  speak  the  truth  when  I  think  I 
might  keep  out  of  trouble  if  I  keep  silent?  What  is  a 
"perfectly  good  excuse?''  Why  should  I  do  my  own 
work  when  I  might  live  upon  the  efforts  of  some  of  the 
best  students  in  the  class?  What  should  I  do  if  I 
haven't  had  time  to  finish  my  mathematics  lesson  and 
know  I  can  get  it  from  another  girl-?  Am  I  square  to 
that  girl,  even  if  she  depends  upon  me  for  English  work  ? 
Is  team  work  ever  allowable  in  preparing  one's  lessons? 
What  happens  to  me  when  I  obscure  my  handwriting  if 
I  do  not  know  how  to  spell  a  word?  Is  it  necessary  to 
be  trustworthy  when  left  "on  my  honor?"  Why  do  most 
schools  have  to  have  "lockers?"  Is  there  any  difference 
between  "swiping"  and  stealing? 

II.  Honor  in  Play. 

Why  is  the  willingness  to  accept  honorable  defeat  rather 
than  dishonorable  victory  a  sign  of  a  school's  greatness? 
Should  I  be  accepted  as  a  worthy  member  of  the  school 
team  if  I  am  behind  in  my  class-room  work?  Am  I 
willing  to  give  up  the  fun  and  honor  of  representing  my 
school  on  the  team  and  tell  the  truth  about  my  ability 
to  play?  Is  it  honest  to  get  my  hair  wet  intentionally 
under  the  shower  in  the  gymnasium  so  that  I  will  have 
to  skip  the  next  recitation  in  order  "to  get  it  dry  and 
not  take  cold?"  Why  should  not  a  visiting  team  collect 
as  "souvenirs"  any  thing  that  happens  to  be  available  in 
the  school  building? 

438 


III.  Honor  Among  Friends. 

Who  is  hurt  more  when  I  say  things  behind  a  friend's 
back  that  I  would  not  say  to  her  face?  Why?  Do  I 
disclose  personal  confidences?  What  is  flattery?  Why 
should  I  not  exaggerate  the  things  I  tell  my  friends,  if 
it  improves  the  story?  What  does  "standing  up  for  a 
friend"  necessitate  on  my  part?  How  far  can  I  defend 
her?  Is  it  ever  justifiable  to  lie,  even  to  "save"  a,  friend? 
Am  I  too  quick  to  believe  that  my  friend  told  something 
about  me  which  is  untrue?  Why  is  it  that  by  trusting 
my  friends  I  help  them  to  be  honorable? 

IV.  Honor  In  Daily  Living. 

What  are  some  "slip-over"  the  line  standards  that  make 
honor  in  daily  living  hard  to  attain?  Who  pays  the 
penalty  when  I  fail  to  pay  my  fare  on  the  street  car 
when  I  get  a  chance  ?  What  happens  to  me  when  I  bor- 
row small  sums  of  money  and  forget  to  return  them? 
How  does  such  a  habit  weaken  my  sense  of  honor? 
Why  should  promises,  and  engagements  be  kept  faith- 
fully? What  is  there  wrong  in  being  late?  Why  is 
keeping  others  waiting  such  a  common  form  of  selfish- 
ness? In  what  ways  am  I  most  apt  to  show  a  disregard 
of  the  use  of  my  own  or  of  another's  time?  Am  I  ever 
tempted  to  send  mail  under  a  cheaper  class  than  is  right? 

V.  Honor  of  Self. 

How  am  I  cultivating  a  sense  of  personal  dignity?  Is 
it  possible  to  have  two  sets  of  manners,  one  for  com- 
pany and  one  for  home?  Why  do  I  answer  this  question 
in  this  way?  Why  is  it  just  as  hypocritical  to  make 
believe  that  you  are  worse  than  you  are,  as  it  is  to 
make  believe  that  you  are  better  than  you  are?  Am  I 
honest  to  myself  when  I  excuse  my  own  weakness  and 
laziness?  Do  I  wear  well  or  does  my  polish  wear  off? 
How  far  am  I  endeavoring  always  to  "ring  true?" 

439 


Have  I  spent  any  time  this  week  with  the  most  honor- 
able and  sincere  person  who  ever  lived,  Jesus  Christ? 
He  will  teach  me  to  distrust  vulgar  pretense.  I  can 
learn  from  Him  to  admire  the  truth  and  through  Him  I 
can  gain  the  power  to  live  a  life  of  sincerity  and  honor. 

Closing  Prayer. 

"Let  the  words  of  my  mouth,  and  the  meditation  of  my 
heart  be  acceptable  in  Thy  sight,  0  Lord,  my  rock, 
and  my  redeemer."  Amen. 

IV. 

A    GIRL'S    STANDARD     OF  COURTESY. 

"Out  of  the  abundance  of  the  heart  the  mouth  speak eth," 
Luke  6:45. 

"If  ye  love  them  that  love  you,  what  reward  have  ye?     Do 
not  even  the  publicans  the  same? 

"And  if  ye  salute  your  brethren  only,  what  do  ye  more  than 
others?    Do  not  even  the  Gentiles  the  same?"    Matt.  5:46-7. 
"In  honor  preferring  one  another."    Romans  12:10. 
"And  whosoever  shall  compel  thee  to  go  one  mile,  go  with 
him  two."    Matt.  5:41. 
1.  True  Courtesy. 

What  is  the  secret  of  true  courtesy?  Do  forms  and 
customs  or  spontaneous  action  aroused  by  kindly  feelings 
constitute  courtesy?  Why  should  I  rise  when  an  older 
woman  enters  the  room  and  remain  standing  until  she 
is  seated?  Why  do  I  try  to  restrain  my  laughter  when 
someone  slips  and  falls?  Why  do  I  step  back  and  let 
another  precede  me  in  entering  a  doorway?  Do  I  listen 
when  I  am  being  spoken  to  ?  Why  might  I  know  all  the 
suggestions  written  in  a  book  on  manners  .and  still  be 
discourteous?  How  would  it  be  possible  for  me  never 
to  see  a  book  on  manners  and  yet  be  a  truly  courteous 
girl?  How  do  most  people  learn  to  be  courteous? 

440 


II.  'Courtesy  Among  Friends. 

Am  I  ever  justified  in  criticizing  my  friends?  Why  is 
courtesy  to  all  people  necessary  even  though  one  does 
not  like  every  one  whom  she  meets?  Why  are  other 
girls,  as  human  as  I  am,  apt  to  be  offended  by  constant 
whispering?  How  can  I  get  over  the  feeling  that  when 
persons  whisper  they  are  talking  about  me?  Is  it  true 
that  even  my  intimate  friends  may  not  let  me  into  all 
their  thoughts?  Have  I  any  more  right  to  open  my 
friend's  top  bureau  drawer  than  that  of  a  stranger? 
When  cross  and  blue,  is  it  fair  for  me  to  "take  it  out" 
by  scolding  my  friends?  Am  I  willing  to  share  my 
friends  gladly  with  other  girls? 

III.  Courtesy  In  Public  Places. 

Do  I  look  cross  when  waiting  for  a  package?  Which 
tires  a  clerk  more,  lack  of  courtesy  on  the  part  of  cus- 
tomers or  long  hours?  What  does  the  glare  which  one 
person  gives  another  who  shoves  him  in  the  crowd 
reveal?  Why  should  I  be  careful  about  talking  with 
my  friends  in  church?  At  a  public  entertainment,  when 
my  neighbors  are  trying  to  listen?  Do  I  scold  "central" 
when  she  gives  me  the  wrong  number?  When  a  fat 
lady  squeezes  in  beside  me  in  a  street  car,  have  I  ever 
thought  how  embarrassed  she  must  be  to  take  up  so 
much  room?  What  are  some  of  the  reasons  why  I  should 
not  discuss  private  affairs  in  public  places?  Why  should 
I  be  very  careful  never  to  attract  attention  to  myself 
when  in  a  public  place? 

IV.  Courtesy  at  Home. 

In  what  ways  do  I  show  consideration  for  my  mother? 
Do  I  contradict  and  argue  more  with  home  people  than 
with  outsiders?  Why?  Why  should  we  stop  our  con- 
versation when  sister  is  talking  at  the  telephone?  Do 
I  excuse  myself  as  "shy"  when  I  am  discourteous  to 
guests  in  my  own  home?  What  is  my  standard  of  treat- 

441 


ment  for  those  who  are  employed  in  my  home?  Do  I 
thank  the  dressmaker  for  making*  me  a  becoming  dress  ? 
What  makes  my  friends  glad  that  they  -came  to  my 
home?  When  a  beggar  or  agent  comes  to  the  door, 
what  is  the  nature  of  my  reply  to  his  inquiry?  How 
often,  from  the  point  of  view  of  courtesy  can  I  expect 
my  little  brothers  and  sisters  to  run  my  errands  and  wait 
on  me?  Does  being  "the  biggest"  make  a  difference? 
Am  I  impatient  with  the  grocer  boy  when  he  leaves  the 
wrong  packages?  Is  there  any  real  reason  why  I  should 
not  always  be  well-mannered  and  courteous?  Do  you 
think  it  true  that  "There  is  more  harm  wrought  by  want 
of  thought  than  want  of  heart?" 

If  I  am  a  Christian  girl  and  endeavoring  to  show  my 
Christianity  in  everyday  life,  is  there  any  more  import- 
ant way  than  remembering  the  little  things  to  do  them? 
Have  you  ever  thought  about  how  many  different  types 
of  people  Jesus  sympathized  with  and  loved  and  helped, 
because  He  really  cared  for  them?  He  was  glad  to 
make  the  sacrifice  of  love. 

Closing  Prayer. 

"If  any  little  word  of  mine  may  make  a  life  the  brighter, 
If  any  little  song  of  mine  may  make  a  heart  the  lighter, 
God  help  me  speak  the  little  word,  and  take  my  bit  of 

singing, 

And  drop  it  in  some  lonely  vale  to  set  the  echoes  ringing. 
If  any  little  love  of  mine  may  make  a  life  the  sweeter, 
If  any  little  care  of  mine  make  other  life  completer, 
If  any  lift  of  mine  may  ease  the  burden  of  another, 
God  give  me  love  and  care  and  strength  to  help  my  toil- 
ing brother/'     Amen. 

442 


V. 

IDEALS    OF    HOSPITALITY. 

"Forget  not  to  show  love  unto  strangers,  for  thereby  some 

have  entertained  angels  unawares."    Heb.  13:2. 

"Thou  shalt  love  thy  neighbor  as  thyself."    Matt.  22:39. 
"If  a  man  love  me  he  will  keep  my  word:  and  my  Father 

will  love  him,  and  we  will  come  unto  him,  and  make  our  abode 

with  him."     John  14:23. 

I.  The  Spirit  of  Hospitality. 

What  makes  a  greeting  cordial  ?  When  I  enter  a  f riend's 
home  and  receive  a  weak,  indifferent  handshake,  what 
effect  has  it  upon  my  conversational  powers?  Why  is 
a  friendly  "good-morning"  important  even  in  my  family? 
Do  I  entertain  with  my  heart  or  with  my  pocketbook?  Is 
the  spirit  of  hospitality  the  same  whether  I  have  one,  or 
fifty  guests  ?  What  are  some  of  the  little  ways  in  which 
I  may  put  my  guests  at  ease?  How  shall  I  decide 
whether  my  manner  of  dress  will  make  my  guests  com- 
fortable? -Should  I  make  embarrasing  remarks  about 
my  friend's  accomplishments?  Why  does  simply  men- 
tioning two  persons'  names  not  always  constitute  a  suf- 
ficient introduction?  How  can  I  make  my  guests  feel 
they  are  "at  their  best?"  What  does  the  presence  of 
cliques  in  a  school  indicate?  What  is  a  clique?  Can 
I  be  my  best  and  belong  to  one? 
II.  The  Place  for  Hospitality. 

Can  I  always  have  time  for  my  friends  while  at  work 
or  at  play?  In  order  to  have  a  good  time  must  I  always 
ask  guests  into  my  home  or  can  I  sometimes  entertain 
my  family?  What  is  the  difference  between  being  sim- 
ply a  housekeeper  and  being  a  home-maker?  How  can 
I  be  prepared  to  be  both  when  the  time  comes  for  me 
to  have  that  responsibility?  Who  is  the  real  hostess 
in  every  home?  Whom  should  I  ask  to  my  home, — sim- 
ply my  own  crowd  or  strangers,  possibly  some  shy  or 

443 


lonely  school  mate?  How  Is  It  possible  for  my  mother 
really  to  know  my  quests?  Could  not  the  rest  of  the 
family  have  a  good  time  helping  me  to  entertain  my 
guests?  What  makes  a  party  a  success?  In  what  ways 
is  a  party  given  in  one's  home  always  "better  than  one 
given  in  a  hired  or  public  place?  How  can  I  help  to 
make  my  home  a  place  where  all  my  friends  will  love 
to  come? 

IIL  The  Influence  of  Hospitality. 

Why  does  taking  the  trouble  to  invite  friends  in  occasion- 
ally make  for  a  happy  home?  What  should  a  "bread  and 
butter"  letter  to  the  friends  whom  I  have  been  visiting 
express?  Is  this  hard  or  easy  to  write?  Why?  Should 
I  expect  to  be  entertained  or  should  I  help  my  hostess 
entertain  the  other  guests  ?  In  how  many  ways  may  I 
show  my  appreciation  of  hospitality  that  has  been  exr 
tended  to  me?  Why  would  there  be  more  real  fun  in 
the  world  and  a  greater  variety  of  ways  of  having  a 
good  time  if  a  larger  number  of  homes  were  opened  for 
friends  to  gather  in  and  have  a  good  time?  Is  there 
any  greater  joy  than  sharing  a  happy  time?  Does  it 
help  me  to  be  a  finer  girl, — to  have  a  wideawake,  gen- 
erous and  receptive  heart? 

Is  Jesus  a  guest  in  my  home?  Am  I^building  a  home 
for  his  spirit  in  my  heart?  Am  I  sharing  his  spirit  with 
those  who  are  homeless  and  who  have  no  abiding  place? 

Closing  Prayer. 

"0  Jesus,  ever  with  us  stay; 
Make  all  our  moments  calm  and  bright." 
Help  us  so  to  share  our  lives  and  hearts  that  those  who  are 
seeking?  Thee  may  find  the  joy  and  peace  which  Thou  alone 
canst  give.    Amen. 

444 


VI. 

IDEALS    OF    FRIENDSHIP. 

"I  have  called  yon  friends."    John  15:15, 

"A  friend  loveth  at  all  times."     Prov.  17:17. 

"Greater  love  hath  no  man  than  this,  that  a  man  lay  down 
liis  life  for  his  friends.  Ye  are  my  friends,  if  you  do  the 
things  which  I  command  you."  John  15:13-14. 

I.  Seeking  Friendship. 

What  is  friendship  and  how  does  one  seek  it — does  one 
ever  begin  it  deliberately?  Where  am  I  seeking  my 
friends,  if  I  seek  my  friends  because  of  their  social  prom- 
inence alone  will  those  friendships  be  lasting?  Can 
friendships  based  upon  superficial  interests  endure? 
Can  one  simply  act  on  the  old  saying,  "He  who  would 
have  friends  must  show  himself  friendly?"  Do  I  want 
to  be  a  true  friend?  Should  I  look  for  what  I  can  get 
out  of  friendship  or  for  what  I  can  put  into  it?  Can 
the  doors  of  friendship  be  forced?  Upon  what  are  true 
friendships  based?  What  have  I  in  mind  when  I  speak 
of  one  person  as  an  acquaintance,  or  another  as  a  com- 
panion and  still  another  as  a  friend?  Can  I  have  several 
friends  at  a  time?  What  is  the  difference  between 
friendship  and  friendliness? 

II.  Being  a  Friend. 

How  do  I  inspire  my  friends  to  be  their  best?  What 
does  my  friends'  faith  in  me  do  for  me?  Is  it  as  bind- 
ing upon  me  "to  receive"  as  a  friend,  as  "to  give"  as  a 
friend?  Do  I  begrudge  any  good  that  comes  to  my 
friend?  Have  I  too  good  a  memory  for  slights  and 
,  wrongs  ?  Do  I  trust  my  friends  and  believe  in  them 
when  others  turn  against  them?  When  do  I  most  truly 
"stand  by"  my  friends  ?  Should  I  back  up  a  friend  when 
I  know  her  to  be  in  the  wrong?  How  far  do  I  forget 
self  and  enter  into  my  friend's  life,  her  point  of  view, 
her  struggles  and  difficulties  ?  Should  two  friends  always 

445 


think  the  same,  dress  the  same  or  say  the  same  things  ? 
Does  friendship  need  large  sacrifices — for  supreme 
moments  or  does  it  grow  by  some  other  ways?  Why? 
What  are  some  of  the  severest  tests  of  friendship  ?  Is  there 
any  special  obligation  to  forgive  a  wrong  done  me  by  a 
friend?  Am  I  courteous  to  my  intimate  friends?  Am  I 
careful  not  to  expect  or  urge  my  friends  to  tell  me  their 
inmost  thoughts?  Can  they  not  expect  me  "just  to 
understand"  and  not  to  need  to  know?  How  can  I  best 
show  my  loyalty  to  my  friends?  To  my  school? 

III.  Sharing  Friends. 

Am  I  jealous  of  my  friends?  What  good  reasons  have 
I  for  refusing  to  share  them  with  others?  Is  having  a 
loyal  "chum"  a  justification  for  personal  selifishness, 
about  sharing  her?  How  does  "our  crowd"  seem  to  the 
rest  of  the  girls?  When  I  act  in  an  unbecoming  or 
thoughtless  way  how  far  does  it  reflect  upon  my  crowd, 
my  class,  or  my  school?  What  is  the  character  of  the 
thoughts  and  ideas  which  I  am  sharing  most  intimately 
with  my  friends?  Should  true  friends  ever  "gossip" 
about  another  person?  Are  my  friends7  standards  being 
raised  by  what  I  share  with  them?  Do  you  think  Presi- 
dent King  of  Oberlin  College  is  right  when  he  says, 
"Friendship  means  sharing  our  great  experiences,  shar- 
ing in  dominant  interests,  sharing  in,  service  of  great 
causes,  sharing  in  sacrifices  for  great  common  ends, 
sharing  in  great  personal  loyalties  and  friendships?" 
Why  should  I  not  give  my  best? 

Can  I  not  come  closer  this  week  to  the  One  who  said, 
"Lo,  I  have  called  you  my  friends?"  He  is  truly  our 
best  friend  and  if  we  base  all  our  friendships  upon  the 
solid  foundation  of  Jesus  Christ,  they  will  never  fail. 

Closing  Prayer. 

Our  Father,  we  come  before  Thee  with  hearts  full  of 
joy  for  all  those  who  have  helped  and  loved  us.  Teach 

446 


us  to  realize  that  we  must  first  be  friends  if  we  would 
have  friends.  Give  us  the  open  heart  that  loves  freely, 
the  patience  that  bears  with  others'  mistakes,  the  pur- 
pose to  make  it  easier  and  not  harder  for  others  to  live 
up  to  the  best  and  noblest.  May  Thy  love  crowd  from 
our  hearts  all  selfishness,  and  may  our  friends  together 
with  us  grow  happier  and  better  through  friendship  with 
our  greatest  friend,  Jesus  Christ.  Amen. 
(Rochester,  N.  Y.,  High  School  Girls'  Club  Prayer.) 


VII. 

KEADINESS    FOR    SERVICE. 

"Serve  the  Lord  with  gladness. 

Come  before  his  presence  with  singing."    Ps.  100:2. 

"So  then,  as  we  have  opportunity,  let  us  work  that  which 
is  good  toward  all  men."  Gal.  6:10. 

"Not  to  be  ministered  unto,  but  to  minister."   Mark  10:45. 

"He  that  is  faithful  in  a  very  little  is  faithful  also  in  much." 
Luke  16:10. 

"If  any  man  would  be  first,  he  shall  be  last  of  all,  and 
servant  of  all."  Mark  9:35. 

I.  The    Naturalness    of    Service. 

If  I  am  any  kind  of  a  girl  at  all,  can  I  sit  still  when  I 
see  things  waiting  to  be  done?  How  can  I  train  my 
eyes  to  keep  wide  open  and  my  heart  to  feel  others' 
needs  more  quickly?  What  was  the  last  thing  needing 
to  be  done  that  I  made  believe  I  did  not  see?  Could 
I  do  it  now?"  How  does  the  doing  of  small  tasks  lead 
up  to  a  greater  service?  What  is  the  only  thing  which 
keeps  me  from  constantly  doing  real  service? 

II.  Characteristics  of  Service. 

Is  service  measured  by  the  amount  accomplished  or  by 
the  spirit  in  which  it  is  done?  If  I  know  why  I  am 

447 


doing  a  piece  of  work,  will  it  change  it  from  drudgery 
into  service?  Which  is  real  service,  simply  doing  the 
thing  that  particularly  interest  me  or  doing  will- 
ingly the  things  that  have  to  be  done?  Why?  Can  one  fully 
enjoy  work  until  one  knows  the  pleasure  of  completing 
a  task  promptly?  Do  I  think  more  of  the  happiness  and 
convenience  of  the  person  I  am  trying  to  help  or  of  my 
own  time  and  my  particular  way  of  doing  it?  Is  service 
done  from  a  sense  of  duty  real  service?  Should  I  ever 
try  to  excuse  myself  for  giving  inappropriate  gifts  to 
"The  poor  and  needy?"  Should  unpaid  service  be  any 
less  well  done  than  work  that  is  paid  for? 

III.  Forms  of  Service. 

Why  does  home-making  seem  a  beautiful  occupation  to 
me?  When  I  help  mother  by  "doing  the  dishes"  have 
I,  too,  a  share  in  making  the  home?  What  part  do  I 
take  in  the  housework  each  day  without  being  asked  to 
do  it?  If  I  show  a  friendly  spirit  toward  all  the  girls  in 
school  am  I  rendering  any  service?  Is  having  the  right 
kind  of  school  spirit,  fair  play  in  athletics  and  high 
standards  in  the  class  room  a  kind  of  service  that  I 
am  able  to  render?  Do  I  think  that  I  am  doing  my 
teacher  a  favor  by  learning  my  lessons?  When  is  help- 
ing other  girls  in  getting  their  lessons  real  service  and 
when  is  it  a  definite  unkindness  to  my  friends?  How 
do  I  show  my  enthusiasm  for  Sunday  School?  Why 
should  I  go  to  church  with  the  kind  of  spirit  which 
makes  it  easier  for  my  pastor  to  preach  a  good  sermon? 
In  what  ways  may  I  help  to  make  my  town  more  beau- 
tiful? How  far  am  I  responsible  for  the  appearance  of 
the  schoolhouse?  The  condition  of  my  books?  If  every 
girl  were  to  do  as  well  in  these  things  as  I  am  doing, 
what  would  be  the  result? 

IV.  Preparation  for  Service. 

Am  I  keeping  close  to  my  Master  each  day  and  learn- 

448 


ing  of  Mm  the  love  to  see  others'  needs?  How  may  I 
do  it  better?  How  far  am  I  guarding  my  health  by 
%  regular  sleep,  proper  food  and  exercise,  that  my  body 
may  be  a  ready  instrument  for  service  ?  Why  is  this 
important?  Does  the  way  in  which  I  learn  my  lessons 
train  my  mind  and  add  to  my  knowledge  or  do  I  merely 
cram  for  examinations  and  then  forget  it  all?  Are  ex- 
aminations the  only  thing?  How  may  I  read,  observe 
and  study  so  that  I  will  be  better  able  to  appreciate  the 
fine  and  good  wherever  I  see  it?  Why  should  I  have  a 
real  desire  way  down  in  my  heart  to  live  a  useful 
woman's  life?  In  how  far  are  success  and  popularity 
justifiable  aims?  Who  is  the  greatest  woman  of  whom 
I  know  anything?  Why  is  she  great? 
Have  I  spent  any  time  this  week  with  the  one  whose 
whole  life  was  given  over  to  serving  the  world,  Jesus 
Christ,  who  lived  and  died  for  others? 
Closing  Prayer. 

"Lord,  make  me  quick  to  see 
Each  task  awaiting  me, 

And  quick  to  do. 
Oh,  grant  me  strength,  I  pray, 
With  lowly  love  each  day 

And  purpose  true, 
To  go  as  Jesus  went, 
Spending  and  being  spent, 

Myself  forgot, 
Supplying  human  needs 
By  loving  words  and  deeds." 
Amen. 

VIII. 

A    GIRL'S   APPRECIATION    OF    THE    "GREATEST    THING 
IN  THE   WORLD/* 

"And  this  I  pray,  that  your  love  may  abound  yet  more  and 
more  in  knowledge  and  all  discernment;   so  that  ye  may  ap- 

449 


prove  the  things  tiiat  are  excellent;  that  ye  may  be  sincere 
and  void  of  offence  unto  the  day  of  Christ;  being  filled  with  the 
fruits  of  righteousness,  which  are  through  Jesus  Christ,  unto 
the  glory  and  praise  of  God."— Phil.  1:9-11. 

"Love  suffereth  long,  and  is  kind ;  love  envieth  not;  love 
vaunteth  not  itself ;  is  not  puffed  up,  doth  not  behave  itself  un- 
seemly, seeketh  not  its  own,  is  not  provoked,  taketh  not  ac- 
count of  evil ;  rejoiceth  not  in  unrighteousness,  but  rejoiceth 
with  truth;  beareth  all  things,  believeth  all  things,  hopeth  all 
things,  endureth  all  things.  Love  never  faileth." — I  Cor.  13:4-8. 

I.  True  Characteristics  of  Love. 

How  far  have  I  really  found  out  what  the  above  quota- 
tions might  mean  for  me?  How  does  love  open  one's 
mind  to  truth  and  sincerity?  Should  a  person  ever  be 
tempted  to  think  of  it  as  a  weak,  sentimental  thing  that 
one  should  be  ashamed  of?  How  far  will  a  truer  un- 
derstanding of  love  aid  me  in  self-control,  such  as  in 
keeping  my  temper?  How  far  will  it  show  me  the  way 
to  be  patient  and  unselfish?  Am  I  willing  to  let  it  open 
my  eyes  to  others'  needs  ?  Has  love  meant  to  me  a  great, 
wonderful  power?  Have  I  treated  it  lightly?  As  God 
is  Love  and  I  am  his  child,  shall  I  not  enjoy  my  birth- 
right and  share  in  his  care  for  his  world? 

II.    Love  the  Revealer  'of  Beauty  and  Joy. 

If  I  care  enough  to  open  my  eyes  to  the  great  beauties 
of  nature  all  about  me  what  will  be  the  effect  upon  me? 
If  I  truly  care  for  my  friend,  will  I  only  see  the  outward, 
appearances — which  may  be  unfortunate — and  be  tempt- 
ed to  be  ashamed  of  her?  If  I  have  a  loving  heart  can 
I  always  have  a  joyful  face? 

III.  Love  the  Foundation  of  Honor,  Courtesy  and  Hospitality. 
If  I  respect  myself,  as  I  should  will  I  to  my  "own  self 
be  true?"  Should  I  ever  lie?  How  can  I  show  that  love, 
not  fear,  controls  my  life?  How  can  I  make  it  a  habit 
to  care  more  for  others  than  myself?  When  can  I  be 

450 


said  to  be  a  true  gentlewoman?  What  differences  in  re- 
sponse to  my  invitation  will  I  find  if  I  give  myself  with 
the  invitation? 

IV.  Love'  the  Power  in  Friendship  and  Service. 

Do  I  try  to  understand  my  friends  better  the  longer  I 
know  them?  What  part  does  love  play  in  my  discover- 
ing in  them  new  qualities  and  gifts?  What  prevents 
jealousy?  How  will  working  together  make  people  bet- 
ter friends?  Must  the  giver  be  back  of  every  good  gift? 
If  I  love  people  enough  will  I  be  able  to  help  them  truly? 
Does  it  make  much  difference  where  I  serve?  Why  I 
serve?  How  I  serve? 

What  is  the  predominating  note  in  all  the  acts  and  words 
of  Jesus  as  "he  went  about  doing  good"? 

Closing  Prayer. 

O  God,  who  has  taught  us  to  keep  all  Thy  heavenly  com- 
mandments by  loving  Thee  and  our  neighbors,  grant  us'  the 
spirit  of  peace  and  grace  that  Thy  universal  family  may  be  de- 
voted to  Thee  with  their  whole  heart  and  united  to  each  other 
with  a  perfect  love,  through  Jesus  Christ  our  Lord.  Amen. 

Benediction. 

"May  the  Lord  bless  us  in  our  work  and  in  our  play,  and 
grant  us  the  peace  and  the  joy  that  corne  through  service  for 
others  and  friendship  with  Jesus  Christ."  Amen. 

Benediction  of  the  Kansas  City,  Missouri,  High  School  Girls' 
Club. 

Aim  and  Conclusion. 

Two  words  which  are  much  used  in  discussional  work  at  the 
present  time  are  aim  and  conclusion.  They  have  been  defined 
several  times  elsewhere  in  this  statement  on  the  "Place  of  Dis- 
cussion in  the  Girl  Reserve  Movement."  Briefly  summarized, 
that  discussion  has  achieved  its  aim  which  has  served  as  an  ex- 
change of  ideas,  a  clarification  of  opinions,  the  opening  of  new 

451 


avenues  of  thought,  and  a  stimulation  of  a  desire  for  further 
thinking  and  study.  The  aim  is  in  no  sense  just  an  effort  to 
reach  a  conclusion.  Individual  thought,  which  may  continue 
over  a  considerable  period  of  time  after  the  discussion  has  oc- 
curred, is  a  desirable  manifestation  of  success,  and  no  leader, 
either  girl  or  adviser  or  secretary,  should  be  discouraged  if 
nothing  more  tangible  results  at  the  time  of  the  discussion. 


s 


CHAPTER  VIII. 

THE  PRACTICE  OP  CITIZENSHIP 

OMB  words  in  the  ordinary  vocabulary  are  so  much  used 
that  the  first  thing  to  do  in  order  to  understand  them  is  to 
strip  off  the  meanings  loosely  attached  and  examine  the  under- 
lying idea.  Often  times  this  will  be  found  surprisingly  inter- 
esting. 

When  this  drastic  operation  is  performed  upon  a  word,  so 
often  and  glibly  on  our  lips  as  is  "citizenship,"  the  discovery  is 
made  that  it  is  not  concerned  simply  with  far-off  facts  which 
are  associated  in  people's  minds  with  candidates  and  elections, 
with  politics  *and  government,  with  the  getting  of  a  passport 
when  one  goes  to  Europe,  or  paying  an  income  tax  cheerfully. 
On  the  contrary,  the  term  has  a  richness  of  meaning  and  an 
immediate  relation  to  every-day  life  that  it  will  be  well  to  ex- 
amine closely. 

Citizenship,  in  the  first  place,  is  knowing  about  things  which 
concern  individuals  as  members  of  a  group  of  people  who  are 
trying  to  live  together.  Long  experience  has  shown  how  advis- 
able it  is  for  such  a  society  to  adopt  certain  rules  jand  regula- 
tions for  the  greater  security  and  happiness  of  all  concerned. 
When  a  long  name  like  "government"  is  used  people  may  find 
themselves  losing  sight  of  the  simple  necessity  which  was  the 
cause  of  having  such  rules  to  live  by. 

452 


The  fact  is  that  the  majestic  fabric  of  the  local,  state  and 
national  government  has  been  built  upon  this  necessity  and 
each  of  its  functions,  the  acts  of  its  agents,  and  people's  atti- 
tude toward  it  should  be  judged  by  its  reason  for  existence. 

It  is,  therefore,  merely  sensible  for  individuals  to  know  as 
much  as  possible  about  the  operation  of  the  group  as  a  whole; 
only  thus  shall  they  be  able  to  judge  wisely  what  their  own  part 
in  the  operation  shall  be. 

In  the  second  place  citizenship  is  concerned  with  understand- 
ing our  heritage  as  members  of  a  society  which  has  behind  it 
long  ages  of  experiment,  many  failures,  reluctant  successes  won 
against  the  twin  enemies  of  the  powers  of  nature  and  man's 
own  selfish  spirit.  Seen  against  the  background  of  what  used 
to  be,  this  heritage  must  be  of  infinite  value  to  each  person. 

There  is  also  a  heritage  which  is  ours  as  Americans,  as  mem- 
bers of  a  society  which  throughout  its  history  has  always  pro- 
fessed, and  sometimes  practiced,  certain  ideals  of  human  broth- 
erhood which  mark  a  new  stage  in  the  world's  development. 
There  is  great  danger  that  we  shall  be  so  confident  of  the  recti- 
tude of  our  intentions  that  we  shall  forget  the  necessity  of 
adapting  constantly  the  principles  upon  which  our  nation  was 
founded  to  the  new  conditions  of  every  day.  The  assumption 
that  "Americanism"  is  a  finished  something  which  one  is  born 
with  and  never  loses,  or  which  can  be  learned  like  a  new  lan- 
guage or  swallowed  like  a  patent  medicine  is  the  most  un- 
American  idea  now  widely  prevalent  in  this  country. 

But  Citizenship  is  more  than  knowledge  and  understanding 
of  our  heritage.  It  is  also  realizing  our  share  as  individuals  in 
the  long  upward  struggle  toward  betterment,  Unless  people 
feel  that  their  personal  efforts  count  and  what  they  do  really 
matters  they  shall  be  only  that  shabby  kind  of  citizen  described 
by  the  saying  "The  public's  business  is  nobody's  business." 
Much  of  the  inefficiency  and  downright  corruption  in  govern- 
ment is  due  to  the  unwillingness  of  individuals  to  concern  theiu- 

453 


selves  with  politics.     The  level  of  public  service  can  rise  no 
higher  than  its  source  in  the  public  which  it  serves. 

In  the  fourth  place  citizenship  must  be  more  than  ideals  and 
standards;  it  must  include  a  considerable  amount  of  action, 
putting  into  practice  the  theories  which  sound  so  well  on  paper. 
This  action  varies  all  the  way  from  voting,  taking  part  in  peti- 
tions and  meetings,  serving  on  committees  to  the  holding  of 
public  office.  There  is  a  multitude  of  activities  connected  with 
running  the  joint  affairs  of  all  of  us — our  government — which 
are  too  often  left  to  those  citizens  whose  interest  is  financial 
or  otherwise. 

Finally,  what  addition  of  value  is  made  to  our  ideas  of  citi- 
zenship by  the  adjective  "Christian"?  It  must  be  realized  thac 
much  which  is  in  reality  Christian  is  included  in  what  has  been 
stated  above.  Yet  the  spirit  of  human  brotherhood  and  service 
has  been  so  imperfectly  realized  in  society  as  now  constituted, 
that  people  must  recognize  in  the  application  of  the  principles 
of  Christian  citizenship  the  very  greatest  need  of  the  world 
to-day.  Only  the  Christian  motive  is  strong  enough  potentially 
to  overlap  the  bounds  of  class  and  national  prejudice  in  the  in- 
terest of  all  men  as  brothers  together. 

Such  a  conception  of  citizenship  as  suggested  above  is  an 
integral  part  of  a  program  for  younger  girls.  Not  only  are 
they  citizens  to  be,  and  as  such  deserving  of  the  best  training 
available  for  future  use.  In  a  very  real  sense,  every  "teen- 
age" girl  has  a  part  to  play  in  her  home,  school,  church  and 
community  in  which  she  is  forming  the  habits  which  will  per- 
sist later  in  life.  There  is  a  persistent  notion  that  some  myste- 
rious change  takes  place  when  one  passes  her  twenty-first  birth- 
day which  makes  her,  overnight,  a  citzien  to  be  consulted.  As 
a  simple  matter  of  fact,  in  two  functions  of  citizenship  only, 
voting  and  office  holding,  is  age  the  decisive  factor,  and  these 
are  by  no  means  the  most  vital  ones.  Into  every  other  citizen- 
ship activity  one  comes  by  a  gradual  process  of  growth ;  issu- 
ing in  habits  which  become  fixed  by  exercise.  In  view  of  this 

454 


fact  it  is  of  transcendent  importance  to  begin  during  adolescent 
years  the  serious  facing  of  what  it  means  to  be  a  Christian 
woman  citizen. 

In  the  lists  that  follow  will  be  found  books  which  illustrate 
some  of  the  points  given.  Attention  is  also  called  to  the  lists  of 
lives  of  famous  women  adapted  for  the  reading  of  younger 
girls.  These  lists  are  included  in  the  chapter  on  Vocational 
Guidance. 

KNOW   YOUR    OWN    COUNTRY. 
A  Reading  List  for  Youthful  Citizens. 
What  Makes  America  Go. 

Austin,  Oscar  P. — Uncle  Sam's  Secrets. 
Bryant,  Sara  Cone — I  Am  An  American. 
DuPuy,  W.  A. — Uncle  Sam,  Wonder- Worker. 
Greene,  Frances  N. — My  Country's  Voice. 
Gordy,  W.  P. — American  Beginnings  in  Europe. 
Hagedorn,  Hermann — You  Are  the  Hope  of  the  World! 
Jackson,  Henry — What  America  Means  to  Me. 
Marriott,  Crittenden — Uncle  Sam's  Business. 
Nicolay,  Helen — Our  Nation  in  the  Building, 
Parsons,  Geoffrey — The  Land  of  Fair  Play. 
Price,  Overton  W. — The  Land  We  Live  In. 
Snynon,   Mary — My  Country's  Part. 
Turkington,  Grace  A. — My  Country. 

Makers  of  History. 

Abbot,  W.  J. — The  Story  of  Our  Army  for  Young  Americans. 

Abbot,  W.  J.— Soldiers'  of  the  Sea. 

Bishop,  Farnham — .Panama,  Past  and  Present. 

Blaidsdell,  A.  F. — Heroic  Deeds  of  American  Sailors. 

Brady,  Cyrus  T. — Border  Fights  and  Fighters. 

Faris,  John  T. — 'Makers  of  Our  History. 

Fiske,  John — The  War  of  Independence. 

Gordy,  W.  F. — Our  Patriots. 

Griffis,  W.  E. — Young  People's  History  of  the  Pilgrims. 

455 


Greene,  Homer — The  Flag. 
Grinnell,  G.  B.-~ The  Story  of  the  Indian. 
Parkman,  Francis — The  Oregon  Trail. 

Rolt- Wheeler,  Francis — The  Boy  with  the  U.  S.  Explorers. 
Stevens,  F.  R. — Buccaneers  and  Pirates  of  Our  Coasts. 
Historical  Tales  of  Your  Own  Country. 

Andrews,  Mrs.  M.  R.  S. — The  Perfect  Tribute. 
Allen,  W.  B. — Cleared  for  Action. 
Altsheler,  J.  A. — Guns  of  Shiloh. 
Bennett,  John — Barbaby  Lee. 
Churchill,  Winston — Richard  Carvel. 
Cooper,  J.  F. — The  Last  of  the  Mohicans. 
•  Dix,  Beulah  Marie — Blithe  McBride. 
Dix,  Beulah  Marie — Soldier  Rigdale. 
Fox,  John,  Jr. — The  Little  Shepherd  of  Kingdom  Come. 
Hale,  Edward  E. — Man  Without  a  Country. 
Jackson,  Helen  'Hunt — Ramona. 
Knipe,  E.  B.  and  A.  A.— Polly  Trotter,  Patriot. 
Knipe,  E.  B.  and  A.  A. — Mayflower  Maid. 
Mason,  Alfred  B. — Tom  Strong,  Lincoln  Scout. 
Mitchell,  S.  W.— Hugh  Wynne. 
Page,  Thomas  N. — Two  Little  Confederates. 
Pyle,  Howard — Jack  Ballister's  Fortunes. 
Sabine,  E.  L. — On  the  Plains  with  Custer. 
Singmaster,  Elsie — Emmeline. 
Smith,  Mary  P.  Wells— -Boys  and  Girls  of  77. 
Taggart,  Marion  A. — Pilgrim  Maid. 
True,  J.  P. — Scouting  for  Washington. 

Suggestions  for  including  Citizenship  Practice  in  Regular  Club 
Programs. 

Civic  Information: 

Civic  Information  may  be  said  to  be  of  two  kinds:  the 
first,  the  general  information  kind,  which  brings  to 
girls  a  vision  of  what  citizenship  means,  and  how,  by  sacri- 
fices and  toil  for  many  years,  men  and  women  have  built  a 

456 


road  that  has  led  to  our  present  forms  of  government.  The 
vision  will  not  be  complete  until  girls  see  themselves  in  re- 
lation to  this  task — the  necessary  up-keep  of  the  road 
through  sane  patriotism,  and  a  continued  building  of  it  to 
still  greater  perfection  through  more  democratic  and  more 
Christian  principles  of  living.  The  second  is  the  specific 
kind  of  information,  which  includes  a  knowledge  of  the  forms 
and  methods  of  government  in  the  girls'  communities.  The 
first  kind  of  civic  information  can  become  a  vital  part  of 
any  program  through  the  discussion  of  the  lives  of  men  and 
women  who  have  achieved  and  through  discussion  of  topics 
of  current  interest. 

Roadmakers : 

Washington,  the  Father  of  His  Country. 

Lincoln,  "A  Man  for  the  Ages." 

Jacob  Riis,  "A  Servant  of  the  City."     (See  "Comrades  in 

Service.")* 

Grace  Dodge,  "Who  Walked  the  Way  of  Friendly  Hearts." 
Elizabeth  Cady  Stanton.  (See  Woman  Citizen,  February 

14,  1920.) 

Susan  B.  Anthony,  "The  Pioneer  of  Woman  Suffrage." 
Theodore  Roosevelt,  "A  True  American." 
Anna  Howard  Shaw,  "A  Maker  of  Homes."     ('See  Woman 

Citizen,  February  14,  1920.) 

These  names  are  suggested  with  the  hope  that  girls  in  every 
community  will  add  to  the  list  those  pioneers  in  the  early  his- 
tory of  their  localities  who  were  roadmakers  and  trail  blazers. 
Material  which  will  be  helpful  will  be  found  in  "Comrades  in 
Service,"  by  Margaret  Burton;  "A  Man  for  the  Ages,"  by 
Irving  Bacheller;  "Letters  to  His  Children,"  Theodore  Roose- 
velt; "Life  of  Roosevelt,"  by  Abbott,  $3.00  (by  Thayer,  $1.00), 
and  The  Woman  Citizen,  February  14,  1920. 

457 


Topics  of  Current  Interest: 

1.  Movement  for  the  abolition  of  child  labor. 

2.  Seasonal  industries  in  which  girls  and  boys  work: 

Beet  fields. 
Fruit  picking. 
Canning1. 
Hops. 
Cotton. 

3.  The  Children's*  Bureau,  its  organization  and  work, 

4.  The  continuation  school  movement. 

5.  The  consolidated  school  movement. 

6.  Good  roads  movement. 

7.  Cross  currents  in  Americanization. 

8.  The  meaning  and  force  of  public  opinion  as  applied  to: 
Legislation,  motion  pictures,  clean  streets  and  sidewalks, 

municipal  recreation. 

What  responsibility  has  a  high  school  girl  for  the  forma- 
tion of  public  opinion? 

How  do  high  school  girls  form  their  opinion?  Is  "Old 
Mother  Grundy"  dead  yet? 

What  relation  do  all  of  the  above  topics  have  to  home 
and  school  life  and  community  development?  Is  there 
any  connection  between  a  girl  working  in  a  beet  field 
and  a  high  school  girl?  Has  one  any  responsibility 
for  the  other? 

Much  material  for  the  development  of  the  eight  topics  listed 
above  may  be  found  in  the  current  numbers  of  The  Survey, 
112  East  Nineteenth  Street,  New  York  City  ($5.00). 

Special  material  on  child  labor  can  be  obtained  from  the  Na- 
tional Child  Labor  Committee,  105  East  Twenty-second  Street, 
New  York  City.  Ask  for  all  Child  Labor  pamphlets;  member- 
ship in  the  National  Child  Labor  Committee  is  $2.00.  A  High 
School  club  might  well  take  out  a  membership. 

Material  regarding  the  Children's  Bureau  may  be  obtained 

458 


directly   from   The   Children's    Bureau,    at   Washington,   D.    C. 
Write  for  catalogue  or  pamphlets. 

Secure  information  about  the  Continuation  Schools  from 
The  Bureau  of  Education,  Department  of  the  Interior,  Wash- 
ington, D.  C. 

Americanization  can  be  made  a  most  interesting  feature  of  a 
club  program  through  an  "Americanization  Day."  A  program 
similar  in  content  to  the  following  could  be  used: 

Hymn America,    the    Beautiful 

Salute  to  the  Flag 

Short  Talk "America,  the  Melting  Pot." 

Reading "The  Immigrant's   Appeal." 

Girl  Reserve  Manual,  page  686. 

Reading "America  for  Me" 

— Henry  Van  Dyke, 

The  Athenian  Oath: 

"We  will  never  bring  disgrace  on  this,  our  city,  by  an 
act  of  dishonesty  or  cowardice,  nor  ever  desert  our  suffering 
comrades  in  the  ranks.  We  will  fight  for  the  ideal  and 
sacred  things  of  this  city.  We  will  revere  and  obey  the 
city's  laws  and  do  our  best  to  excite  a  like  respect  and  rev- 
erence in  those  about  us  who  are  prone  to  annul  them 
and  set  them  at  naught.  We  will  strive  unceasingly  to 
quicken  a  public  sense  of  duty,  and  thus  in  all  these  ways 
we  will  transmit  this  city,  not  only  not  less,  but  greater 
and  better  and  more  beautiful  than  it  was  'transmitted 
to  us." 

(Copies  of  this  oath  should  be  made  so  that  every  girl  will 
be  able  to  share  in  this  part  of  tlxe  program). 

The  book,  "An  American  in  the  Making,"  by  M.  E.  Ravage, 
is  one  of  the  most  colorful  of  the  recent  books  regarding  this 
matter  of  Americanization.  It,  with  others  of  its  kind,  and 
with  the  vast  amount  of  interesting  and  informational  material 
in  current  magazines  and  newspapers  will  serve  to  supply  sec- 

459 


retaries  and  advisers  with  all  of  the  equipment  necessary  to 
make  such  a  program  successful. 

The  second  kind  of  civic  information — about  the  various 
means  and  forms  of  government — may  be  secured  through  dis- 
cussions, talks,  charts,  exhibits  and  visits.  All  club  work  of 
this  sort  should  be  correlated  with  the  work  in  the  various 
classes  on  Civics  in  the  high  school. 

Such  questions  as  the  following1,  asked  at  a  club  meeting, 
would  undoubtedly  lead  to  discussion  and  further  thinking  on 
the  part  of  the  girls: 

1.  On  what  day  does  my  neighbor,  who  is  a  fireman,  rest? 

2.  How  are  the  policemen  on  our  force  ranked  and  by  whom 
is  it  determined? 

3.  On  what  municipal  questions  in  my  community  do  women 
vote? 

4.  "What  do  I  do  to  the  fabric  of  our  community  life  when 
I  disregard  a  traffic  man's  signal? 

The  Story  of  the  Flag.* 

The  flag  of  our  nation  is  the  mute  but  eloquent  symbol  of 
the  spirit  of  our  people.  It  represents  our  hopes,  aspirations, 
ideals,  and  principles  for  which  we  stand.  Though  voiceless,  it 
speaks  with  irresistible  power  for  the  things  that  we  consider 
most  Worth  while  in  life.  Wherever  it  goes  it  speaks  for  the 
freedom  of  man,  for  civil  and  religious  liberty,  for  schools, 
churches,  homes.  Under  its  shelter  the  oppressed  of  all  na- 
tions have  found  safe  refuge  and  boundless  opportunity  for 
every  proper  ambition.  When  the  flag  calls,  men  lay  aside 
their  own  work  and  obey,  for  the  call  of  the  flag  is  the  call  of 
the  nation.  Under  its  folds  men  suffered  and  died  that  the 
black  man  might  be  made  free.  They  followed  it  into  the 
jungles  of  Cuba  and  the  Philippines,  and  freed  those  people 
from  the  bondage  of  the  Spanish  monarchy.  And  they  followed 

*This   material  is  used  by  permission  of  Wallaces'   Farmer. 

460 


it  to  the  shell-torn  battlefields  of  France,  to  have  a  part  in 
safeguarding  for  all  generations  yet  to  come  the  benefits  of 
Christian  civilization. 

Of  itself,  the  flag  is  a  flimsy  thing,  a  few  yards  of  bunting 
tossed  back  and  forth  by  the  breeze.  But  in  what  it  symbolizes, 
the  flag  of  the  United  States  is  the  most  powerful  human  force 
in  all  the  world,  and  what  is  better,  the  most  powerful  force 
for  righteousness  and  decency  and  wholesomeness  and  fairness 
among  men  and  nations.  It  is  to  be  loved  and  respected  as  the 
emblem  of  a  right-minded  nation. 

The  evolution  of  our  flag  has  been  interesting.  Up  to  the 
time  the  Colonies  declared  independence  of  Great  Britain,  they 
flew  the  ensign  of  the  mother  country,  although  some  of  them 
had  special  flags  of  their  own.  In  the  early  days  of  the  Revo- 
lution, a  number  of  different  flags  were  used,  one  of  them  be- 
ing the  famous  rattlesnake  flag  with  the  motto,  "Don't  tread 
on  me." 

On  January  1,  1776,  General  Washington  raised  what  is 
known  as  the  Grand  Union  flag.  This  flag  had  thirteen  stripes, 
alternating  red  and  white,  with  the  British  Crosses  of  Saint 
George  and  Saint  Andrew  in  the  corner.  In  speaking-  of  this 
flag,  Washington  said:  "We  hoisted  the  Union  flag  in  compli- 
ment to  the  United  Colonies  and  saluted  it  with  thirteen  guns." 
When  it  was  first  displayed,  the  British  officers,  who  saw  it 
from  Charleston  Heights,  interpreted  it  to  mean  that  General 
Washington  meant  by  it  to  announce  his  surrender,  and  they 
at  once  saluted  it  with  thirteen  guns.  They  were  not  a  great 
while  in  discovering,  however  that  they  had  misinterpreted 
General  Washington's  purpose. 

By  June  1,  1776,  Betsy  Eoss  made  her  famous  flag,  under 
the  direction  of  General  Washington,  Robert  Morris  and  Colonel 
George  Ross.  This  flag  consisted  of  thirteen  stripes,  alternat- 
ing red  and  white?  with  a  circle  of  thirteen  five-pointed  stars  in 
a  field  of  blue,  and  on  June  14,  1777,  it  was  adopted  by  Con- 
gress as  the  national  flag.  In  speaking  of  this  flag,  Washing- 
ton said: 

461 


"We  take  the  stars  from  heaven,  the  red  from  our  Mother 
country,  separating  It  by  white  stripes,  this  showing  that  we 
have  separated  from  her;  and  the  white  stripes  shall  go  down 
to  posterity  representing  liberty." 

John  Paul  Jones  is  said  to  have  been  the  first  to  hoist  the 
new  flag  over  a  United  States  war  vessel;  and  France  was  the 
the  first  foreign  naval  power  to  salute  the  Stars  and  Stripes, 
and  thus  recognize  the  independence  of  the  United  States.  The 
flag  was  probably  first  displayed  over  the  military  forces  of  the 
United  States  on  August  2,  1777,  that  particular  fiag  having 
been  made  out  of  a  white  shirt,  a  blue  army  overcoat  and  a^red 
flannel  petticoat  belonging  to  the  wife  of  one  of  the  soldiers. 

In  1795,  because  the  flag  of  thirteen  stars  and  thirteen 
stripes  no  longer  represented  the  number  of  states,  Congress 
passed  a  bill  increasing  the  number  of  stars  to  fifteen;  and  it 
was  this  flag,  displayed  over  Fort  Henry  in  September,  1814, 
that  served  as  the  inspiration  for  our  national  anthem,  the 
"Star-Spangled  Banner."  The  stars  in  this  flag  were  arranged 
in  flve  horizontal  rows  of  three  stars  each. 

In  1815,  when  Indiana  was  admitted  to  the  Union  of  states, 
Congress  appointed  a  commitee  to  inquire  into  the  matter  of 
altering  the  flag.  This  committee  reported  that  it  would  not 
be  advisable  to  increase  the  number  of  stripes,  for  the  reason 
that  their  size  would  necessarily  be  decreased,  and  they  might 
become  indistinguishable.  It  was  suggested  that  the  number  of 
stripes  be  limited  to  thirteen  and  that  the  number  of  stars 
should  conform  to  the  number  of  states.  In  1818,  Congress 
passed  a  law  to  this  effect,  providing  that  on  the  admission  of 
a  new  state  one  star  be  added  to  the  flag  of  the  Union. 

The  first  flag  displayed  on  the  capitol  building  at  "Washing- 
ton after  this  law  was  enacted  had  the  stars  arranged  in  the 
form  of  one  great  star.  This  precipitated  some  discussion  as 
to  just  how  the  stars  should  be  arranged  on  the  field  of  blue. 
It  was  thought  that  if  they  were  arranged  in  the  form  of  one 
big  star,  it  would  be  necessary  to  very  much  decrease  the  size 

462 


of  the  stars  as  new  states  were  added.  The  matter  was  not 
settled  by  law,  but  by  official  sanction  the  stars  have  since 
been  placed  in  parallel  lines. 

The  name  "Old  Glory"  is  believed  to  have  been  given  to 
the  flag  by  Captain  William  Driver,  who  was  born  in  Salem, 
Massachusetts.  In  1857  he  moved  to  Nashville,  Tennessee,  and 
l:ved  there  until  his  death  in  1886.  He  was  the  commander 
of  a  sailing  vessel,  and  was  presented  with  a  flag  just  before 
he  sailed.  As  he  hoisted  it,  he  christened  it  "Old  Glory/* 
When  he  moved  to  Nashville,  Tennessee,  he  carried  this  par- 
ticular flag  with  him.  Upon  the  outbreak  of  the  Civil  War, 
the  Confederates  made  an  effort  to  secure  this  flag,  and 
searched  his  house  for  it.  He  had  concealed  It  by  sewing  it 
up  in  his  bed  covers,  and  was  able  to  hold  it  until  the  Federal 
troops  entered  Nashville  in  1862,  when,  by  permission  of  the 
Federal  troops,  he  hoisted  his  old  flag  over  the  state  capitol 
building.  This  particular  flag  is  now  preserved  in  the  Essex 
Institute  at  Salem. 

The  flag  has  four  parts.  The  central  part,  that  is,  the 
dimension  or  height  of  the  portion  next  to  the  staff  or  pole, 
is  called  the  hoist.  The  fly  is  the  horizontal  part,  the  dimension 
or  length  of  the  flag.  The  canton  is  the  rectangle  in  the  upper 
corner  next  the  hoist.  The  union  is  the  device  placed  in  the 
canton  to  denote  the  particular  union.  The  term  "union" 
sometimes  includes  the  device  and  the  canton,  and  is  generally 
called  the  "Jack"  or  the  "Union  Jack."  The  proportions  of  the 
flag  are  as  follows:  Fly  of  flag,  1.9  feet;  hoist,  1  foot;  width 
of  union,  7-13  of  a  foot;  length  of  union,  76-100  of  a  foot;  width 
of  each  stripe,  1-13  of  a  foot.  These  proportions  are  preserved 
as  the  flag  is  increased  or  decreased  in  size. 

The  flag  should  be  displayed  on  all  national  holidays.  Out- 
of-doors  it  should  always  fly  to  the  breeze,  and  never  be  fast- 
ened to  the  side  of  a  building,  platform  or  scaffolding.  When 
hung  as  a  display  across  a  street,  the  field  should  fly  to  the 
north  in  streets  running  east  and  west,  and  to  the  east  in 

463 


streets  running  north  and  south.  The  flag  should  not  be  used 
as  a  cover  for  a  table,  desk,  or  anything  o£  that  sort;  and  noth- 
ing: should  ever  be  placed  upon  the  flag  unless  it  be  the  Bible. 
It  should  not  be  worn  as  a  part  of  a  costume. 

The  flag  should  not  be  raised  before  sunrise,  and  it  should 
be  lowered  at  sunset.  One  of  the  most  beautiful  and  impres- 
sive ceremonies  in  our  army  practice  is  the  lowering  of  the 
flag  at  sunset,  at  which  time  all  of  the  soldiers  face  the  flag, 
wherever  it  may  be,  and  hold  the  right  hand  at  salute  until  it 
is  lowered.  When  the  flag  passes  in  parade,  soldiers  salute  it 
in  this  manner,  and  civilians  should  stand  and  remove  their 
hats,  holding  them  on  the  left  side  of  the  breast  until  the  flag 
has  passed. 

Star  of  the  early  dawning,  set  in  a  field  of  blue, 
Stripes  of  sunrise  splendor,  crimson  and  white  of  hue, 
Flag  of  our  fathers'  fathers,  born  on  the  field  of  strife, 
Phoenix  of  fiery  battle,  risen  from  human  life; 
Given  for  God  and  freedom — sacred  indeed  the  trust, 
Left  by  countless  thousands  returned  to  the  silent  dust; 
Flag  of  a  mighty  nation  waving  aloft  unfurled, 
Kissed  by  the  sun  of  heaven,  caressed  by  the  winds 

of  the  world; 

Greater  than  kingly  power,  greater  than  all  mankind, 
Conceived  in  the  need  of  the  hours,  inspired  by  the 

Master  Mind. 

Over  the  living  children,  over  the  laureled  grave, 
Streaming  on  high  in  the  cloudless  sky,  banner  our 

fathers  gave, 

Flag  of  a  newborn  era,  token  of  every  right, 
Wrung  from  a  tyrant  power,  unawed  by  a  tyrant's 

might; 

Facing  again  the  menace  outflung  from  a  foreign  shore, 
Meeting  again  the  challenge,  bravely  answered  of  yore; 
Under  thy  spangled  folds  thy  children  await  to  give 
All  that  they  have  or  are,  that  the  flag  they  love  shall  live. 

— Charles    G.    Crellin. 
464 


Facts   About  Flag   Day  and   How      We   Should   Show 
Proper  Respect  for  Our  Flag. 

1.  "The  official  history  of  our  flag  begins  on  June  14, 
1777.    June  14  is  celebrated  in  many  states  as  Flag 
Day. 

2.  The  flag  should  not  be  hoisted  before  sunrise  and  not 
allowed  to  remain  up  after  sunset. 

3.  At   re  treat,   sunset,   civilian    onlookers    should   stand 
at  attention  and  give  the  military  salute. 

4.  When  the  national  colors  are  passing-  on  parade  or 
review,  the  onlookers  should  halt,  if  walking,  and  if 
sitting,  rise  and  stand  at  attention  and  uncover. 

5.  When  the  flag  is  flown  at  half  mast  as  a  sign  of 
mourning,  it  should  be  hoisted  to  full  staff  at  the 
conclusion  of  the  funeral.    In  placing  the  flag  at  half 
mast  it  should  first  be  hoisted  to  the  top  of  the  staff 
and   then   lowered    to    position,    and   preliminary   to 
lowering  from  half  staff  it  should  be  raised  first  to 
the  top. 

6.  On  Memorial  Day,  May  30,  the  flag  should  fly  at  half 
mast  from  sunrise  to  noon,  and  full  staff  from  noon 
to  sunset." 

(From  The  Sons  of  the  Revolution,  State  of  New  York.) 

A  Short  Course  in  Flag  Lore.* 

The  Stars  and  Stripes. 
Queries  for  Girls  to  Answer. 

1.  ,How  many  stars  on  the  flag?     48. 

2.  Why   this-   number?      It   represents    the    number    of 
states  in  the  Union. 

3.  When  were  the  last  stars  added?     July  4,  1912. 

4.  For  what  states?     Arizona  and  New  Mexico. 


*This   material  -was  prepared   under  the   auspices   of  '  the  Abigail   Adams 
Chapter  of  the  Daughters  of  the  American  Revolution. 

465 


5.  How  many   stripes   on   the   flag.      13 — seven   red   and 
six  white. 

6.  Why  thirteen  stripes?     They  represent  the  thirteen 
colonies. 

7.  Name  the  thirteen  colonies?     Connecticut,  Delaware, 
Georgia,  Maryland,     Massachusetts,  New  Hampshire, 
New    Jersey,    New    York,    North    Carolina,    Pennsyl- 
vania,  Rhode  Island,  South  Carolina,  Virginia. 

8.  Why  are  Maine  and  Vermont  omitted?      Maine   was 
part  of  Massachusetts;  and  Vermont  was  claimed  by 
New  York. 

9.  Name  the  colors  of  the  flag.    Why  used?     Eed,  White 
and    Blue.     Used   because   the   colors  used   in   nearly 
all  National  flags. 

10.  What  is  the  language  of  Red?     Courage. 

11.  What  is  the  language  of  White?     Purity. 

12.  What  is  language  of  Blue?     Fidelity  or  Truth. 

13.  For  what  does  the  flag  stand?     Liberty  and  Union. 

14.  Where  should  the  blue  field  which  contains  the  stars 
be  placed?     In  the  upper  corner  next  to  the  staff. 

15.  How  many  points  has  each  star  on  the  flag?     Five. 

16.  Who  proposed  the  five  pointed  star?     Betsy  Koss. 

17.  Who    first   proposed    the    six   pointed   star?      George 
Washington. 

18.  By  what  authority  was  the   Stars  and   Stripes   Flag- 
adopted    and   when?      By   the    Continental    Congress, 
June  14,  1777. 

19.  When  will  another  star  be  added  to  the  flag?     July 
4th,  immediately  after  another  new  state  is  admitted. 

The  Old  Flag. 

"Floats  our  flag"  in  starry  splendor, 
Witness  of  the  vows  we  tender 
To  be  loyal  to  the  fairest  land 

466 


That  e'er  ttie  sun  shone  on. 
Sends  its  colors  Heavenward  flying, 
Emblem  of  a  trust  undying — 
Handed  down  from  patriot  father 
To   his   freedom-loving   son." 

A  Second  Short  Course  in  Flag  Lore.* 

1.  What  does  a  Nation's  flag  represent?     The  supreme, 
highest,  fullest  power  or  force  and  will  of  the  whole 
nation,  called  its  sovereignty. 

2.  In  the  battling  of  two  nations  for  victory,  what  does 
the  presence  of  the  flag  of  each  indicate?     The  one 
nation  asserts  its  rights  and  defies  the  other. 

3.  In  the  Revolution,  in  what  conflict  was  the  "Stars 
and   Stripes"  flag  first  flung  to  the  breeze  to   defy 
the  British?     At  the  seige  of  Fort  Stanwix,  in  New 
York,  August  3,  1777. 

4.  Where  was  the  first  official  United  States  flag  made 
and   by  whom?      At   238   Arch   Street,   Philadelphia, 
by    Mrs.    Betsy    Ross,    at    Washington's  request  and 
after  his  design. 

5.  By  what  authority  are  all  flags,  standards,  colors  and 
ensigns  for  the  Army  and  Navy  of  the  United  States 
made?     The  authority  of  the  United  States  Govern- 
ment. 

6.  How   many   stars    are   required   by   the   law    on   the 
official  flags  of  the  United  States?     Forty-eight,  one 
for  each  state  of  the  Union. 

7.  After  a  star  has  been  added  to  the  flag  for  a  new 
state,  what  of  the  old  flags?     They  are  never  again 
used  officially. 

8.  When  is  a  flag  raised  on  a  fort  or  military  post? 
At  sunrise. 


*This   material   was   prepared    under   the   auspices    of   the   Abigail    Adams 
Chapter  of  the  Daughters  of  the  American  Revolution. 

467 


9.    When  should  such  a  flag-  be  .lowered?     At  sunset — 
not  later. 

10.  When  should  a  fag  fly  at  half-mast  or  half  staff? 
On  Memorial  Day  from  sunrise  to  noon  and  at  full 
staff  from  noon  to  sunset.    On  occasions  of  mourning 
it  should  be  at  Jialf  staff  until  the  conclusion  of  the 
funeral  and  then  it  should  be  hoisted  to  full  staff. 

11.  What  does  the  flag  at  half-mast  denote?     Mourning 
of  the  Nation— as  at  the  death  of  the  President 

12.  What  indicates  the  presence  of  the  President  of  the 
United  States  on  a  government  vessel?     The  Presi- 
dent's flag  flying  at  the  mast-head. 

13.  What  is  the  description  of  the  President's  flag?     Of 
blue  silk,  6  feet  6  inches  by  4  feet,  with  a  white  star 
near  each  corner,  a  spread  eagle  in  the  middle  with 
an  arrow  through  each  leg  and  13  white  stars  above 
the  eagle  in  a  segment  of  a  circle, 

14.  What  is  indicated  by  striking  or  lowering  the  flag? 
Respect,  surrender  or  submission. 

15.  What  is  it  to  "dip  the  flag?"    To  lower  it  for  a  brief 
space   and  hoist   it  again   as   a   salute   or   mark   of 
respect. 


CHAPTER    IX. 
THE  PLACE  OF  THRIFT  IN  THE   GIRL  RESERVE  PROGRAMS. 

TO  redeem  thrift  from  the  meaning  which  most  people  at- 
tach to  it  without  thought  is  the  first  step  to  understanding. 
Thrift  is  not  first  and  foremost  saving  money;  it  is  emphatically 
not  parsimony  and  hoarding ;  it  is  certainly  not  buying  always 
the  cheapest  article  and  depositing  money  in  an  old  stocking 
under  the  hearthstone.  It  is  sadly  true  that  thrift  has  been 
painted  often  in  such  somber  colors  that  it  has  attracted  nor- 
mal young  people  with  the  greatest  difficulty. 

468 


It  is  then  all  the  more  important  to  note  that  thrift  is  in 
the  first  place  such  an  evaluation  of  good  things  like  time, 
health,  and  material  possessions  that  they  will  contribute  their 
utmost  to  each  person's  life.  Only  a  heedless  master  fails  to 
see  that  in  a  world  where  the  stock  of  good  things  is  limited, 
every  person,  family  and  nation  must  learn  the  art  of  making 
wise  choices.  Among  the  valuable  possessions  which  crowd 
every  life,  some  are  material  and  tangible;  food,  clothing, 
shelter;  others  are  intangible,  yet  very  real — time,  health, 
education,  play — others  which  are  hardest  to  define  are  most 
fundamental — friendship,  family  life  and  comradeship  with  God. 
Everyday  choices  must  be  made  among  these  good  things  and 
the  habit  of  making  them  in  the  light  of  their  relative  values 
is  one  form  of  real  thrift. 

Thrift  is  also  something  else.  It  is  the  art  of  spending 
wisely  the  resources  which  may  be  at  a  person's  disposal. 
Besides  the  intangible  resources — time  and  energy,  each  per- 
son expends  a  certain  amount  of  money  which  represents 
wealth — somebody's  labor.  How  shall  this  be  spent  as  wisely 
as  possible?  There  are  three  simple  questions  to  ask: 

Do  I  keep  a  record  of  what  I  spend? 
Have  I  a  plan  for  my  spending? 
Do  I  know  what  I  am  buying  ? 

"Keeping  a  record  of  what  I  spend"  lias  a  short  name — 
''keeping  accounts."  This  is  the  first  step  in  any  regular  thrift 
plan  for  spending  and  means  keeping  a  regular  statement  of 
money  received  and  spent,  even  the  smallest  amounts.  Unless 
people  are  ready  to  face  the  facts  of  where  their  money  goes 
they  shall  not  be  ready  for  the  next  step. 

"Having  a  plan  for  spending"  means  adopting  a  budget. 
Every  business  firm,  club,  and  organization  wliich  makes  any 
pretense  of  careful  management  considers  a  budget  indis- 
pensable to  successful  operation.  More  and  more  cities  and 
tuwns  are  adopting  it.  A  budget  is  becoming  recognized  as 

469 


necessary  in  running  a  home,  and  women  are  increasingly  using 
this  device,  not  only  as  household  managers  but  as  individuals. 

A  budget  begins  by  making  a  plan  of  expenditure  which 
covers,  as  far  as  possible,  all  expenditures,  assigning  a  certain 
amount  to  each  purpose.  When  all  one's  spending  is  looked 
at  together  it  is  natural  to  balance  the  merits  of  different  items. 
Every  budget  should  have  in  it  some  item  for  giving  to  others 
and  for  savings,  and  the  very  fact  of  such  inclusion  makes  for 
the  establishment  both  of  saving  and  giving.  It  may  be  worth 
noting  that  the  amount  of  money  involved  in  any  girl's  budget 
has  nothing  to  do  with  the  principle  of  keeping  an  account. 
Any  girl  who  spends  any  money  regularly  may  become  so  inter- 
ested in  having  a  budget  and  keeping  accounts  that  the  habit 
thus  formed  may  be  one  of  the  strong  factors  in  later  life. 

The  third  query  asked  above  "Do  I  know  what  I  am  buy- 
ing?" brings  up  a  very  important  matter.  Ignorance  about 
the  goods,  foods  and  other  things  people  buy  is  far  too  pre- 
valent. National  reliance  upon  labels  which  do  duty  for  knowl- 
edge of  contents,  and  the  easy  expectation  that  many  of  the 
things  which  are  bought  will  be  of  poor  quality,  all  tend  to 
foster  low  standards.  The  only  sure  remedy  is  more  knowledge 
about  the  common  articles  in  daily  use  in  all  homes  and  a 
respect  for  such  knowledge  as  part  of  every  person's  mental 
equipment.  - 

In  making  thrift  a  part  of  the  program  for  younger  girls 
it  may  be  suggested  that  clubs  may  like  to  make  budgets  foi 
sny  community  on  the  basis  of  actual  conditions  there  and  what 
the  girls  are  spending.  If  accounts  are  kept  and  the  percen- 
tages allotted  to  each  item  discussed,  a  kind  of  normal  budget 
for  each  community  will  be  arrived  at.  There  is  a  great  advan- 
tage in  such  club  study.  The  path  of  thrift,  like  any  other, 
is  most  enjoyable  when  one  has  company  and  the  club  whicli 
is  thrifty  together  will  have  most  fun  and  get  most  good  ou1 
of  it. 

470 


A  list  of  organizations  which  publish  material  on  thrift  Is 
appended.  Several  of  these  will  send  their  material  free.  Some 
suggested  readings  on  thrift  are  also  added. 

Thrift  Work. 
Suggested  Plans  for  Thrift  Work. 

"There  are  four  principles  of  thrift  which  the  government 
is  recommending  all  the  people  to  observe  to  gain  financial 
success  for  themselves  and  for  their  government: 

The  earning  of  money ; 
The  careful  use  of  money  earned; 
The  systematic  saving  of  money; 
The  investment  of  the  money  saved- — 

(1)  In  government  securities. 

(2)  In  other  safe  securities. 

"(The  Thrift-Saving  Campaign'  sponsored  by  our  gov- 
ernment to  meet  and  to  solve  a  national  need,  to  stay  the  pro- 
gress of  thoughtless  spending  and  to  check  wilful  waste,  stands 
for  good  citizenship;  and  I  most  heartily  commend  it,  believing 
the  adoption  of  its  principles  as  a  part  of  the  daily  life  and 
practice  of  our  people  will  result  in  a  better  citizenship,  in 
happier,  more  prosperous  homes,  and  will  build  most  surely 
for  the  material  welfare  of  our  people." — Secretary  Redfield. 

Thrift  work  applied  to  a  club  program,  involves  not  only 
the  keeping  of  an  expense  account,  saving  and  investment,  but 
affords  opportunity  for  a  knowledge  of  budgets,  the  value  of 
an  allowance,  and  the  wise  expenditure  of  money  and  time.  It 
should  be  a  regular  and  systematic  part  of  any  program  and 
should  have  for  one  of  its  several  aims  such  cooperation  with 
the  girl's  family  that  wherever  possible  individual  girls  should 
receive  allowances  and  should  be  made  responsible  for  the 
administration  of  them  in  the  home.  This  situation  will  help 
a  girl  to  regard  herself  as  a  real  partner  in  the  various  enter- 
prises of  the  home,  and  will  help  to  prepare  her  for  the  respon- 

471 


sibility  of  caring  for  her  "Trust  Fund"  when  she  becomes  a 
real  producer  in  the  economic  world. 

Thrift  work,  within  the  club,  must  be  made  interesting 
through  concrete  application.  Some  of  the  following  sugges- 
tions will  stimulate  the  club  members  to  original  thinking. 

(1)  "Thriftograzns." 

"Old  man  high  cost  af  living  shaves  the  dollars;  it 
is  up  to  you  to  save  them." 

"Gome  easy,  go  easy,  is  the  material  used  to  pave 
the  hills  to  the  poorhouse." 

"You  don't  need  a  ouija  board  to  find  out  what's 
going  to  happen  if  you  keep  on  spending  all  you 
earn." 

"Regular  saving  of  $1.00  or  more  a  week  and  invest- 
ment in  government  savings  quickly  accumulates 
an  emergency  fund  and  guarantees  financial  security 
and  progress." 

(These   have   been    taken    from    the    Savings    Herald,    published 
by  the  Eighth  Federal  Reserve  District,  St.  Louis,  Missouri.) 

Each  club  could  be  responsible  for  writing  an  original 
"Thriftogram"  every  week  or  every  month,  to  be  posted  on  the 
club  or  association  bulletin  board;  this  "Thriftogram"  should 
be  observed  by  every  member. 

(2)  A   discussion   of  the   following   "Do's    and   Don'ts," 
written  by  the  Department  of  Justice,  Division   of 
Women's  Activities: 

"Put  aside  part  of  your  income  for  future  use;  don't 
spend  every  dollar  as  soon  as  it  is  earned. 
"Make  every  penny  buy  a  penny's  worth  of  some- 
thing really  needed;  don't  buy  useless  things  of  no 
value. 

"Invest  wisely;  don't  speculate. 

"Use  with  care  what  money  buys;  don't  be  wasteful 
and  destructive. 

472 


"Figure  out  what  each  item  of  the  family  expendi- 
ture requires — rent,  food,  light,  heat,  clothing,  school, 
charity,  doctor,  pleasures,  etc.  Don't  do  guesswork 
and  trust  to  make  both  ends  meet. 
"Pay  bills  monthly  •  don't  let  worry  go  hand  in  hand 
with  unpaid  bills. 

"Set  your  own  standards;  don't  ape  the  extrava- 
gance of  others. 

"Buy  only  what  you  have-  the  money  to  pay  for; 
don't  run  into  debt. 

"Put  aside  for  a  rainy  day  •  don't  live  beyond  your 
means." 
(3)   "A  Meeting  on  Junk." 

It  is  suggested  that  some  such  questions  as  the 
following  be  asked: 

Who  buys  junk?  (All  towns  and  cities  of  any  size 
,  have  junk  dealers.  These  dealers  have  men  gather 
junk  throughout  the  country  and  small  villages.) 
Are  money  receipts  for  junk  large?  (They  are, 
Last  year  in  the  State  of  Texas  alone  the  amount 
received  for  junk  was  more  than  $30,000,000.  Other 
states  perhaps  collect  and  sell  in  the  same  ratio  in 
proportion  to  population  and  size.) 
What  other  good  comes  from  selling  junk,  aside 
from  the  money  received  for  it?  (Material  is 
released  for  use,  and  at  this  particular  time  there 
is  a  great  shortage  in  nearly  all  kinds  of  material. 
Also  it  helps  to  make  the  town  cleaner  and  more 
sanitary.) 

Talk  to  the  junk  man  and  get  his  prices  and  find 
out  what  he  will  buy.  Cleaning  up  the  place  by 
collecting  and  selling  junk  is  a  thrifty  habit.  By 
all  means  don't  overlook  the  waste  paper.  Paper 
supply  is  now  very  short  and  old  newspapers,  maga- 
zines, catalogues,  etc.,  are  worth  something  and  will 
help  in  relieving  the  paper  shortage  if  saved  and 

473 


sold.  To  such  a  meeting1  each  girl  might  be  asked 
to  bring  one  or  more  magazines  to  serve  as  the 
nucleus  of  a  load  of  papers  and  magazines  to  be 
sold  to  the  junk  man.  A  continuation  of  such  a 
^junk  program"  might  wdlU  be,  /in  some  clubs, 
"An  Alley  Beautiful"  contest.  Club  members  would 
become  responsible  for  cleaning  up  the  alleys  im- 
mediately behind  their  homes  by  having  removed 
any  accumulation  of  rubbish  and  perhaps  by  the 
planting  of  vines  or  shrubs  in  season.  Painting 
up  of  fences  and  buildings  might  be  a  profitable 
result  of  such  a  contest. 

(4)   "Pennywise — Pound  Foolish." 

This  is  a  familiar  proverb  and  illustrates  the  condi- 
tion of  affairs  in  many  homes,  many  states  and 
several  nations  to-day.  There0 is  too  little  fore- 
thought in  planning  the  expenditures  and  in  deter- 
mining a  goal,  and,  consequently,  there  is  "penny- 
wise  scrimping"  and  "pound  foolish  spending."  The 
solution  for  this  problem  seems  to  be  a  "budg-et- 
system"  and  a  discussion  of  the  terms  which  should 
go  into  a  personal  and  a  club  budget  would  center 
well  around  a  topic  such  as  "'penny-wise — pound- 
foolish."  Another  proverb  which  could  be  inter- 
preted in  much  the  same  way  is  "Bobbing  Peter  to 
pay  Paul,"  or  as  we  might  say,  "Robbing  Jane  to 
pay  June." 

In  some  clubs,  or  in  the  council  or  cabinet  meetings, 
it  will  be  possible  to  follow  such  discussion  by  one 
which  has  for  its  topic  "Our  Association  Budget." 
For  developing  such  a  discussion  see  the  section 
"Supplementary  Material" — "My  Trust  Fund"'  in 
the  section  on  Materials  for  Program  Building. 

474 


List  of 
Organizations   Publishing1   Material   on   the    Subject   of   Thrift. 

American  Bankers'  Association,  5  Nassau  Street,  New  York, 
N.  Y. 

Government  Loan  Organization,  Washington,  D.   C. 

Treasury  Department,  U.  S.  Government,  Washington,  D.  C. 

War  Loan  Organization,  Washington,  D.  C. 

United  States  Department  of  Agriculture,  Washington,  D.  C. 

U.  S.  Bureau  of  Standards,  Washington,  D.  C. 

The  University  Society,  New  York,  N.  Y. 

Young  Men's   Christian  Association,   347  Madison  Avenue, 
New  York. 

Young  Women's  Christian  Association,  600  Lexington  Ave- 
nue, New  York. 

Home    Economics     Bureau,     Society    for    Savings,    Public 
Square,  Cleveland,  Ohio. 

Henry  L.  Doherty  Company,  60  Wall  Street,  New  York,  N.  Y. 

Suggested  Readings  on  Thrift. 

Atwood,  A.  W.— How  to  Get  Ahead. 
Baldt,  L.  L— Clothing  for  Women. 
Brown,  M.  W. — Development  of  Thrift. 
Chamberlain,  A.  H. — Thrift  and  Conversation. 
Child,  Georgiana— The  Efficient  Kitchen. 
Conham,  S.  A. — Marketing  and  Household  Manual. 
Farmer,  L.  O.— A.  B.  C.  of  Home-Saving. 
Fowler,  N.  C. — How  to  Save  Money. 
Gregory,  M.  H. — Checking  the  Waste. 
Hull,  Bolton— Thrift. 
Leeds,  J.  B. — Household  Budget. 
MacGregor,  T.  D.-— The  Book  of  Thrift. 
Marcosson,  L  J.— How  to  Invest  Your  Savings. 
Nesbitt,  Florence — Household  Management. 
Rose,  M.  S. — Feeding  the  Family. 
Withers,  Hartlety — Poverty  and  Waste. 

475 


CHAPTER    X. 

BUSINESS    IDEALS,    PRINCIPLES    AND    DETAILS. 

IN  the  course  of  human  lives  there  is  an  inevitable  and 
unescapable  contact  in  store  for  every  individual  with 
that  intangible,  indefinite  something  known  as  business. 

Business  is  pictured  by  some  as  a  cold,  commercial,  unpleas- 
ant, undesirable  quantity.  By  others  it  is  considered  a  stern 
necessity,  by  others,  again,  a  science  mysterious,  fascinating, 
exceedingly  interesting,  and,  unfortunately,  there  are  those 
that  use  the  term  to  cover  selfish  and  unscrupulous  enterprises. 

Business  is  so  large  that  it  controls  the  feeding,  clothing 
and  housing  of  the  entire  world;  so  small  that  it  determines 
the  value  of  individual  and  personal  necessities  and  how  and 
when  these  values  should  be  given. 

Our  countrymen  are  thinking  about  business  to-day  as  they 
had  to  think  about  slavery  in  1860,  about  taxation  in  1776.  It 
is  the  force  which  will  settle  the  questions  of  to-day — capital 
and  labor,  immigration,  taxation,  racial  problems  and  the  fur- 
ther civilization  of  the  whole  world.  Business  provides  the 
ways  and  means  to  destroy  it.  It  can  be  made  an  obedient 
servant  or  a  hard  taskmaster. 

The  girl  of  to-day,  the  woman  of  to-morrow,  cannot  escape 
a  full  share  in  guiding  and  controlling  this  thing  called  busi- 
ness. Yesterday  woman's  place  was  not  among  her  brothers. 
She  was  "shielded"  from  "sordid  business  worries."  To-day 
woman  is  being  recognized  as  a  possible  factor,  one  to  be 
dealt  with  in  the  trend  of  events.  To-day  economic  demands 
necessitate  her  entrance  into  the  world  of  business.  To-mor- 
row, through  her  increasing  understanding  of  the  fact  that  she 
must  work  without  indulging  in  personalities  and  with  that 

476 


attitude  of  mind  which  sees  in  work  a  creative  thing,  her  place 
shoulder  to  shoulder  with  her  brothers  will  be  an  accepted 
unquestioned  fact.  Women  should  be  armed  with  that  one  great 
weapon,  knowledge,  so  that  they  will  be  prepared  when  the  time 
conies  to  cast  their  ballots  for  public  officials  who  will  stand 
upon  opposite  sides  of  such  questions  as  mentioned  above,  plus 
public  service,  corporation  control,  health  and  sanitary  pro.blems 
affecting  future  generations,  and  honesty  in  public  adminis- 
tration. 

It  is  no  longer  necessary  for  a  girl  to  enter  upon  a  business 
career  in  order  to  obtain  a  knowledge  of  business.  Preliminary 
training  is  just  as  important  in  the  field  of  business  as  it  is 
in  other  fields  and  touches  the  individual  life  as  closely.  Failure 
to  secure  desirable  positions  is  caused  nine  times  out  of  ten  by 
lack  of  training.  Short  courses  in  Business  English,  Business 
Law,  Journalism,  Economics,  Advertising,  Accounting,  Steno- 
"graphy,  etc.  may  be  obtained  in  the  average  city  college.  A 
knowledge  of  the  business  processes  which  produce  the  things 
we  use,  makes  for  a  realization  of  true  economy,  prepares  for 
better  home  making,  better  business,  better  direction  of  what- 
ever course  is  pursued  in  life.  Instructive  reading  material  in 
fascinating  form  may  be  secured  from  any  library  or  publisher. 
All  that  is  needed  is  the  desire  and  the  will  to  make  use  of 
information  ready  and  waiting. 

Business  is  built  upon  exchange  of  one  thing  for  another. 
Money  came  into  existence  as  a  matter  of  convenience  to  do 
away  with  much  handling  of  many  kinds  of  things.  Then  came 
banks  to  make  the  exchange  of  money  safe,  rapid  and  easy, 
and  gradually  to  administer  all  manner  of  business  trans- 
actions, agreements,  etc.  Forms  were  provided  to  make 
methods  uniform  and  still  more  rapid. 

It  was  but  natural  that  the  competition  growing  out  of  all 
men  seeking  more  and  more  a  share  in  the  world's  work  should 
result  in  unprincipled  methods.  Business  was  conducted  for 
many  centuries  upon  the  survival  of  the  clever  and  often  the 

477 


dishonest.  It  has  taken  countless  generations  to  prove  that 
such  success  was  not  genuine  and  that  the  price  paid  was  too 
high.  During  the  nineteenth  century — particularly  the  latter 
part — the  business  public  began  to  recognize  and  to  put  into 
practice  the  principles  of  service.  In  the  midst  of  the  jeers 
of  many  and  the  doubts  of  many  more,  a  few  courageous  people 
persisted  in  this  theory  of  service  and  the  proof  of  their  suc- 
cess lies  in  the  high  plane  in  which  we  find  nearly  all  business 
to-day.  The  appreciation  of  the  public  for  the  consideration 
offered  them  under  service  resulted  in  the  largest  financial 
profits  ever  known.  That  knowledge  spread  slowly  but  effec- 
tively. Men  had  not  done  business  under  the  old  idea  of  "ruin- 
ing their  rivals/*  from  choice.  It  seemed  to  be  necessary  to 
their  existence,  but  the  natural  instinct  of  men  is  fairness  and 
the  new  policy  of  ''help  the  other  man  while  you  help  yourself" 
was  welcomed  eagerly.  It  resulted  in  as  much  or  more  success 
and  permitted  full  self-respect,  a  thing  dear  to  mankind. 

The  principle  of  service  is  that  of  the  square  deal.  It  is 
hardly  necessary  to  give  a  detailed  description  of  other  prin- 
ciples of  business;  they  are  all  included  in  that  of  the  square 
deal.  Honesty,  reason,  frankness,  consideration,  tact,  com- 
mon sense,  loyalty— all  these  should  become— are  becoming  part 
of  that  spirit  of  service  which  binds  together  the  business  of 
the  world  to-day. 

Women  and  girls  need  an  understanding  of  that  spirit  to 
help  make  it  universal  and  complete.  They  are  a  part  of  it. 
Everything  they  buy  and  everything  they  use  is  the  produce  of 
business.  Their  support  for  materials  which  bear  the  "square 
deal"  trademark  and  their  discouragement  of  goods  manufac- 
tured as  a  result  of  abuse  and  oppression,  are  vital.  Each  girl 
and  woman  individually  should  have!  a  comprehensive  knowl- 
edge and  understanding  of  facts  before  she  judges,  then  when 
she  feels  qualified  to  judge  she  should  stand  back  of  the  "square 
deal"  with  courage  and  faith  and  her  share  in  making  this 
world  a  better  place  to  live  in  will  not  be  a  small  one. 

47.8 


She  should  become  familiar  with  current  major  business 
activities,  keep  in  touch  with  what  the  financial  world  is  doing, 
v/hat  the  governmental  plans  are,  and  so  on.  She  should  be 
familiar  not  only  with  current  events  in  the  business  world 
but  with  details,  the  definition  of  business  terms,  business 
forms,  etc.  She  should  be  trained  to  manage  her  own  business 
transactions  independently  whether  they  be  small  or  large. 
If  too  large  for  personal  management,  she  should  choose  wisely 
and  carefully  her  business  adviser. 

It  should  not  be  necessary  for  her  to  ask  others  to  balance 
her  checking  account  for  her.  She  should  learn  to  do  it  her- 
self. She  should  not  be  heard  to  say  that  she  "doesn't  know 
where  her  money  goes."  She  should  learn  to  keep  an  account 
of  her  expenditures.  It  will  help  her  to  curtail  extravagance. 
More  than  that,  she  should  plan  in  advance  a  definite  schedule 
for  her  expenditures  based  on  past  experience,  placing  limita- 
tions and  apportioning  outgo — a  veritable  stop,  look  and  listen 
sjgn  known  in  business  terms  as  a  budget. 

The  following  are  some  of  the  business  terms  with  which 
every  girl  should  be  familiar. 

Acceptance — When  used  of  a  draft  or  bill  of  exchange — ^"An 
unconditional  written  order  from  one  person  to  another,  to 
pay  to  some  person  designated,  a  certain  sum  therein,"  is 
presented  to  the  payer,  he  writes  across  the  face  "accepted" 

or  "accepted  for  payment  at "  and  signs  his  name.     It  is 

then  termed  an  acceptance. 

Accommodation  Note — A  note  given  without  consideration 
of  value  received,  usually  done  to  enable  the  payee  to  raise 
money. 

Account — A  record  of  transactions  with  a  person  or  per- 
sons, or  with  respect  to  a  particular  object. 

Administrator — One  appointed  by  the  court  to  settle  an 
estate. 

479 


Ad  Valorem — According  to  value — a  term  used  to  indicate 
that  duties  are  payable  on  the  value  rather  than  the  weight  or 
quantity  of  articles. 

Affidavit — A  statement  or  declaration  made  under  oath 
before  an  authorized  official. 

Annuity — An  amount  payable  to  or  received  from  another 
each  year  for  a  term  of  years  or  for  life. 

Assets — All  the  property,  goods,  possessions,  of  value  to  the 
person  or  persons  in  business. 

Bank  Balance — The  net  amount  to  the  credit  of  a  depositor 
at  the  bank. 

Bank  Note — A  'note  issued  by  a  bank,  payable  on  demand, 
which  passes  for  money. 

Bank  Draft — An  order  drawn  by-  one  bank  on  another  for 
the  purpose  of  paying  money. 

Bank  Pass  Book— A  small  book  furnished  to  a  depositor  by 
his  bank  in  which  are  entered  the  amounts  of  deposits. 

Bill — A  list  of  goods  bought  or  sold  or  a  statement  of  ser- 
vices rendered;  also  called  invoice. 

Bill  Head — The  blank  or  form  on  which  a  bill  is  made. 

Bond — A  written  agreement  binding  a  person  to  do  or  not 
to  do  certain  things  specified  therein. 

Capital — Property  or  money  invested  in  business.  Working 
capital  is  the  capital  actually  used  in  the  active  operation  of 
the  business. 

Check — An  order  on  a  bank  to  pay  to  a  certain  person  or 
to  the  order  of  such  a  person,  a  specified  sum,  which  sum  is 
charged  to  the  account  of  the  drawer  of  the  check. 

Certified  Check — A  check,  the  payment  of  which  is  guar- 
anteed by  the  bank  on  which  it  is  drawn. 

Collateral — Pledges  of  security,  as  stocks,  bonds,  etc.,  to 
protect  an  obligation  or  insure  the  payment  of  a  loan. 

Deed — A  written  document  or  contract  transferring  title  to 
real  estate. 

480 


Discount — An  allowance  made  for  the  payment  of  a  bill 
within  a  specified  period,  or  the  interest  paid  in  advance  for 
money  borrowed  from  a  bank. 

Dividend — The  profits  which  are  distributed  among  the 
stockholders  of  a  corporation. 

Exchange — The  charge  made  by  a  bank  for  the  collection 
of  drafts  or  checks. 

Indemnity — Security  against  a  form  of  loss  which  has 
occurred  or  may  occur;  as,  fire,  insurance  against  loss  by  fire. 

Interest — The  sum  or  premium  paid  for  the  use  of  money; 
one's  share  in  a  business  or  a  particular  property. 

Liabilities — The  obligations  or  debts  of  a  firm,  corporation 
or  individual 

Mortgage — A  temporary  transfer  of  title  to  land,  goods  or 
chattels  to  secure  the  payment  of  debt 

Mortgagee — The  one  to  whom  the  mortgage  is  given. 

Mortgagor — The  one  who  gives  a  mortgage. 

Promissory  Note — A  promise  signed  by  the  maker  or  makers 
to  pay  a  stated  sum  at  a  specified  time  and  place. 

A  few  cautions: 

A  check  should  never  be  payable  to  Mr.,  Mrs.  or  Miss.  It 
should  simply  be  drawn  payable  to  "Anne  Smith"  or  "John 
Jones." 

In  endorsing  a  check  care  should  be  used  to  see  that  the 
name  is  written  on  the  back  of  the  lefthand  end  of  check  and 
that  it  is  written  the  same  as  on  the  face  of  the  check.  If  the 
name  on  face  of  check  is  incorrectly  spelled,  the  endorsement 
should  be  double,  (1)  same  as  written  on  face,  (2)  correctly. 

Checks  should  never  be  drawn  in  excess  of  the  actual  net 
balance  in  the  bank  (difference  between  total  deposits  and  total 
checks  drawn)  whether  or  not  all  of  the  checks  drawn  have 
passed  through  the  bank  for  payment.  The  balance  as  given 
by  the  bank  often  exceeds  the  actual  net  balance  because  one 

481 


H*  more  checks  drawn  are  still  "outstanding."  A  checking 
iccount  should  be  reconciled  with  the  bank  once  a  month  to 
prove  accuracy  of  record. 


Bibliography. 
Business  Ideals. 

Adams,  George  P. — Idealism  and  the  Modern  Age. 
Antin,  Mary — They  Who  Knock  at  the  Gates, 
Bacon,  Albion  Fellows — Beauty  for  Ashes. 
Cabot,  Richard  C.— What  Men  Live  By. 
Feld,  R.  C. — Humanizing  Industry. 
Foster,  Eugene  C. — Making  Life  Count. 
La  Selle,  Mary — The  Young  Woman  Worker. 
Lowry,  E.  B. — Preparing  for  Womanhood. 
Marot,  Helen — Creative  Impulse  in  Industry. 
Morgan,  Ann — The  American  Girl. 
Russell,  Bertrand — Political  Ideals. 
Santayana,  George — Character    and    Opinion  in  the  United 

States. 

Spillman,  H.   C. — Personality. 

Steiner,  Edward  A. — Introducing  the  American  Spirit. 
Tarbell,  Ida  M. — The  Business  of  Being  a  Woman. 
Tarbell,  Ida  M. — New  Ideals  in  Business. 
Tufts,  James  H. — The  Real  Business  of  Living. 

Magazine  Articles. 

Does  Business  Render  Service — A.  W.  Atwood,  in  the  Saturday 
Evening  Post,  193:11  D  18,, '20. 

For  Service  Instead  of  Profit — A.  W.  Atwood,  Saturday  Even- 
ing Post,  193:13  D  4,  '20.  . 

482 


CHAPTER    XI 

BOOKS   AND  READING  IN  THE  LIFE   OF  A   GIRL. 

NO  one  who  has  ever  watched  a  girl  pass  into  and  out  of  her 
teens  can  minimize  the  value  of  the  impressions  which 
she  has  gained  from  the  books  she  has  read.  Nearly  every 
adolescent  girl  comes  at  some  time  to  the  "book  age,"  when  she 
literally  devours  every  book  which  catches  her  fancy  or  upon 
which  she  falls  by  chance  or  mischance.  Such  a  period  is  one 
of  great  opportunity  for  the  adviser  of  girls  but  an  opportunity 
which  must  be  wisely  used. 

Books  are  the  silent,  beloved  companions  of  many  girls 
and  from  them  they  acquire  many  of  their  notions  of  how 
to  act  under  given  conditions;  in  them  they  sometimes  find  a 
heroine  or  a  hero  whose  life  helps  to  set  their  code  of  morals; 
while  again  and  again  the  choice  of  a  vocation  is  definitely 
influenced  by  the  presentation  of  it  given  in  an  interesting 
story. 

A  girl's  own  judgment  is  not  always  to  be  relied  upon  to 
choose  the  worthwhile  among  the  great  number  of  books  avail- 
able. Books  cannot  be  judged  by  their  "jackets"  nor  their 
price.  The  old-fashioned  paper  covered  dime  novel  still  exists 
in  different  garb — sometimes  dressed  up  attractively  in  book 
form — sometimes  in  magazine  story  form,  and  many  of  the 
latter  are  read  by  adolescent  girls. 

A  wise  adviser  will  know  these  "dressed  up"  dime  novels 
and  recognizing  the  appeal  which  they  make  to  the  imagina- 
tion and  emotional  side  of  a  teen  age  girl,  will  be  ready  through 
informal  discussion  and  conversation  to  suggest  some  of  the 
many  sane,  wholesome  stories  now  available  as  well  as  some 
of  the  splendid  collections  of  poems.  A  love  and  appreciation  of 

483 


poetry  counts  for  much  as  one  grows  older  and  an  adviser  will 
help  the  girl  who  often  needs  an  interpretation  of  a  poem  to 
see  in  poetry  its  real  beauty  and  meaning. 

The  adviser  needs  to  be  careful,  however,  that  a  book  is  not 
killed  for  a  girl  by  an  over-zealous  recommendation. 

Books  on  prescribed  reading  lists,  especially  school  lists — 
are  often  disliked  by  girls.  There  is  real  joy  in  picking  and 
choosing  one's  own  list  for  summer  reading  or  for  winter 
leading.  A  girl  may  be  helped  and  made  desirous  of  doing  this 
by  a  discussion  at  a  club  meeting  of  some  such  question  as 
"What  are  your  ten  favorite  books?" 

Every  girl  should  be  encouraged  to  own  books  and  so  begin 
to  build  a  real  library  of  her  own.  The  joy  of  a  shelf  in  one's 
room  or  one's  home,  to  hold  one's  "bound  friends"  is  an  experi- 
ence every  girl  should  have.  Books  are  windows  through  which 
a  girl's  imagination  may  look  out  and  so,  they  need  (like  all 
windows),  to  be  in  the  right  place,  of  the  right  kind,  and  kept 
always  clean  and  shining. 

Books  placed  in  the  hands  of  a  girl  should  help  to  give  her 
some  of  the  following  things — good  standards  for  every  day 
thinking  and  living;  ideals  toward  which  to  work;  a  sense  of 
fair  play;  a  constructive  philosophy  of  life  and  not  a  cynical 
doubting  attitude  of  mind;  a  realization  that  life  may  be  God- 
eontrolled;  a  logical  presentation  of  events  and  not  a  series  of 
thrilling  happenings  absolutely  unreal  in  life  and  often  in  direct 
contradiction  to  all  natural  law  and  moral  development  • '  an 
appreciation  of  scientific  truths  and  an  opportunity  to  acquire 
facts  which  will  be  of  use;  an  appreciation  of  good  language 
and  a  real  feeling  for  beauty  of  expression. 

The  list  of  books  included  in  this  section  is  meant  to  be 
suggestive  to  an  adviser  and  her  girls.  It  is  in  no  sense  com- 
plete nor  is  it  a  ''course  of  reading."  From  it  girls  may  choose 
what  appeals  to  them  and  by  reading  one  book  suggested  by  an 
adviser  they  may  be  stimulated  to  read  others.  Most  of  these 
books  will  be  found  ift  a  public  library  and  if  not  there  probably 
can  be  secured  through  the  cooperation  of  a  librarian. 

484 


Girl  Reserve  Book  List* 

"Qod  taught  me  to  read; 
He  gave  me  the  world  for  a  book." 

FOR   several   years   Girl   Reserves   have   journeyed   through 
"Story   Book   Land"   with   a    Girl   Reserve   Book   List    as 
their  guide. 

One  of  the  joys  of  this  journey  is  that  it  never  ends.  There 
are  always  new  friends  and  places  to  be  found  in  "Book  Land" 
and  so  once  again  every  Girl  Reserve  is  invited  to  take  as 
her  guide  this  book  list. 

The  following  books  are  suggested  as  ones  which  real  Girl 
Reserves  will  enjoy.  Some  old  friends  will  be  found  in  this 
list,  but  there  are  many  new  and  delightful  ones  as  well. 
For  every  book  you  read,  you  will  receive  a  Girl  Reserve  book 
plate  to  be  placed  in  some  one  of  your  own.  books.  With  the 
desire  that  the  Girl  Reserves  shall  have  happy  journeys  into 
the  "Story  Book  World/  this  list  is  given  into  their  hands 
for  use. 


*  The  first  Girl  Reserve  Book  List  was  issued  in  December,  1918.  The 
present  list  incorporates  the  first  and  the  second  lists,  and  was  printed 
October,  1920. 

485 


If  You  Are  Twelve  and  Not  Yet  Fifteen  Choose  from  This  List. 

I.    FICTION. 

Keineth Jane    Abbott 

Little   Women Louisa  M.  Alcott 

An  Old  Fashioned  Girl Louisa  M.  Alcott 

Eight  Cousins Louisa  M.  Alcott 

Rose  In  Bloom Louisa  M.  Alcott 

Under  the  Lilacs Louisa  M.  Alcott 

Why  the  Chimes  Rang Raymond  Macdonald  Alden 

Isabel  Carlton's  Year Margaret  Ashmun 

The  Heart  of  Isabel  Carlton Margaret  Ashmun 

Peter  Pan James  M.  Barrie 

Master  Skylark — A  Story  of  Shakespeare's  Time.  .John  Bennett 

Mary   Carey Kate  Langley  Bosher 

Miss  Gibbie  Gault Kate  Langley  Bosher 

The   Lost  Prince Frances  Hodgson  Burnett 

Little  Lord  Fauntleroy Frances  Hodgson  Burnett 

Sara  Crewe Frances  Hodgson  Burnett 

The  Little  Hunchback  Zia Frances  Hodgson  Burnett 

The  Secret  Garden Frances  Hodgson  Burnett 

Hans  Brinker  or  the  Silver  Skates- Mary  Mapes  Dodge 

Donald  and  Dorothy Mary  Mapes  Dodge 

Jan  of  the  Windmill. Mrs.  Juliana  H.  Ewing 

The  Story  of  a  Short  Life Mrs.  Juliana  H.  Ewing 

A  Flatiron  for  a  Farthing Mrs.  Juliana  H.  Ewing 

486 


J.  Cole— A  Story  of  a  Boy Emma  Gellebrand 

Kathleen's  Probation Josleyn  Gray 

Uncle  Remus   Joel  Chandler  Harris 

The  Story  of  Aaron Joel  Chandler  Harris 

Aaron  in  the  Wildwood Joel  Chandler  Harris 

Tanglewood   Tales Nathaniel  Hawthorne 

Twicetold   Tales Nathaniel  Hawthorne 

The  Wonder  Book .Nathaniel  Hawthorne 

Mopsa  the  Fairy Jean  Ingelow 

Lady  Jane Mrs.  C.  V.  Jamison 

The  Little  Colonel  Series Annie  Fellows  Johnston 

Georgina  of  the  Rainbows Annie  Fellows  Johnston 

Water  Babies Charles  Kingsley 

The  Jungle  Books Rudyard  Kipling 

Captains    Courageous Rudyard  Kipling 

The  Just-So  Stories Rudyard  Kipling 

The  Brushwood  Boy Rudyard  Kipling 

Maid  of  Old  Manhattan Margaret  Knipe 

Maid  of  '76 Margaret  Knipe 

Polly   Trotter — Patriot Margaret  Knipe 

Adventures  of  Nils Selma  Lagerlof 

Tales  from  Shakespeare Charles  Lamb 

The  Maker  of  Rainbows Richard  Le  GaHienne 

Emmy   Lou George  Madden  Martin 

Emmy  Lou's  Road  to  Grace George  Madden  Martin 

The  Painted  Desert Kirk  Munroe 

Rick   Dale Kirk  Munroe 

Dog  of  Flanders Ouida 

Bimbi    Ouida 

487 


Wilderness  Honey Frank  Lillie  Pollock 

Just  David Eleanor  H.  Porter 

Freckles    Gene  Sratton  Porter 

Girl  of  the  Limberlost Gene  Sratton  Porter 

Men  of  Iron , ,  * ,  Howard  Pyle 

Melody    Laura  E.  Kichards 

Captain  January 1 Laura  E.  Richards 

The  King  of  the  Golden  River John  Ruskin 

Beautiful  Joe — A  Story  of  a  Dog Marshall  Saunders 

'Tilda   Jane Marshall  Saunders 

Kenilworth. Sir  Walter  Scott 

The  Biography  of  a  Grizzly Ernest  Thompson  Seton 

The  Trail  of  the  Sandhill  Stag Ernets  Thompson  Seton 

Black  Beauty Mrs.  Anna  Sewell 

Story-tell    Lib Annie  Trumbull  Slosson 

Fishin'  Jimmie Annie  Trumbull  Slosson 

Heidi Johanna  Spyri 

Moni  the  Goat  Boy Johanna  Spyri 

The   Black  Arrow Robert  Louis  Stevenson 

Treasure   Island Robert  Louis  Stevenson 

Kidnapped    Robert  Louis  Stevenson 

The  Queen's  Museum  and  Other  Fanciful  Tales 

Frank  R.  Stockton 

The  Chaucer  Story  Book Eva  March  Tappan 

Robin    Hood Eva  March  Tappan 

The  Children's  Hour Eva  March  Tappan 

The  Prince  and  the  Pauper , Mark  Twain 

The  Blue  Flower Henry  Van  Dyke 

The  Christmas  Spirit Henry  Van  Dyke 

The  First  Christmas  Tree Henry  Van  Dyke 

The  Foolish  Fir  Tree Henry  Van  Dyke 

The  Keeper  of  the  Light Henry  Van  Dyke 

The  Legend  of  Service ....,, Henry  Van  Dyke 

488 


The  Lost  Boy Henry  Van  Dyke 

The  Story  of  the  Other  Wise  Man Henry  Van  Dyke 

Ben-Hur Lew  Wallace 

Daddy  Long   Legs .Jean  Webster 

Dear    Enemy Jean  Webster 

Just   Patty Jean  Webster 

When  Patty  Went  to  College iJean  Webster 

The  Bird's  Christmas  Carol Kate  Douglas  Wiggin 

Further  Chronicles  of  Rebecca Kate  Douglas  Wiggin 

Mother  Carey's  Chickens Kate  Douglas  Wiggin 

Rebecca  of  Sunnybrook  Farm Kate  Douglas  Wiggin 

The  Story  of  Patsy Kate  Douglas  Wiggin 

Timothy's    Quest Kate  Douglas  Wiggin 

Liberty  Hall Florence  May  Winterburn 

Indian  Legends  Sa  Zitkala 

King  Arthur Any  good  edition 

II.    STORIES  OF  FAMOUS  PEOPLE  AND 

INTERESTING  LANDS. 
Jack-of -all-Trades Margaret    Applegarth 

Story  of  Roland James  Baldwin 

In  .Sunny  Spain Katharine  Lee  Bates 

A  Boy  in  Eirinn Padraic  Colum 

Tower  or  Throne Mrs.  Harriet  Theresa  Oomstoek 

Under  Greek  Skies t Julia  Dragoumis 

Japan  Today Ruth  Emerson 

Treasure  Flower — A  Child  of  Japan Ruth  Gaines 

The  Village   Shield— Story  of   Mexico 

Ruth  Gaines — Georgia  Read 
Brave  Little  Holland W.  E.  Griffis 

489 


Katrinka — Story  of  a  Russian  Child Helen  E.  Haskeli 

The  Story  of  Our  Bible Harold  B.  Hunting 

Puck  of  Pook's  Hill Rudyard  Kipling 

The  Slow  Coach — Story  of  English  Life . .  Edward  Verrall  Lucas 

Heroines  Every  Child  Should  Know Hamilton  Wright  Mabie 

Heroes  Every  Child  Should  Know Hamilton  Wright  Mabie 

African  Adventures Jean  Mackenzie 

Genevieve — Story  of  French  School  Days, .Laura  Spencer  Porter 

Florence  Nightingale Laura  E.  Richards 

Greek  Photoplays  Effie  Seachrest 

Children  of  the  Lighthouse Charles  Lincoln  White 

Hindu  Tales Teresa  Peirce  Williston 

Japanese  Fairy  Tales Teresa  Peirce  Williston 

First  Series 
Second  Series 
The  Third  Inch  of  the  Inch  Library 

III.     POETRY. 

The  Golden  Staircase Selected  by  Louey  Chisholm 

Lullaby  Land Eugene  Field 

Poetry  of  Heroism Selected  by  John  Jean  Lang 

A  Golden  Treasury  of  Songs   and  Lyrics 

Francis  Turner  Palgrave 

Poems. James  Whitcomb   Riley 

A  Child's  Garden  of  Verses Robert  Louis  Stevenson 

490 


If  You  Are  Fifteen  or  More  Years  Old  Choose  from  This  List 
I.    FICTION. 

Under  the  Lilacs Louisa  M.  Alcott 

Little  Women Louisa  M.  Alcott 

The  Kentucky  Cardinal James  Lane  Allen 

The  Perfect  Tribute Mary  R.  Shipman  Andrews 

The  Three  Best  Things Mary  R.  Shipman  Andrews 

Christopher  and  Columbus 

By  author  of  "Elizabeth  and  Her  German  Garden" 
Fraulein  Schmidt  &  Mr.  Anstruther 

By  author  of  "Elizabeth  and  Her  German  Garden" 

Greyfriar's  Bobby Eleanor  Atkinson 

Pride  and  Prejudice Jane  Austen 

Keeping  Up  With  Lizzie Irving  Bacheller 

Mistress  Anne Temple  Bailey 

Bow  of  Orange  Ribbon Amelia  Barr 

Jennie  Baxter,  Journalist Robert  Barr 

The  Little  Minister . James  M.  Barrie 

Tommy  and  Grizel James  M.  Barrde 

A  Window  in  Thrums James  M.  Barrie 

Courtin'  Christiana John  Joy  Bell 

Spanish  Gold George  Birmingham 

Lorna  Doone. Richard  Blaekmore 

Jane   Eyre Charlotte   Bronte 

Wuthering  Heights Emily  Bronte 

Comrade  Yetta Arthur  Bullard 

T.  Tembaron Frances  Hodgson  Burnett 

The  Bent  Twig Dorothy  Canfield 

Understood   Betsy Dorothy  Canfreld 

491 


Collision Winston  -Churchill 

Ricliard    Carvel Winston  Churchill 

The  Moonstone Wilkie  Collins 

Glengary  School  Days Ralph  Connor 

The   Major Ralph  Connor 

Corporal    Cameron Ralph  Connor 

The  Sky  Pilot Ralph  Connor 

The  Sky  Pilot  in  No  Man's  Land Ralph  Connor 

The   Deerslayer James  Fenimore  Cooper 

Last  of  the  Mohicans * James  Fenimore  Cooper 

The   Pathfinder James  Fenimore  Cooper 

Prue  and  I George  William  Curtis 

Women  Wanted Mabel  Porter  Daggett 

Diane  of  the  Green  Van Leona  Dalrymple 

The  Lovable  Meddler Leona  Dalrymple 

Robinson  Crusoe Daniel   Defoe 

Dr,  Lavendar's  People Margaret  D  eland 

The  Iron  Woman  Margaret  Deland 

Old  Curiosity  Shop Charles  Dickens 

A  Tale  of  Two   Cities Charles  Dickens 

The  Adventures  of   Sherlock  Holmes A.  Conan  Doyle 

The   White    Company A.  Conan  Doyle 

Count  of  Monte  Cristo Alexander  Dumas 

Doctor  Luke  of  the  Labrador Norman  Duncan 

The  Mill  on  the  Floss George  Eliot 

Carolyn  of  the  Corners Ruth  Endicott 

Butter  .Side  Down Edna  Ferber 

Fanny  Herself Edna  Ferber 

Honorable  Peter  Stirling .Paul  Leicester  Ford 

A  Knight  of  the  Cumberland John  Fox,  Jr. 

The  Little  Shepherd  of  Kingdom  Come John  Fox,  Jr. 

The  Trail  of  the  Lonesome  Pine John  Fox,  Jr. 

The  Trumpeter Zona   Gale 

Monsieur  Lecoq Emile  Gaboriau 

492 


Cranford Mrs.  Elizabeth  C.  Gas^ell 

Apron   Strings Eleanor  Gates 

The  Yellow  Dove George  Gibbs 

Dream    Days Kenneth  Grahame 

The  Wind  in  the  Willows Kenneth  Grahame 

Down  to  the  Sea Wilfred  T.  Grenfell 

Jan  and  Her  Job Allen  Harker 

Prudence  of  the  Parsonage Ethel  Hueston 

Prudence    Says    So Ethel  Hueston 

Una  Mary Mrs.  Una  Atherton  Hunt 

Tales  of  the  Alhambra Washington  Irving 

In  the  Sargasso  Sea Thomas  A.  Janvier 

In  the  Desert  of  Waiting Annie  Fellows  Johnston 

Audrey    Mary  Johnston 

To  Have  and  to  Hold Mary  Johnston 

May  Iverson  Tackles  Life Elizabeth  Garner  Jordan 

Brushwood    Boy Rudyard  Kipling 

The  Day's   Work Rudyard  Kipling 

Mary   Gusta Joseph  C.  Lincoln 

ThankfuPs    Inheritance Joseph  C.'  Lincoln 

Making   Over   Martha Julie  M.  Lipman 

Martha  by  the  Day Julie  M.  Lipman 

The  Lady  of  the  Decoration Frances  Little 

The  Rough  Road William  J.  Locke 

The  Call  of  the  Wild Jack  London 

White  Fang Jack  London 

When  Knighthood  Was  in  Flower Charles  Major 

Peg  0'  My  Heart J.  Hartley  Manners 

Pandora's  Box John  Ames  Mitchell 

Of  Water  and  the  Spirit Margaret  Prescott  Montague 

Anne  of  Green  Gables Lucy  Maud  Montgomery 

Anne  of  Avon  Lee Lucy  Maud  Montgomery 

John  Halifax  Gentleman Dhiah  M.  Mulock 

Poor  Margaret  Kirby Kathleen  Norris 

493 


Bob,  Son  of  Battle Alfred  Olivant 

The  Scarlet  Pimpernel Baroness   Orczy 

The  Star  In  the  Window , Olive  Higgins  Prouty 

Bab — A  Sub-Deb Mary  Roberts  Rinehart 

Calvary  Alley Alice  Hegan  Rice 

Over  Periscope  Pond Esther  Root  and  Marjorie  Crocker 

The    Talisman Sir  Walter  Scott 

Quentin  Durward   Sir  Walter  Scott 

Tante Anne  Douglas  Sedgwick 

The  Charm  of  the  Impossible Margaret  Slattery 

Kennedy    Square F.  Hopkinson  Smith 

Peter    F.  Hopkinson  Smith 

Treasure  Island Robert  Louis  Stevenson 

St.   Ives Robert  Louis  Stevenson 

Dr.  Jekyll  and  Mr.  Hyde Robert  Louis  Stevenson 

Kidnapped    Robert  Louis  Stevenson 

The  Black  Arrow Robert  Louis  Stevenson 

Fanciful  Tales Frank  R.  Stockton 

The  Adventures  of  Captain  Horn Frank  R.  Stockton 

The  Casting  Away  of  Mrs.  Leek  and  Mrs.  Ayleshine 

Frank  R.  Stockton 

The  Lady  or  the  Tiger  (in  short  stories) Frank  R.  Stockton 

The  Transferred  Ghost  (in  short  stories). .  .Frank  R.  Stockton 
Story  of  Babette Ruth  McEnery  Stuart 

The  Conquest  of  Canaan Booth  Tarkington 

The  Magnificent  Ambersons Booth  Tarkington 

Monsieur   Beaucaire Booth  Tarkington 

Penrod    Booth  Tarkington 

Seventeen    Booth  Tarkington 

The    Newcomes William  Makepeace  Thackeray 

The   Virginians William  Makepeace  Thackeray 

Alice  of  Old  Vincennes Maurice  Thompson 

Just  Girls Ida   T.  Thurston 

Twenty-three  Tales Count  Leo  Tolstoi 

494 


Huckleberry   Finn Mark  Twain 

The  Prince  and  the  Pauper Mark  Twain 

Tom    Sawyer Mark  Twain 

Story  of  the  Other  Wise  Man Henry  Van  Dyke 

The  Wood  Carver  of  'Lympus Mary  E.  Waller 

Daddy   Long   Legs Jean  Webster 

Dear    Enemy Jean  Webster 

When  Patty  Went  to  College. Jean  Webster 

David   Harum Frank  Noyes  Westcott 

Hepsey    Burke Frank  Noyes  Westcott 

Rebecca  of  Sunnybrook  Farm Kate  Douglas  Wiggin 

Chronicles  of  Rebecca Kate  Douglas  Wiggin 

Story  of  Jean  Valjean    (translated  from  the  French) 

Sara  E.  Wiltse 

The  Virginian Owen  Wister 

Towards  Morning Ida  Alena  Ross  Wylie 

Swiss  Family  Robinson Johann  David  Wyss 


II.    STORIES  OF  FAMOUS  PEOPLE  AND 
INTERESTING  LANDS. 

Twenty  Years  at  Hull  House Jane  Addams 

My  Chinese  Days Gulielma  Alsop 

When  I  Was  a  Girl  in  Italy Marietta  Ambrosi 

The  Promised  Land Mary  Antin 

All  the  Days  of  My  Life Amelia  Barr 

Comrades  in  Service Margaret  Burton 

Letters  to  Betsy J.  L.  Cody 

Dr.  Luke  of  the  Labrador James  B.  Conolly 

Dr.  GrenfelFs  Parish James  B,  Conolly 

The  Life  of  Harriet  Beecher  Stowe Martha  Foote  Crow 

The  Life  of  Mary  Lyon Ruth  Bradford  Gilchrist 

The  Life  of  Frances  Willard A.  A.  Gordon 

495 


Ann  of  Ava. -  Ethel  Daniels  Hubbard 

The  Story  of  My  Life •  •  •  .Helen  Keller 

Mary  Slosser  of  Calabar. William  Pringle  Livingston 

Black  Sheep Jean  Kenyon  MacKenzie 

Louisa  May  Alcott 

Dreamer  and  Worker Belle  Moser 

The  Life  of  Robert  Louis  Stevenson Jacqueline  Overton 

How  the  Other  Half  Lives Jacob  Riis 

From  My  Youth  Up Margaret  Sangster 

The  Story  of  a  Pioneer Anna  Howard  Shaw 

One  Girl's  Influence Roebrt  E.  Speer 

My  Mother  and  I E.  G.  Stern 

He  Knew  Lincoln Ida  Tarbell 

Th'e  Diary  of  a  Prairie  Girl Eleanor  Gates  Tully 

III.  STORIES  ABOUT  THE  GREAT  WAR. 

A  Hilltop  on  the  Marne Mildred  Aldrich 

On  the  Edge  of  the  War  Zone , Mildred  Aldrich 

The  Peak  of  the  Load Mildred  Aldrich 

Deer  Godchild Margaret  Bernard— Edith  Serrell 

Ambulance  Number  464 Julien   H.    Bryan 

Ambulance  Number  10 Leslie  Buswell 

The  Day  of  Glory Dorothy  Canfield 

Carry  On — Letters  in  War-Time -Coningsby  Dawson 

The  Glory  of  the  Trenches Coningsby  Dawson 

Inside  the  Russian  Revolution Rheta  Childe  Dorr 

Over  the  Top Arthur  Guy  Empey 

A  Little  Gray  Home  In  France Helen  Davenport  Gibbons 

A  Red  Triangle  Girl   in  France 

High  Adventure James  Norman  Hall 

496 


The  First  Hundred  Thousand Ian  Hay 

My  Home  in  the  Field  of  Mercy Frances  Huard 

My  Home  in  the  Field  of  Honor .Frances  Huard 

With  Those  Who  Wait Frances  Huard 

Madamoiselle    Miss 

Women  in  Belgium Charlotte  Kellogg" 

The  Red  Cross  Barge Mrs.  Belloc-Lowndes 

The  Children  of  France  and  The  Red  Cross June  E.  Lucas 

Outwitting  the  Hun Patrick  A.   O'Brien 

Private   Peat Harold   Peat 

Trapped  in  Black  Russia Ruth  Pierce 

England's  Effort Mrs.  Humphrey  Ward 

IV.    POETRY,  PLAYS  AND   ESSAYS. 

Prunella — a    play Barker-Housman 

The   Silent  Isle Arthur  C.  Benson 

From  a  College  Window Arthur  C.  Benson 

The   Upton   Letters Arthur  C.  Benson 

A  Treasury  of  War  Poetry George  Herbert  Clarke 

The  Business  of  Being  a  Friend Bertha  Conde 

Christ  in  the  Poetry  of  Today Martha  Foote  Crow 

A  Heap  0'  Living , .  Edgar  A.  Guest 

Little  Journeys   to   the   Homes   of   Great  Authors 

Elbert  Hubbard 

My  Lady's  Dress — a  play Edward  Knoblauch 

Under  the  Trees  and  Elsewhere Hamilton  Wright  Mabie 

The  Betrothal  and  The  Blue  Bird — plays.  .Maurice  Maeterlinck 

Dream  Life  Ik  Marvel 

The  Mountains  of  California John  Muir 

Bees  in  Amber — verse John  Oxenhan. 

497 


Why  Go  to  College Alice  Freeman  Palmer 

Disraeli — a   play Louis  Napoleon  Parker 

Pomander   Walk — a   play Louis  Napoleon  Parker 

The  Piper — a  play Josephine  Preston  Peabody 

High  Tide — a  collection  of  verse Mrs.  Waldo  Richards 

A  Little  Book  of  Modem  Verse Jessie  L.  Rittenhouse 

Letters  to  His  Friends Forbes  Robinson 

Rhymes  of  a  Red  Cross  Man Robert  Service 

Othello    William  Shakespeare 

Romeo  and  Juliet William  Shakespeare 

Taming  of  the  Shrew William  -Shakespeare 

Across  the  Plains Robert  Louis   Stevenson 

The  Land  of  Heart's  Desire William  Butler  Yeats 


NEW  BOOK  FRIENDS— 1920-21 
If  You  Are  Twelve  and  Not  Yet  Fifteen  Choose  from  This  List 

I.    FICTION. 

Happy  House James   D.  Abbott 

Marian  Frear  Js  Summer Margaret  Ashmun 

The    Sampo    (Adventures   of   the   Finnish   Heroes) 

James  Baldwin 

The  Boy  Emigrants Noah  Brooks 

A  Little  Princess  (The  Whole  Story  of  Sara  Crewe) 

Frances  Hodgson  Burnett 
Giovanni  and  The  Other Frances  Hodgosn  Burnett 

A  Boy  of  Bruges Emile  and  Tita  Cammaerts 

Alice  in  Wonderland   Lewis  Carroll 

Through  the  Looking  Glass Lewis  Carroll 

What  Bird  Is  That Frank  M.  Chapman 

Green  Timber  Trail Willard  Gerard  Chapman 

Story  of  Sonny  Sahib Mrs.  Sarah  D.  Cotes 

498 


Six  to  Sixteen Mrs.  Juliana  H.  Ewing 

When  the  King  Came George  Hodges 

Indian  Why  Stories Frank  B.  Linderman 

The  Cruise  of  the  Dazzler. Jack  London 

Jim   Davis John    Masefield 

Cornelia Lucy  Pitch  Perkins 

Golden  Dicky Marshall   Saunders 

Five  Little  Peppers  and  How  They  Grew Margaret  Sidney 

Uncle  Tom's   Cabin Harriet  Beecher   Stowe 

Sue    Orcutt Charlotte  Vail 

The  Orcutt  Girls Charlotte  Vail 


II.     STORIES  OF  FAMOUS  PEOPLE  AND 

INTERESTING  LANDS. 
Czecho-Slovak  Fairy  Tales Parker  Fillmore 

Zerah — A  Tale  of  Old  Bethlehem Montayne  Perry 

The  Land  We  Live  In Overton  Price 

The  Story  of  King  Arthur  and  His  Knights Howard  Pyle 

The  Story  of  Sir  Launcelot  and  His  Companions . .  Howard  Pyle 

Bird  Woman  (Saca  jawea)  Story  of  Lewis  and  Clark 

James  W.  Schultz 


III.    POETRY. 

Christmas  Tales  and  Christmas  Verse *.  .  .Eugene  Field 

Poems    of    Childhood , Eugene  Field 

499 


If  You  Are  Fifteen  or  More  Years  Old  Choose  from  This  List. 

I.    FICTION. 

A  Man  for  the  Ages Irving  Bacheller 

Sister's   Vocation Josephine  Daskam  Bacon 

Smith  College  Stories Josephine  Daskam  Bacon 

Peter  and  Wendy J.  M.  Barrie 

My  Antonia Willa  Seibert  Gather 

What  Bird  Is  That Frank  M.  Chapman 

Out  of  the  Shadow Eose  Cohen 

The   Doctor Ralph  Connor 

Man  Prom  Glengary Ralph  Connor 

Soldiers  of  Fortune Richard  Harding  Davis 

Old  Chester  Tales Margaret  Deland 

The  Return  of  Sherlock  Holmes .' A.  Conan  Doyle 

The  Three  Musketeers Alexander  Dumas 

Christmas,    a    Story Zona  Gale 

Friendship   Village Zona  Gale 

The  January  Girl Joslyn  Gray 

The  Hall  With  Doors Louise  Hasbrouck 

The  Mississippi  Bubble Emerson  Hough 

Westward,   Ho Charles    Kingsley 

Kim    Rudyard  Kipling 

Sergeant  Jane Margaret  T.  Matlack 

Rainbow  Valley Lucy  Maud  Montgomery 

Stickeen John    Muir 

500 


Bobbie,  General  Manager .Olive  Higgins  Prouty 

The  Crimson  Patch Augusta  Hue!!  Seaman 

Lad—A  Dog Albert  Payson  Terhune 

Pudd'n  Head  Wilson Mark  Twain 

Out  of  Doors  in  the  Holy  Land Henry  Van  Dyke 

Mysterious   Island Jules   Verne 

Twenty  Thousand  Leagues  Under  the  Sea Jules  Verne 

The  Blazed  Trail Edward  Stewart  White 

II.  STORIES  OF  FAMOUS  PEOPLE  AND 

INTERESTING  LANDS. 

American  Women  in  Civic  Work Helen  Christine  Bennett 

Little   Grandmother   of   the   Russian   Revolution 

Catherine  Breshkovsky 

Don  Quixote  (retold  by  Judge  Parry) Miguel  de  Cervantes 

Boy's  Life  of  Roosevelt Hermann   Hagedorn 

Boy's   Life   of   Lincoln Helen   Nicolay 

Boy's  Life  of  Mark  Twain Albert  Bigelow  Paine 

Heroines  of  Service. M.  R.  Parkman 

Heroes    of   Today M.  R»  Parkman 

An  American  in  the  Making M.  E.  Ravage 

Pilgrims  of  Today Mary  Hazelton  Wade 

The  House  on  Henry  Street Lillian  D.  Waid 

Up  From  Slavery Booker  T.  Washington 

III.  STORIES  ABOUT  THE  GREAT  WAR. 

Girl's  Book  of  the  Red  Cross Mary  Kendall  Hyde 

Tales  of  the  Great  War Henry  Newbolt 

The  Story  of  the  Great  War Roland  G.  Usher 

501 


IV.     POETRY,  PLAYS  AND  ESSAYS. 

Letters  From  China  and  Japan John  Dewey 

Abraham  Lincoln^  a  play John  Drinkwater 

The  Rocking  Horse Christopher  Morley 

A  Little  Book  of  American  Poets Jessie  B.  Rittenhouse 

Letters  to  His  Children Theodore  Roosevelt 

A  Canticle  for  the  Year Elvira  J.  Slack 

Dream  and  Voices Grace  Hyde  Trine 

The  Valley  of  Vision Henry  Van  Dyke 

Your  secretary  or  corps  adviser  may  add  to  this  list  books 
which  are  of  especial  interest  to  you  because  they  have  been 
written  about  the  particular  part  of  the  country  In  which  you 
live.  Every  Philadelphia  girl  wants  to  read  "Hugh  Wynne," 
and  every  California  girl  will  enjoy  "The  Gray  Dawn." 

This  list  does  not  include  all  the  books  by  many  authors 
which  you  will  want  to  read.  Therefore,  any  additional'  bpoks 
written  by  the  same  authors  or  others  may  be  counted  on 
this  list  provided  your  secretary  of  corps  adviser  sends  the 
names  to  your  Field  Girls'  Work  Secretary  for  approval. 


Write  out  a  list  of  the  books  you  have  read  and  give  it  to  your  adviser 
or  secretary.  It  will  be  sent  to  the  Field  Girls'  Work  Secretary  of  the 
National  Young  Women's  Christian  Associations.  Then  the  book  plates 
which  are  sent  you  for  every  book  you  have  read  will  be  forwarded  to  you. 

Any  of  these  books  may  be  ordered  from  The  Woman's  Press,  600  Lex- 
ington Avenue,  New  York  City. 


502 


CHAPTER   XII. 

VOCATIONAL   GUIDANCE   EMPHASES   IN   GIRL   RESERVE   PROGRAMS 
"Life  is  a  mission,  and  not  a  career." 

L    The  Purpose  of  Vocational  Guidance. 

ANY  programs  which  are  designed  for  }teen-age  girls  must 
recognize  that  these  years  are  supremely  important  in  de- 
termining the  ideals,  habits  and  attitudes  toward  life  which  will 
prevail  throughout  maturity.  In  view  of  the  fact  that  women's 
part  in  the  work  of  the  world  constantly  demands  higher 
standards  of  achievement,  there  must  be  incorporated  into  the 
programs  for  younger  girls  such  elements  of  vocational  guid- 
ance as  will  prepare  them  gradually,  yet  steadily,  for  the  life 
of  productive  usefulness  which  is  the  rightful  heritage  of  every 
woman  today. 

The  purpose  of  such  a  program  should  be  to  use  every  nat- 
ural means — information  about  occupations,  knowledge  of  what 
women  are  doing,  the  inspiration  of  personal  contact  with  those 
who  have  been  truly  successful  as  pioneers — to  create  an  atti- 
tude toward  work  which  shall  be  truly  Christian,  and  shall  pro- 
vide girls  with  facts  and  ideals  adequate  to  stand  the  tests  of 
workaday  experience. 

Such  a  program  should  work  in  the  closest  harmony  with 
any  school  or  community  movements  for  vocational  guidance. 
Available  resources  for  securing  vocational  information  or  coun- 
sel should  be  studied  before  adopting  a  club  program,  especially 
the  views  of  school  authorities,  state  or  municipal  employment 
services,  or  any  other  reputable  organizations.  With  all  of 
these,  the  vocational  guidance  emphases  of  Girl  Reserve  Clubs 
should  be  to  the  fullest  extent  cooperative,  and  in  many  cases 
it  may  be  suggestive  of  further  service  not  as  yet  developed  in 
a  given  community. 

503 


II.    Standards  for  Vocational  Guidance  Emphases. 

Before  a  program  can  be  drafted,  the  standards  to  which  it 
should  conform  must  be  clearly  thought  out  and  firmly  grasped. 
Every  part  of  the  eventual  program  must  do  its  part  in  making 
these  standards  really  effective  in  the  living  of  real  girls. 

A.  The  individual  judgment  of  girls  must  be  the  decisive 
factor  in  choice  of  work.    No  tests  of  wisdom  of  others  can  take 
from    each    girl   the  responsibility   for   her   free    choice.     Her 
choice,  however,  cannot  really  be  free  unless  she  knows  many 
things  about  herself,  as  well  as  about  the  various  kinds  of  work 
to  which  she  feels  drawn.    In  order,  then,  that  the  judgment  of 
individuals  may  be  wise,  there  is  need  that  each  girl   should 
learn  to  study  her  own  talents  and  capacities  and  to  realize  that 
every  girl  has   some  gift  awaiting  expression.     Furthermore, 
each  must  help  the  other  to  know  that  work,  which  is  useful  to 
society  and  satisfying  to  an  individual,  is  really  worth  doing, 
regardless  of  conventional  estimates.    In  addition,  all  the  avail- 
able resources  of  scientific  vocational  guidance  should  be  made 
use  of  by  each  individual  throughout  her  occupational  life. 

B.  The   motives    underlying-   the   choice   of   work   must   be 
right.    Work  which  is  worth  doing  must  call  into  operation  im- 
pulses which  cannot  be  satisfied  by  a  monetary  return  alone. 
The  desire  for  self-expression,  for  creation,  is  inborn  in  every 
person,  and  work  which  is  satisfying  must  realize  it.     Often  a 
narrow  and  partial  view  of  one's  work  prevents  the  right  opera- 
tion of  this  motive.     Usefulness   is  another  vital   motive  for 
work.    The  fact  that  human  need  is  satisfied  by  the  results  of 
one's  activities  gives  meaning  to  what  one  does,  and  finally  the 
fact  of  being  a  contributing  member  of  society  adds  a  tang  of 
joy  that  compensates  for  fatigue  and  the  drudgery  that  attends 
every  worth-while  task. 

C.  Education,  in  its  widest  meaning,  and  as  a   continuing 
factor  in  development,  is  vital  to  a  satisfying  experience  as  a 
worker.    Girls  in  school  must  be  aided  in  seeing  the  importance 
to  their  future  of  right  habits  of  application,  and  of  many  sub- 

504 


jects  whose  value  the  eyes  of  youth  cannot  see.  Every  girl 
must  be  encouraged  to  stay  In  school  as  long  as  her  mental 
growth  keeps  pace  with  her  studies.  Girls  who  have  left  school 
for  various  reasons  must  be  inspired  to  return  if  possible,  or  at 
all  events,  to  continue  their  studies  otherwise.  Beginning  thus 
with  a  solid  general  school  training,  the  necessity  for  special 
training  for  vocations,  must  be  emphasized,  bearing  in  mind  the 
grave  handicap  which  rests  upon  the  mass  of  unskilled  workers 
— too  many  of  them  women — who  are  their  own  worst  foes.  In 
righteous  enthusiasm  for  more  and  better  technical  training  for 
girls,  it  must  not  be  forgotten  that  the  rarest  gift  of  an  educa- 
tion which  helps  the  human  spirit  to  grow,  is  a  breadth  of  cul- 
ture which  sees  the  meaning  of  life  in  terms  of  creative  activ- 
ity, and  redeems  the  humdrum  of  drudgery  by  an  understand- 
ing of  the  productive  process.  So  educated,  a  woman  is  the  peer 
of  the  great  souls  of  all  the  ages,  and  has  at  her  disposal  in- 
finite spiritual  resources. 

D.  Success  is  judged  not  by  the  standard  of  the  market- 
place, money  and  reputation,  but  by  the  twin  standard  of  indi- 
vidual development  and  social  utility.  A  girl  can  be  called  suc- 
cessful in  an  occupation,  not  if  she  makes  a  good  salary  alone, 
but  if  the  work  offers  her  the  chance  to  grow  in  power  and  to 
develop  in  her  the  latent  capacities  which  must  die  if  not  used. 
If  work  tends  to  be  destructive  to  health — physical,  mental, 
moral  or  spiritual,  it  should  be  rejected,  regardless  of  scale  of 
pay.  Furthermore,  the  test  of  usefulness  to  the  community  will 
help  to  judge  the  success  or  failure  of  one's  work.  So  closely 
are  all  people  bound  together  to-day  that  all  progress  must  be 
measured  by  its  effects  upon  the  well-being  of  society.  Suc- 
cess for  the  individual  cannot  longer  be  purchased  at  the  cost  of 
loss  for  all,  and  the  standard  for  individual  success  must  be 
brought  into  harmony  with  the  necessity  for  advance  together. 

IIL    Content  of  Vocational  Guidance  Program. 

Each  item  of  this  program  is  in  essence  concerned  with  sup- 
plying information,  but  it  must  be  information  with  a  differ- 

505 


ence,  and  the  difference  the  inspiration  to  apply  personally  the 
facts  at  hand.  Only  by  making-  girls  enthusiastic  about  the 
knowledge  which  is  offered  can  results  be  secured. 

A.  What  each  girl  should  know  about  herself. 

Without  encouraging  introspection  and  undue  self-analysis, 
the  first  step  toward  an  intelligent  choice  of  any  kind  of  work, 
must  be  for  each  girl  an  understanding  of  herself — her  likes  and 
dislikes,  her  weak  and  her  strong  points  of  character,  her  ability 
in  some  directions  as  evidenced  by  indications  that  may  prove 
prophetic.  A  frank  facing  together  in  club  groups  of  the  influ- 
ence of  certain  habits,  and  the  price  exacted  for  some  practices 
which  appear  harmless,  will  help  many  a  girl  to  begin  early  to 
steer  her  life  rather  than  let  it  drift.  Skillful  leadership  and 
a  wise  blending  in  program  with  other  elements  will  keep  this 
emphasis  from  becoming  morbidly  introspective. 

Discussion  centered  around  such  a  question  as  "How  Shall 
I  Discover  Myself"  will  open  the  whole  subject  and  lead  natur- 
ally to  the  habit  of  planning  one's  vocational  life  rationally  on 
the  basis  of  individual  choice  rather  than  upon  the  accident  of 
chance  contact  or  occasional  information. 

B.  What  girls  should  know  about  occupations. 

This  topic  opens  the  whole  question  of  the  extent  to  which 
there  can  be  laid  a  wise — because  wide — foundation  in  facts 
about  occupations  for  many  later  choices.  Much  harm  is  done 
by  assuming  that  the  purpose  of  this  part  of  the  program  is  to 
attract  or  repel  individual  choices,  or  to  play  the  part  of  director 
of  other  people's  lives.  On  the  contrary,  every  girl  should  have 
a  wide  and  basic  knowledge  about  every  type,  a  knowledge 
which  is  first  of  all  a  part  of  intelligent  citizenship  and  neces- 
sary for  membership  in  a  social  order,  and  secondarily  voca- 
tional in  intent.  Every  girl  should  know  about  the  great  stand- 
ard occupations,  industrial,  commercial  and  professional — to  use 
a  familiar  classification — upon  which  her  own  comfort  is  built. 
Such  understanding  will  become  part  of  her  mental  equipment, 

506 


and  will  later  Influence  her  choice,  often  unconsciously.  The 
danger  of  supposing  that  an  irrevocable  choice  should  be  made 
early  is  so  great  that  leaders  should  remember  that  a  certain 
amount  of  experimentation  is  necessary  and  desirable,  that  cer- 
tain aptitudes  ripen  comparatively  late,  and  that,  however  hard 
it  may  be  to  make  a  decisive  choice  of  vocation,  only  good 
can  come  from  a  catholic  familiarity  with  the  field  of  occupa- 
tions as  a  whole. 

Besides  such  general  information,  particular  attention  should 
be  given  to  occupations  which  come  within  easy  range  of  possi- 
bility for  the  girls  in  any  particular  group.  Local  industries, 
the  custom  of  a  community,  the  existence  of  certain  schools  or 
colleges,  give  favorable  consideration  to  certain  vocational  op- 
portunities, and  any  informational  work  should  take  these  fac- 
tors into  account.  The  more  immediate  and  definite  the  facts 
can  be  made,  the  more  useful  will  they  be. 

C.  Educational  opportunity  for  every  girl. 

The  untrained  or  half-trained  woman  who  grows  steadily 
less  and  less  employable  as  she  grows  older,  and  who  has  at 
last  to  take  only  the  most  hopeless  tasks — such  is  the  discourag- 
ing problem  of  every  employment  worker.  Such  wasteful  lives 
can  only  be  prevented  in  youth.  The  greatest  chance  for  voca- 
tional usefulness  is  surely  to  hammer  steadily  upon  the  need  for 
more  education,  more  training,  a  wider  background  of  mental 
knowledge  against  which  to  play  a  woman's  part  in  the  world  of 
work.  Every  group  needs  the  advice,  but  of  course  there  will 
be  wide  differences  in  the  program  suggested. 

With  girls  who  are  still  in  school,  emphasis  should  be  placed 
upon  remaining  in  school  as  long  as  possible,  certainly  through 
high  school.  Special  help  may  be  needed  in  individual  cases, 
and  should  be  easily  secured. 

In  facing  the  eternal  question — after  high  school,  what? — 
several  factors  are  to  be  considered.  Many  girls  go  to  college, 
normal  or  special  school;  many  others  could  do  the  same  if  the 
necessary  willingness  to  work  could  be  aroused,  and  the  indrf- 

507 


ference  overcome  which  is  sometimes  individual,  sometimes  a 
family  affair.  The  ways  by  which  girls  can  be  helped  to  secure 
real  training  beyond  high  school  are  multiform — a  knowledge 
of  scholarships  available,  lists  of  schools  where  a  girl  can 
work  her  way  through,  loan  funds  to  make  a  start,  summer 
work  to  earn  money,  special  coaching  to  overcome  slight  defi- 
ciencies, information  about  the  best  schools  for  special  training 
— these  are  only  some  of  the  ways  by  which  girls  who  are  hesi- 
tating on  the  brink  of  going  to  work  prematurely,  as  the  easiest 
thing,  can  get  fresh  courage. 

How  can  the  door  of  educational  opportunity  swing  wide 
for  the  girl  who  i£  already  a  wage  earner.  She  has  a  fund  of 
experience  about  certain  jobs,  but  usually  lacks  the  education 
to  make  a  change  to  a  more  congenial  occupation  or  to  rise 
further  in  the  one  she  has  chosen.  She  should  be  helped  to  find 
the  education  which  will  best  serve  her  case.  It  may  be  that 
she  can  go  back  into  school,  and  with  her  experience,  qualify 
for  a  more  responsible  position.  Perhaps,  she  needs  special 
vocational  training  which  a  night  school,  a  Y.  W.  C.  A.  or 
some  other  school  can  give  her.  Certain  it  is  that  no  girl  in 
her  teens  can  safely  call  her  education  finished  without  facing 
the  consequences  in  narrowing  opportunity  and  starved  men- 
tality. 

D.  Information  about  Placement  Bureaus. 

After  choice  and  training-  comes  the  old  problem  of  finding 
a  place  to  put  knowledge  into  practice  in  doing  a  piece  of  work. 
The  whole  question  of  employment,  or  placement  is  in  such  an 
unsettled  condition  to-day  in  this  country  that  few  general  rules 
can  be  laid  down.  Some  cities  have  state  or  municipal  bureaus; 
some  Young  Women's  Christian  Associations  have  employment 
departments;  there  is  a  group  of  Bureaus  of  Occupation  for 
Trained  Women  doing  professional  placement.  Information 
about  these  and  other  agencies  which  are  available  should  be 
kept  up  to  date,  and  girls  should  be  informed  about  local  agen- 
cies which  are  not  trustworthy. 

508 


E.  Legislation  Affecting  the  Situation  m  the  United  States. 

1.  The  Vocational   Education  Act    (Smith-Hughes  Act), 
a  federal  bill  in  effect  March,  1918,  provides  federal 
grants,   in   cooperation   with   equal   state    grants,   for 
salaries  of  teachers,  and  for  training-  teachers  in  agri- 
culture,  trade   and   industrial   subjects,   and  in  home 
economics.     Eight  states  had  a  state  system  of  voca- 
tional  education   in   operation   when   the  federal  law 
was   passed.      More   than  half   the   states   have   since 
that  time  passed  laws  accepting  the  provisions  of  this 
act. 

2.  All    Laws    Bearing    on    Child    Labor    and    compulsory 
school  attendance  affect  the  situation. 

(a)  Pending   Federal   Legislation. 

(b)  State  Laws  of  Health  Insurance,  Minimum  Wage, 
.  Hours  of  Work,  Child  Labor,  Prohibited  Work. 

P.  Conditions    In   the   Local    Community   Which    Should    Be 
Known  to  Every  Worker  With  Girls, 
1.    Occupational  Information. 

(a)  Occupations  open  in  the  community. 

(b)  Educational  value  of  the  work  for  young  workers: 
Are  there  blind-alley  occupations? 

Are   there   facilities   for   training    in   factory   or 
shop? 

(c)  Regularity    of    employment:      Is    there    seasonal 
work  and  therefore  the  possibility  of  unemploy- 
ment? 

(d)  Usual  hours   of  work — daily,   weekly,   extent   of 
overtime,   vacations,   lunch   periods,   night   work, 
rest  periods. 

(f)  Wages:    Minimum  and  maximum  wages  with  rate 
of  increase: 

How  do  the  girls'  wages  compare  with  the  cost 
of  living  in  the  community? 

509 


What    is    the    comparative    beginning    wage    of 

trained  and  untrained  worker? 
Is  the  yearly  income  fifty-two  times  the  weekly 
wage?     How  much  does  the  girl  lose  through 
shut  downs  and  other  unemployment? 
(g)  Physical  conditions:     Positions  at  work,  possible 
danger  from   any   unusual   conditions,  from   ma- 
chines or  materials  used;  conditions  of  heat,  light, 
space,    ventilation,    sanitary    arrangements     and 
supervision;  probable  effect  on  wealth  and  morals 
of  the  workers. 

IV.    The  Application  of  Vocational  Guidance  to  Regular  Pro- 
gram Work. 

Each  club  will  naturally  have  its  own  idea  of  how  best  to 
incorporate  vocational  guidance  into  its  work ;  each  year's  activ- 
ity should  include  the  following:  regular  program,  conference, 
personal  counsel,  graphic  publicity. 

A.  Vocational   Guidance  in  the  regular  program. 

There  are  many  opportunities  to  introduce  subjects  of  voca- 
tional interest  into  the  regular  meetings  of  a  club.  For  ex- 
ample, if  the  club  has  been  reading  the  lives  of  famous  women, 
the  vocations  they  have  chosen  make  a  fascinating  study.  Or, 
by  taking  the  women  in  any  city  or  town  who  have  been  suc- 
cessful in  business  or  professions — could  not  a  discussion  of  the 
human  interest  in  their  success  show  real  values?  If  some  local 
industry  employs  women,  a  series  of  visits  will  supply  material 
for  a  study  of  that  occupation.  Many  ways  of  relating  the 
actual  local  opportunities  to  program  purposes  will  occur  to  a 
live  program  committee. 

The  following  suggestions  regarding  possible  topics  for  dis- 
cussion at  regular  club  meetings  may  be  of  service. 

1.   The  "A-l"  American  girl  to-day:  her  opportunities  and 
responsibilities : 

510 


a.  Strong  body  and  alert  mind. 

b.  Steadiness. 

c.  Need  for  directed  education. 

2.  Uncle  Sam's  interest  in  girls. 

a.  Vocational   Education  legislation. 

b.  Work  of  the  Children's  Bureau. 

3.  What  is  vocational  training: 

a.  General  education  plus.  (Illustration  •  a  steno- 
grapher is  of  little  value  unless  she  can  spell.) 

4.  How  to  choose  a  job. 

a.  Does  one  choose  a  position  because  one's  friend  is 
working  there  or  because  one  is  fitted  for  it  and 
there  is  need  for  such  work? 

b.  Explain  a  "blind-alley"  job. 

5.  Fitness  for  a  job. 

a.  Age,  health,  relation  between  health  and  work. 
Mental  and  physical  tests  for  efficiency  are  neces- 
sary for  girls.  Emphasize  some  of  the  things  girls 
do  which  are  detrimental  to  their  health: 

(1)  Wearing  high-heeled  shoes  while  at  work. 

(2)  Eating  wrong  food. 

(3)  Eating  between  meals. 

6.  Importance  of  women's  work  to-day: 

a.  Show  tremendous  need  for  trained  minds  and 
sound  bodies  in  this  reconstruction  period.  Many 
of  the  boys  and  girls  of  Europe  were  called  upon 
to  die  for  their  country.  The  boys  and  girls  of 
America  are  being  called  upon  to  live  and  live  to 
the  fullest.  (Suggestions  for  such  a  talk  will  be 
found  in  Hermann  Hagedorn's  book — "You  are  the 
Hope  of  the  World.")  Secure  it  from  the  Womans 
Book  Shop,  600  Lexington  -Avenue,  New  York  City. 

7.  Education  for  social  and  personal  efficiency. 

8.  Vocational  opportunities  in  your  own  community. 

9.  Professional   opportunities  for  women. 

511 


10.  Out-of-door  opportunities. 

11.  Some  problems  in  economic  life  that  you  feel  girls  are 
facing  to-day. 

12.  How  do  you  use  your  spare  time. 

13.  The  value  of  reading.     Are  the  books  you  read  help- 
ful, or  merely  amusing? 

14.  A  discussion  of  the  advantages  and  disadvantages  of 
various  kinds  of  work  for  women. 

15.  Study  of  the  lives  of  famous  women. 

16.  Responsibilities  of  citizenship. 

17.  The  woman  movement  and  education. 

18.  The  problem  of  the  untrained  girl-worker  in  a  city. 

19.  Personal  accounts,  and  budgets. 

Sometimes  the  vocational  material  which  is  discussed 
under  the  topics  given  above  may  be  illustrated  by 
tableaux,  charades  and  short  plays. 
If  an  "honor  system"  is  being  used  in  the  clubs  it  is 
possible  to  arouse  interest  in  vocational  work  by  al- 
lowing so  many  points  for: 

a.  A  clever  poster  illustrating  some  idea  in  vocational 
work. 

b.  A   poem,    theme,   play    or    charade    on    vocational 
work. 

B.  Vocational  conferences. 

Everybody  needs  occasionally  to  meet  in  a  larger  social 
group  than  ordinary,  to  realize  how  general  are  the 
problems  that  confront  us  to-day.  A  vocational  confer- 
ence is  an  excuse  for  gathering  together  girls  from  dif- 
ferent schools  or  cities,  or  non-club  members,  and  certain 
elemental  inspirations  can  be  most  readily  evoked  under 
such  conditions.  Such  a  gathering  can  also  call  in  out- 
standing speakers  and  leaders,  and  may  well  form  a 
climax  to  a  number  of  club  meetings  on  vocational  topics 
and  the  starting  point  of  more. 

A  vocational  conference  should  include  recreation,  a 
"banquet"  all  together,  some  inspirational  talks,  some 

512 


short  informational  talks  by  women  who  know  special 
occupations  well,  and  as  much  opportunity  as  possible 
for  conferences  between  leaders  and  the  girls  in  small 
groups  or  individually.  The  conference  should  send  every 
girl  away  determined  to  know  more  about  her  vocational 
possibilities,  and  eager  to  serve  in  her  vocation  to  the 
utmost  of  her  ability.  In  planning"  the  meetings,  em- 
phasis should  always  be  laid  upon  the  importance  of 
training  and  the  necessity  of  individual  choice  ultimately. 
In  no  case  should  the  conference  alone  be  regarded  as 
a  satisfactory  meeting  of  the  need  for  vocational  guid- 
ance. It  should  be  preceded  and  followed  by  club  study 
and  discussion. 

1.    Suggested  Plans  for  an  All  Day  Vocational  Conference. 

Program   One. 

10:00 A.M.    Opening  Exercises. 
10: 15 A.M.   Vocational  Opportunities  for  Girls. 
11: 15  A.M.    Short    addresses    by    representatives    of    lines    of 
work   open   to   women    (i.   e.   millinery,   teaching, 
advertising). 

11:45-12:00    Music  and  Games. 
12:00-12:30    Informal    Discussion:      More    Training,    why    and 

where  to  get  it. 
12:30-  1;30   Luncheon. 
1:30-  2:00    Recess. 
2:00-  3:00   Vocations  from  a  GirPs  Point  of  View  and  from 

Schoolmen's  Point  of  View. 
3:00-  4:00   Movie  Reels  and  Stereopticon. 
4:00-  5:00    (Open  Forum:     "What  I  Want  to   do   With  My 
Life";  "The  Get- Ahead  Girl";  or  group  interviews 
with  specialists.) 
5:00-  6:00    Rest  Hour. 

6:00    Banquet — Toasts,     Cheers,     Songs     and     Informal 
Talks. 

Final  Talk: 

513 


Program 

10:00-10:15  'Getting  acquainted  and  community  sing,  with  in- 
troduction of  leaders. 

10:15-10:45    Opening  talk;   Vocational  opportunities  for  Girls. 
10:45-12:15    Group     meetings,     on     different     vocations,     with 

specialists. 

12:15-  1:00   Time  for  making  appointments. 
1:00-  2:80   Food  and  fun  for  inspirational  talk. 
2:30-  3:30    Group  meetings. 

3:30-  5:00    (Personal  interviews  or  open  Forum  on  "What  to 
do  with  My  Life.) 
Devotions. 
Address  of  Welcome  and  Introduction  of  Leaders. 

2.    Suggested  Plans  for  Two -Day  Vocational  Conference. 
Program  One. 

Saturday. 

11:00    Community  Singing. 
11:15   Who's  Who  at  Our  Conference. 
11:30    Welcome 
12:00    Luncheon. 
1:30    Recreation. 

2:00   Vocational  Opportunities  for 'Girls. 
3:00    Game — Discovering  Myself. 
4:00    Recreation. 
•8:00   Banquet — .Baptist  Church,  Hostess. 

Informal  Program — Songs,  Cheers  and  Toasts. 
7:30    Open  Meeting. 

Sunday. 

Morning — With  the  Hostess. 
Conference  Leaders  Guests  in  Local  Pulpits. 
2:30    Girls'   Vesper    Service. 
Avocation. 
Closing  Address. 

514 


Program  Two. 
Saturday  Morning. 

10:00    Registration. 
10:30    Conference  Singing". 
Acquaintance   Stunt. 
11:00    Opening  Session. 
Conference  Hymn 
Devotions. 

Address  of  Welcome  and  Introduction  of  Leaders. 
11:20    Address. 

11:45    Delegates  taken  to  hostesses. 
Saturday  Afternoon, 
2:00    Devotional   Singing. 

2=15    Vocations    for    Girls    from    the    Girl's     Point     of 
View. 

Questions  and  Answers. 
3:45    Organized  Games  on  the  Playground. 
6:00    Supper  served  by  the  Domestic  Science  Department. 

School  Cheers  or  Song  from  each  delegation. 
7:30    "The  Spirit  of  Sisterhood." 
A  Pageant.    High  School. 
Club  of  the  Y.  W.  C.  A. 

8:00    Vocations   for   Girls   from   the    Schoolman's   Point 
of  View. 

Sunday  Morning. 
Church    and    Sunday    School    with    hostesses,    or 

church  of  preference. 
Sunday  Afternoon. 

3:00    Vespers  and  Inspirational  Talk. 
7:30    Union  Rally  in  Town  Hall. 

Program  Three. 
Program  of  Conference. 

Friday  Evening. 

5:00-  6:00    Registration  of  Delegates. 
6:30    Banquet — M.  E.  Church. 

515 


Community  Singing  and  Toasts.     Toast  Mistress: 

(For  Delegates  only.) 
8:00    Evening  Session. 

High  School. 

Presiding  Chairman:    — » 

President  of  County  Y.  W.  C.  A. 

— — ,  Supervising  Principal. 

Solo. 

Greetings  from   the    County. 

Address. 

Greetings  from  Princeton. 
Saturday. 

Morning — High  School. 
9:30    Songs. 
10:00-12:00   After  School— What? 

Talks  on  Vocations  for  Girls. 

Time  given  for  informal  discussion  and  questions. 

Noon—Luncheon.     M.  E.  Church. 

Altamont  Camp  Rally. 

Songs,  Pictures. 

Afternoon — High  School. 
2:00    Play,  "ThV  Challenge  of  Democracy,"  presented  by 

Rondo  Club. 
3:00    Closing  Session. 

Address, 

Conference  Picture. 

Program  Four. 

Saturday. 
11:00    Singing. 
11:15    Acquaintance  Stunts. 
11:30   Welcome. 

Instructions. 

12:00    Luncheon  with  Hostess. 
2:00    Movie  Reels. 
2:30    Singing. 


2:50    Talk:     Vocations  Open  to  Youn,^  Women. 
3:30    Round   Table  Discussions. 

A  woman   doctor,   a  nurse,   a   teacher,   a  business 

woman,    a    home    economics    secretary    present    to 

lead  these    discussions, 
4:00    Recreation. 
5:00    Rest  Hour. 
6:15    Banquet. 

Toasts. 
8:00    Entertainment, 

Address. 

Sunday  Morning  with  the  Hostess. 
2:15    Inspirational  Talk."     - 

Program   Five. 
Y.  W.  C.  A. 
Vocational    Conference    Opening    Session. 

Friday,  8:00  P.  M.     Y.  M.  C.  A.  Auditorium. 
Address  World  Fellowship. 
Saturday  Morning  Session — 9:30-11:15. 

9:30  Devotions. 

9:45  The  Business  of  Home  Making. 

10:00  ^Social  Service  Work. 

10:15  Physical  Training  and  Play-Grounds,  with,  demon- 
stration. 

10:35  Opportunities  in  Business. 

11:00  Medicine  as  a  Profession. 

11:15  The  Y.  "W.  C.  A. 

11:30  Interviews. 

Lunch  at  12:30. 

Saturday    Afternoon    Session — 1:45-2:30. 
1:45    The  Standard  College. 
2:00    Home  Economics. 
2:15    Scientific  Farming. 
4:00    Hike. 

517 


Sunday  Session. 
Sunday  School. 
11:00    Church  Service. 

C.  Personal  Counsel. 

The  temptation  is  great  to  rely  overmuch  upon  books  and 
speeches,  and  to  ignore  the  fact  that  in  practice  most  voca- 
tional guidance  is  done  by  personal  counsel/  some  conscious, 
much  entirely  unconscious.  Something  can  be  done  for  club 
girls  by  proper  programs  and  conferences,  but  the  greatest 
service  of  all  is  to  bring  girls  individually  into  touch  with 
women  who  have  succeeded  in  their  vocations,  and  whose  ideals 
of  service  are  worthy  to  inspire  younger  women.  Such  women 
should  be  used  in  conferences  and  as  leaders  wherever  possible, 
and  in  addition,  club  advisers  should  be  alert  to  know  when 
individual  girls  need  the  friendly  counsel  of  certain  women  as 
they  face  vocational  choices. 

D.  Graphic  Publicity. 

It  would  seem  self-evident  that  the  eye  as  well  as  the  ear 
should  be  enlisted  to  impress  vocational  facts.  Posters  giving 
information,  pictures  of  interesting  occupations,  films  showing 
certain  processes,  and  other  forms  of  publicity  can  be  used 
in  the  school  or  Association  assembly  room  or  on  club  bulletin 
boards. 

When  a  conference  is  being  planned,  exhibits  of  pictures  and 
catalogs  from  advanced  schools  and  colleges  may  be  arranged, 
and  a  part  of  every  conference  should  be  a  display  in  a  club 
room  of  catalogs  from  the  colleges  and  schools  to  which  it  is 
desirable  that  girls  shall  go.  Posters  made  by  a  club,  showing 
local  opportunities,  excite  more  interest  than  general  posters. 
To  be  really  effective,  this  publicity  should  be  continuous,  with 
changes  of  exhibits  and  posters  whenever  possible. 

A  well-arranged  poster  exhibit  is  the  most  grapMc  means 
for  presenting  such  a  subject  as  vocational  guidance. 

The  National  Child  Welfare  Association,  70  Fifth  Avenue, 
New  York  City,  has  a  series  called  "The  Child  and  His  Voca- 

518 


tions";  and  one  "The  A-l  American  Girl."  Bulletins  illustrating 
these  series  and  containing  Information  about  the  number  of 
posters  in  each  and  the  cost  will  be  sent  upon  request. 

A  series  of  posters  has  been  prepared  by  the  Educational 
Committee  of  the  Department  of  Research  and  Method,  Na- 
tional Board  Young  Women's  Associations,  and  may  be  obtained 
from  the  Bureau  for  Work  with  Younger  Girls,  600  Lexington 
Avenue,  New  York  City. 

V.  General  Resources  for  Vocational  Information. 

Because  the  question  of  Vocational  Guidance  and  Informa- 
tion is  so  much  in  flux  to-day,  it  is  particularly  necessary  for 
Girls'  Work  Secretaries  and  advisers  to  keep  themselves  in- 
formed regarding  present  and  future  developments  by  con- 
stant contact  with  material  from  the  following  sources.  Much 
of  the  most  valuable  material  is  to  be  found  in  pamphlets  which 
are  issued  by  these  agencies. 

ORGANIZATIONS   SUPPLYING  VOCATIONAL   INFORMATION 

Children's  Bureau,  Washington,  D.  C. 

Bureau  of  Vocational  Information,  2  W,  43rd  St.,  New  York 

City. 

Federal  Board  for  Vocational  Education,  Washington,  D.  C. 
General   Education   Committee*  National  Board,  Y.  W.   C.  A., 

600  Lexington  Ave.,  New  York  City. 
National  Child  Welfare  Association,  70  Fifth  Ave.,  New  York 

City. 
National    Child    Labor    Committee,    105    East    Twenty-second 

Street,  New  York  City. 
National   Society  for  Vocational  Education,    140   W.  42nd   St., 

New  York  City. 
United  States  Department  of  Labor,  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics, 

Washington,  D.  C. 

Russell  Sage  Foundation,  130  E.  22nd  St.,  New  York  City. 
The  Survey  Associates,  112  E.  19th  St.,  New  York  City. 
U.  S.  Bureau  of  Education,  Washington,  D.  C. 
Woman  Citizen  Corporation,  171  Madison  Ave.,  New  York  City. 

519 


Women's  Educational  and  Industrial  Union,  264   Boylston  St., 

Boston,  Mass. 
Women's  National  Farm  and  Garden  Association,  White  Plains, 

New  York. 

COOPERATING  BUREAUS  OF  OCCUPATION 


Los  Angeles,  Gal. 
Bureau       of       Occupations, 
Women's     University    Club, 
521  West  7th  Street. 

Pasadena,  Cal. 
Vocation  and  Placement 
Bureau  for  Business  and 
Professional  Women,  608 
Central  Building,  30  North 
Raymond  Avenue. 

Denver,   Col. 

Collegiate  Bureau  of  Occu- 
pations, Chamber  of  Com- 
merce Building. 

Chicago,  111. 

Chicago  Collegiate  Bureau 
of  Occupations,  Room  1804, 
5  South  Wabash  Avenue. 

Boston,  Mass. 

Appointment  Bureau, 
Women's  Educational  and 
Industrial  Union,  264  Boyl- 
ston Street/ 

Detroit,  Mich. 

Mrs.  Leonard  B.  Orluff, 
President,  489  Atkinson 
Avenue. 


Minneapolis,   Minn. 

Woman's  'Occupational 
Bureau,  216  Meyers'  Arcade. 

Kansas  City,  Mo. 

Woman's  Vocational  Bureau, 
601  Ridge  Arcade  Building1. 

New  York  City,  N.  Y. 

Bureau  of  Vocational  In- 
formation, 2  West  43rd 
Street.  Miss  Emma  P. 
Hirth,  Director. 

New  York  City,  N.  Y. 
Employment  Department  Y. 
W.    C.    A.,    Central    Branch, 
610  Lexington  Avenue. 

Cleveland,  Ohio. 

Bureau  of  Occupations  for 
Trained  Women,  108  City 
Hall. 

Philadelphia,  Pa. 

Bureau  of  Occupations  for 
Trained  Women,  302  South 
13th  Street. 

Pittsburgh,  Pa. 

Women's  Employment  Ser- 
vice Central  Y.  W.  C.  A. 
Building,  59  Chatham  Street. 


Richmond,  Va. 

Bureau     of    Vocations     for 
Women,  Richmond  Hotel. 


520 


BIOGRAPHY   AS   A   GUIDE   TO   VOCATIONS   FOR  WOMEN* 

A  Reading  List  of  Women's  Lives  Arranged  According  to 
Vocations. 

This  list  of  biographies  has  been  compiled  in  the  hope  that 
it  will  prove  useful  in  several  ways. 

For  a  knowledge  of  the  personalities  of  women  who  have 
played  a  great  part  in  the  making  of  to-day,  and  for  an  ap- 
preciation of  the  difficulties  which  they  had  to  overcome  before 
the  woman's  age  could  dawn,  one  turns  naturally  to  the  life 
stories  of  the  women  themselves. 

There  is  in  these  stories  much  of  literary  and  even  more  of 
personal  interest.  If  carefully  read  these  pioneer  choices  and 
struggles  cannot  but  help  younger  girls  to-day  in  the  wise 
selection  of  the  vocations  they  shall  follow.  A  knowledge  of 
the  long  process  by  which  the  present  free  choice  came  to  be 
open  to  women  will  not  only  make  clear  the  great  opportunities, 
but  also  make  imperative  the  call  to  the  girls  of  this  generation 
for  further  service. 

Wisdom  in  the  making  of  vocational  choices  and  consecration 
in  following  out  the  wise  choice  will  surely  be  stimulated  by 
reading  the  lives  of  such  women  as  are  listed  here. 

BIOGRAPHY   AS    A    GUIDE   TO    VOCATIONS    FOR    WOMEN* 

(1)  Teaching     Life  of  Mary  Lyon.    Gilchrist.    Houghton. 

Life   of  Alice  Freemaii  Palmer.    G.  H.  Palmer. 

Houghton. 

Life  of  Ellen  H.  Richards.    Hunt.    Hunt. 
The  Corn  Lady.    Field. 

(2)  Writing       Louisa    May    Alcott    in    Portraits    of    American 

Women.     Bradford.     Houghton. 
Harriet  Beecher  Stowe  in  Portraits  of  American 
Women.     Bradford.     Houghton. 


*  All  of  these  books  may  be  secured  through  The  Bookshop,  600  Lexington 
Avenue,  New  York  City. 

521 


Emily  Dickinson  in  Portraits  of  American 
Women.  Bradford.  Houghton. 

The  Early  Diary  of  Frances  Burney.  G.  Bell  & 
Sons. 

Fanny  Crosby's  Story  of  Ninety-four  Years. 
Jackson.  Revel!  Company. 

(3)  Acting         Memoirs  of  My  Life.  Sarah  Bernhardt.  Appleton. 

The    Life    and    Adventures    of   Peg    Woffington. 

Scribners. 
Heroines  of  the  Modern  Stage  F.  Izard.    Sturgis 

&  Walton. 

(4)  Making       The  Uncensored  Letters  of  a  Canteen  Girl.  Harper 
History       Memoirs  and  Letters  of  Dolly  Madison.  Houghton. 

Diplomatic  Days.   Edith  O'Shaughnessy.   Harper. 
Diplomat's  Wife  in  Mexico.  Edith  O'-Shaughnessy. 
Harper. 

(5)  Making  •      Life  and  Letters  of  Abigail  Adams.     Richards. 
Homes  Appleton. 

Recollections  of  My  Mother.    Hymphrey,   Revell. 

Margaret  Ogilvie.    Barrie. 

The    Hills    of    Hingham.      Dallas    Lore    Sharp. 

Houghton. 

Idyll  of  Twin  Fires.    Walter  Eaton.     Grosset. 
Jonathan  Papers.     Woodbridge.    Houghton. 
An  American  Idyll.     Parker.     Atlantic  Monthly 

Press* 
The  Home  Builder.    Abbott.    'Houghton. 

(6)  Social          Life  of  Elizabeth  Fry.     Richards.     Appleton. 
Service        Life  of  Frances  Willard.     Gordon.     W.  C.  T.  U. 

One  Woman's  Work  for  Farm  Women.     BuelL 

Whitcomb. 
Frances    E.   Willard   in   Portraits   of   American 

Women.     Bradford.     Houghton. 
Story  of  a  Pioneer.     Shaw.    Harper. 
The  House  on  Henry  Street.    Wald.    Houghton. 
Twenty  Years  at  Hull  House.  Addams.  Macmillan. 

522 


(7)  Medicine     Florence  Nightingale.     Eicliards.     Appleton. 

and          Life  of  Edith  Cavell.     Anderson.     Longmans. 
Nursing       Dr.  Elsie  Inglis.     Lady  Frances  Balfour. 

Pioneer  Work  for  Women.    Dr.  Elizabeth  Black- 
well-Dutton. 

(8)  Being  a       A  New  England  Girlhood.     Larcom. 

Girl  A  New  England  Childhood.     Fuller.     Little. 

A  Daughter  of  the  Puritans.    Creevey.    Putnam. 
The  Promised  Land.     Antin.     Houghton. 
Out  of  the  Shadow.    'Cohen.     Houghton. 
Rebels.     Ganz  and  Ferber.    Dodd. 
Story  of  My  Life.     Keller.    Appleton. 

Resume  of  Lives  of  Heroines  of  Service. 


(a)  Stories 
of  Achieve- 
ments Told 
Briefly 


Mary  Lyon. 
Clara  Barton. 
Frances  Willard. 
Julia  Ward  Howe. 
Anna  Shaw. 
Heroines    of    the 


Mary  Slessor, 
Madame  Curce. 
Jane  Addams. 
Alice  C.  Fletcher. 
Alice  Freeman  Palmer. 
Modern    Stage.      F.    Izard. 


Sturgis  &  Walton. 

LIST  OF  BIOGRAPHIES  FOR  YOUNGER  GIRLS 
What  American  Girls  Have  Done. 
Louisa  M.  Alcott — Life,  Letters  and  Journal.     (A  story  of  a 

Writer  who  loved  all  "Little  Women.")     Cheney. 
Mary  Slessor.    Doran. 
Margaret  Fuller.    Anthony. 
If  I  were  a  Girl — A  brave  story  of  great  obstacles  overcome. 

—Keller. 
Uncrowned  Queen — "The  greatest  battle  ever  fought, 

The  bravest  victory  ever  won, 

Is  fought  with  never  a  soldier  near, 

And  never  the  sound  of  a  gun." 

Babcock. 

Brom  My  Youth  Up — The  real  story  of  a  real  girl.    Sangster. 


523 


Quaker  Grandmother.  Strachey. 

Louise  Chandler  Moulton. 

Guiding  Girls. 

Great-Hearted  Women.  Murphy. 

A  Treasury  of  Heroes  and  Heroines.  Edwards. 

The  Road  Ahead.  Wilson. 

Elizabeth  Fry.  Richards. 

Abigail  Adams   and   Her  Times — "A  New  England  Girl  who 

belongs  to  the  Ages." 

My  Mother  and  I.  Stern. 

Sister  Dora.  Lonsdale. 

Girls  of  Other  Lands. 

Joan  of  Arc — A  maid  who   went  reluctantly  to  royal  honor. 

Richards, 
Florence  Nightingale — A  girl  who  found  happiness  in  service. 

Richards. 

Tama— The  Diary  of  a  Japanese  Girl.        Wells. 
My  Chinese  Days — Life  in  one  of  the  World's  Oldest  Nations. 

Alsop. 

India,  Beloved  of  Heaven.  Baden. 

Haremilik — How  Young  Turkish  Women  Live.    Vaka. 
Little  Grandmother  of  the  Russian  Revolution.     Breshkovsky. 

SUGGESTED    READING    ON   VOCATIONS    AND   EDUCATION    FOR 
MEMBERS  OF  A  LOCAL  GIRLS'  WORK  COMMITTEE 

Athearn,  W.  S.    A  National  System  of  Education. 
Beard,  Mary  R.    Womans'  Work  in  Municipalities, 
Bennett,  Helen.    Women  and  Work. 
Bennett,  H.  C.    American  Women  in  Civic  Work. 
Bloomfield,  Meyer.    Readings  in  Vocational  Guidance. 
Brewer,  John  M.    Vocational  Guidance  Movement. 

524 


Bureau  of  Vocational  Information — Vocations  for  Business  and 

Professional  Women, 

Condee,  Helen  C.    How  Women  May  Earn  a  Living. 
Charity  Organization  Society,  New  York  City.     Opportunities 

in  Social  Work. 

Cleveland  and  Schaf  er.  Democracy  in  Reconstruction,  Chapter  X. 
Cope,  Henry  P.    Education  for  Democracy. 
Davis,  Jesse.    Vocational  and  Moral  Guidance. 
Dewey,  John  and  Evelyn.    Schools  of  Tomorrow. 
Filene,  Catherine.    Vocations  for  Women. 
Fled,  E.  C.    Humanizing  Industry. 
Gleason,  Arthur.    What  the  Workers  Want. 
Goldmark,  Josephine.    Fatigue  and  Efficiency. 
Basbrouck,  Louise.    The  Hall  With  Doors. 
Hill,  D.  S.    Introduction  to  Vocational  Education. 
Hodgens,  Margaret.     Factory  Work  for  Girls. 
Rollingsworth,  Harry  L.    Vocational  Psychology. 
Johnson,  F.  E.    The  New  Spirit  in  Industry. 
Kelley,  Florence.    Modern  Industry  as  Related  to  Modern  Health 

— Longmans  Green  Co.,  1916. 

Klaghorn,  Kate.    Social  Work  as  a  Profession  for  Women. 
LaSalle  and  Wiley.    Vocations  for  Girls. 
Marot,  Helen.     Creative  Impulse  in  Industry — A  Problem  for 

Educators. 

Munroe,  J.  P.    The  Human  Factor  in  Education. 
Ross.    E.  A.    Principles  of  Sociology. 
St.    Philip's    Settlement    Education    and    Economic    Research 

Society.    The  Equipment  of  the  Workers. 
Sechrist,  F.  K    Education  and  the  General  Welfare. 
Snedden,  D.  iS.    The  Problem  of  Vocational  Education. 
Tarbell,  Ida  M.    New  Ideals  in  Business. 
Tawney,  R.  H.    The  Acquisitive  Society. 
Wald,  Lillian  D.    The  House  on  Henry  Street. 
Wells,  H.  G.    Outline  of  History,  Vol.  II,  Chapter  XLI. 

525 


CHAPTER  XIII. 

THE  PLACE  OF  MUSIC  IN   THE   GIRL   RESERVE  MOVEMENT. 

OF  all  the  arts,  music  alone  is  capable  of  an  Immediate  and 
direct  expression  of  emotion.  In  this  age  of  city  dwellers, 
when  all  people,  and  especially  girls,  are  confined  and  restricted 
in  physical  expression,  music  has  become  almost  the  only  general 
outlet  for  emotional  activities.  The  development  in  the  past 
twenty-five  years  of  mechanical  musical  instruments,  the  low- 
ered cost  of  printed  music  and  the  greater  opportunities  for 
musical  education  have  all  brought  advisers  face  to  face  with 
the  problem  of  what  sort  of  music  must  be  put  before  the 
younger  girl.  All  girls  have  a  great  need  of  musical  expression 
as  an ''emotional  outlet,  and  they  respond  eagerly  to  its  oppor- 
tunities. 

There  is  now  a  pressing  need  for  something  to  counteract 
the  unwholesome  music  of  to-day,  the  origin  of  which  is  purely 
physical,  and  which  appeals  only  to  the  unwholesome  emotions. 
The  people  of  this  country  have  only  recently  learned  the  joy- 
fxil  stimulus  of  group  singing,  and  are  ready  for  any  material 
which  may  offer.  The  danger  of  the  baser  forms  which  music 
is.  adopting  lies  in  the  very  subtlety  of  the  art;  and  the  constant 
stressing  of  the  kind  of  music  wh.ch  appeals  only  to  the  senses 
is  more  disastrous  than  we  realize. 

One  solution  of  the  problem  now  lies  at  our  doorstep. 
America  to-day  is  of  overseas  origin.  She  is  assimilating  into 
her  own  national  life  this  foreign  born  population  and  its  various 
contributions  of  foreign  culture.  One  of  the  richest  gifts 
brought  by  the  incoming  people  is  their  heritage  of  song.  Be- 
hind them  they  have  generations  of  sing-ing  ancestors;  they 
bring  songs  which  have  been  passed  down  the  years  from  father 

526 


to  son,  from  grandmother  to  grandchild.  "No  song  is  a  poor 
song  which  has  stood  tne  wear  and  tear  of  a  period  of  time 
such  as  fifty  years  to  centuries  of  use.  Folk-song  must  be 
healthy  and  good  to  have  stood  this  test;  and,  besides  its  peren- 
nial youth,  it  offers  a  range  of  emotions  as  varied  as  the  human 
heart. 

In  addition  to  the  new  field  thus  opened  to  the  American 
girls  of  longer  residence,  the  newcomer  now  finds  herself  no 
more  a  mere  seeker  for  opportunities,  but  a  gift  bearer.  Girls 
singing  these  songs  together  find  in  themselves  a  better  under- 
standing, a  warmer  friendliness  and  a  larger  fellowship. 

The  purpose  of  the  Girl  Eeserves  "To  Find  and  Give  the 
Best/'  can  well  be  expressed  by  helping  girls  to  know  the  joy 
of  music  in  any  form.  The  average  girl  will  sing  or  listen  very 
gladly  to  music  which  expresses  the  feeling  she  cannot  put  into 
words  and  in  this  fact  lies  a  very  great  opportunity  for  develop- 
ing in  her  the  highest  standards  for  the  beauty  and  appreciation 
of  music.  The  value  of  singing  should  never  be  neglected  by 
any  adviser  of  girls.  For  the  individual  girl,  singing  or  playing 
gives  a  real  opportunity  for  expression.  Therefore  she  should 
be  taught  the  best  of  songs  and  music,  for  they  make  indelible 
impressions  upon  her.  Too  much  thought  cannot  be  given  to 
the  selection  of  music  which  is  presented  t